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This title in other editionsPlant Physicsby Karl J. Niklas
Synopses & ReviewsPublisher Comments:From Galileo, who used the hollow stalks of grass to demonstrate the idea that peripherally located construction materials provide most of the resistance to bending forces, to Leonardo da Vinci, whose illustrations of the parachute are alleged to be based on his study of the dandelions pappus and the maple trees samara, many of our greatest physicists, mathematicians, and engineers have learned much from studying plants.
A symbiotic relationship between botany and the fields of physics, mathematics, engineering, and chemistry continues today, as is revealed in Plant Physics. The result of a longterm collaboration between plant evolutionary biologist Karl J. Niklas and physicist HannsChristof Spatz, Plant Physics presents a detailed account of the principles of classical physics, evolutionary theory, and plant biology in order to explain the complex interrelationships among plant form, function, environment, and evolutionary history. Covering a wide range of topics—from the development and evolution of the basic plant body and the ecology of aquatic unicellular plants to mathematical treatments of light attenuation through tree canopies and the movement of water through plants roots, stems, and leaves—Plant Physics is destined to inspire students and professionals alike to traverse disciplinary membranes.
Synopsis:For centuries, botanists and physicists have mutually benefitted from collaborations.and#160; Galileo used the hollow stalks of grass to illustrate the idea that peripheral rather than centrally located construction materials provide most of the resistance to bending forces. Leonardo da Vinciand#8217;s interest in fluid mechanics was inspired by observing the crosssectional areas of tree trunks, and his drawings illustrating the concept of a parachute and an autogyroscopic propeller are alleged to be based on his study of the dandelionand#8217;s pappus and the maple treeand#8217;s samara. Plant Physicsand#160;explores the contemporary insights that emerge when plants are studied with the aid of physics, mathematics, engineering, and chemistry.and#160; It starts with such fundamental topics as the importance of plant life, the relationship between organic form and function, plant reproduction and development, the importance of multicellularity, and the developmental basis of the basic plant body plans. The work then explores how fundamental physical principles and processes affect plant growth and ecology.and#160; Specific topics addressed include plant water relations, solid and fluid mechanics, electrophysiology, and optics in relation to plant form, function, and ecology. Written by one of the worldand#8217;s best known botanists, it is destined to inspire students and professionals alike to traverse disciplinary membranes. About the AuthorKarl J. Niklas is the Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Plant Biology in the Department of Plant Biology at Cornell University. He is the author of Plant Biomechanics, Plant Allometry, and The Evolutionary Biology of Plants, all published by the University of Chicago Press. Table of ContentsPreface Acknowledgments Recommended Reading Frequently Used Symbols CHAPTER 1. An Introduction to Some Basic Concepts and#160;1.1 What is plant physics? and#160;1.2 The importance of plants BOX 1.1 The amount of organic carbon produced annually and#160;1.3 A brief history of plant life and#160;1.4 A brief review of vascular plant ontogeny and#160;1.5 Plant reproduction and#160;1.6 Compromise and adaptive evolution BOX 1.2 Photosynthetic efficiency versus mechanical stability and#160;1.7 Elucidating function from form and#160;1.8 The basic plant body plans and#160;1.9 The importance of multicellularity CHAPTER 2. Environmental Biophysics and#160;2.1 Three transport laws and#160;2.2 Boundary layers and#160;2.3 Living in water versus air BOX 2.1 Passive diffusion of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer in air and in water and#160;2.4 Light interception and photosynthesis BOX 2.2 Absorption of light by chloroplasts BOX 2.3 Formulas for the effective light absorption cross section of some geometric objects BOX 2.4 Modeling light interception in canopies and#160;2.5 Phototropism and#160;2.6 Mechanoperception and#160;2.7 Thigmomorphogenesis and#160;2.8 Gravitropism and#160;2.9 Root growth, root anchorage, and soil properties CHAPTER 3. Plant Water Relations and#160;3.1 The roles of water acquisition and conservation and#160;3.2 Some physical properties of water and#160;3.3 Vapor pressure and Raoultand#8217;s law and#160;3.4 Chemical potential and osmotic pressure and#160;3.5 Water potential and#160;3.6 Turgor pressure and the volumetric elastic modulus and#160;3.7 Flow through tubes and the HagenPoiseuille equation and#160;3.8 The cohesiontension theory and the ascent of water and#160;3.9 Phloem and phloem loading CHAPTER 4. The Mechanical Behavior of Materials and#160;4.1 Types of forces and their components and#160;4.2 Strains and#160;4.3 Different responses to applied forces and#160;4.4 A note of caution about normal stresses and strains and#160;4.5 Extension to three dimensions and#160;4.6 Poisson's ratios BOX 4.1 Poissonand#8217;s ratio for an incompressible fluid BOX 4.2 Poissonand#8217;s ratio for a cell and#160;4.7 Isotropic and anisotropic materials and#160;4.8 Shear stresses and strains and#160;4.9 Interrelation between normal stresses and shear stresses and#160;4.10 Nonlinear elastic behavior and#160;4.11 Viscoelastic materials and#160;4.12 Plastic deformation and#160;4.13 Strength and#160;4.14 Fracture mechanics and#160;4.15 Toughness, work of fracture, and fracture toughness and#160;4.16 Composite materials and structures and#160;4.17 The CookGordon mechanism CHAPTER 5. The Effects of Geometry, Shape, and Size and#160;5.1 Geometry and shape are not the same things and#160;5.2 Pure bending and#160;5.3 The second moment of area and#160;5.4 Simple bending BOX 5.1 Bending of slender cantilevers BOX 5.2 Threepointbending of slender beams and#160;5.5 Bending and shearing BOX 5.3 Bending and shearing of a cantilever BOX 5.4 Bending and shearing of a simply supported beam BOX 5.5 The influence of the microfibrillar angle on the stiffness of a cell and#160;5.6 Fracture in bending and#160;5.7 Torsion and#160;5.8 Static loads BOX 5.6 Comparison of forces on a tree trunk resulting from selfloading with those experienced in bending and#160;5.9 The constant stress hypothesis BOX 5.7 Predictions for the geometry of a tree trunk obeying the constant stress hypothesis and#160;5.10 Euler buckling and#160;5.11 Hollow stems and Brazier buckling and#160;5.12 Dynamics, oscillation, and oscillation bending BOX 5.8 Derivation of eigenfrequencies CHAPTER 6. Fluid Mechanics and#160;6.1 What are fluids ? BOX 6.1 The NavierStokes equations and#160;6.2 The Reynolds number and#160;6.3 Flow and drag at small Reynolds numbers BOX 6.2 Derivation of the HagenPoiseuille equation and#160;6.4 Flow of ideal fluids and#160;6.5 Boundary layers and flow of real fluids BOX 6.3 Vorticity and#160;6.6 Turbulent flow BOX 6.4 Turbulent stresses and friction velocities and#160;6.7 Drag in real fluids and#160;6.8 Drag and flexibility and#160;6.9 Vertical velocity profiles and#160;6.10 Terminal settling velocity and#160;6.11 Fluid dispersal of reproductive structures CHAPTER 7. Plant Electrophysiology and#160;7.1 The principle of electroneutrality and#160;7.2 The NernstPlanck equation and#160;7.3 Membrane potentials BOX 7.1 The Goldman equation and#160;7.4 Ion channels and ion pumps BOX 7.2 The UssingTeorell equation and#160;7.5 Electrical currents and gravisensitivity and#160;7.6 Action potentials and#160;7.7 Electrical signaling in plants CHAPTER 8. A Synthesis: The Properties of Selected Plant Materials, Cells, and Tissues and#160;8.1 The plant cuticle and#160;8.2 A brief introduction to the primary cell wall BOX 8.1 Cell wall stress and expansion resulting from turgor and#160;8.3 The plasmalemma and cell wall deposition and#160;8.4 The epidermis and the tissue tension hypothesis and#160;8.5 Hydrostatic tissues BOX 8.2 Stresses in thickwalled cylinders BOX 8.3 Compression of spherical turgid cells and#160;8.6 Nonhydrostatic cells and tissues and#160;8.7 Cellular solids and#160;8.8 Tissue stresses and growth stresses and#160;8.9 Secondary growth and reaction wood and#160;8.10 Wood as an engineering material CHAPTER 9. Experimental Tools and#160;9.1 Anatomical methods on a microscale and#160;9.2 Mechanical measuring techniques on a macroscale and#160;9.3 Mechanical measuring techniques on a microscale and#160;9.4 Scholander pressure chamber and#160;9.5 Pressure probe and#160;9.6 Recording of electric potentials and electrical currents and#160;9.7 Patch clamp techniques and#160;9.8 Biomimetics BOX 9.1 An example of applied biomechanics: Tree risk assessment CHAPTER 10. Theoretical Tools and#160;10.1 Modeling and#160;10.2 Morphology: The problematic nature of structurefunction relationships and#160;10.3 Theoretical morphology, optimization, and adaptation and#160;10.4 Size, proportion, and allometry BOX 10.1 Comparison of regression parameters and#160;10.5 Finite element methods (FEM) and#160;10.6 Optimization techniques BOX 10.2 Optimal allocation of biological resources BOX 10.3 Lagrange multipliers and Murrayand#8217;s law Glossary Author index Subject index What Our Readers Are SayingBe the first to add a comment for a chance to win!Product Details
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