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Optics and Optical Instruments: An Introduction

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Optics and Optical Instruments: An Introduction Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

This book illustrates basic practical applications of optical principle. Working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses, and optical projection systems are diagrammed and explained in full, as are the basic experiments for determining accuracy, power, angular field of view, amount of aberration, and all other necessary facts about the instrument. Throughout the book, only elementary mathematics is used, for the benefit of the student and the beginner in the field of optics.

The author, an assistant professor at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, shows how to set up working models of each of the four types of instruments named above, so that the reader can see for himself the effects of changing the focal length, using different types of lenses, rotating the lens, and other experiments. He also includes a number of experiments to illustrate theoretical principles such as the reflection and refraction of light and focal length measurements of concave and convex lenses.

A chapter on the human eye follows, and the author explains how to set up a simple working model of the eye in order to illustrate myopia, astigmatism, hypermetropia, and the visual acuity of the eye. Professor Johnson concludes with an important chapter on the working and testing of optical glass, in which he describes the roughing of lenses, the principles of the grinding and polishing processes, abrasives, edging, angle measurement, and other important steps in the production of optical glass. An appendix is included on the cleaning of glass surfaces, silvering, photographic items, developers, collodion films, and waxes and cements used for various purposes in optical work.

This is a valuable work for the student and the amateur hobbyist as well as for many who use optical instruments in science and industry. It is written clearly and economically, with the needs of the practical worker in the field of optics held constantly in mind.

Synopsis:

Practical guide shows how to set up working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses and projecting systems; how to conduct experiments for determining accuracy, resolving power, more. 234 diagrams.

Synopsis:

Practical guide shows how to set up working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses and projecting systems; how to conduct experiments for determining accuracy, resolving power, more. 234 diagrams.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I-REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

  "Experiments illustrating reflection at single, double and multiple mirrors"

  "Principles of periscope, binocular prism, roof edge reflection, pentagonal prism, tetrahedron"

  Concave and convex mirrors

  Laws of refraction

  Critical angle and internal reflection

  Action of lenses

  "Ray tracing methods, graphical and trigonometrical"

CHAPTER II-FOCAL LENGTH MEASUREMENTS

  Optical bench

  "Focal lengths of " thin " positive and negative lenses"

  Two thin lenses in contact

  Two thin lenses separated

  Newton's method

  "Focal length of " thick " lenses"

  Magnification method

  Foco-collimator

  Collimator

  Nodal slide method

CHAPTER III-THE EYE

  General description with named parts and optical data

  Schematic eye

  Emmetropia and ametropia

  Correction of myopia and hypermetropia

  Working model of human eye

  Resolving power of eye

  Visual acuity limits

  Tests and theoretical explanations

CHAPTER IV-THE TELESCOPE

  "Model telescopes, astronomical and Galilean types"

  Measurement of magnification and angular field of view

  Entrance and exit pupils

  "Models of Huygenian, Ramsden and four-lens terrestrial eyepieces"

  Types of object glass and eyepieces used commerically

  "Tests on telescopes for definition, squaring-on, strain, stray light"

  "Resolving power, theory and practical tests"

  Necessary power of eyepiece

  Binocular telescopic instruments

  Angular accommodation

  Appartus for adjusting binocular telescopes

  Wide field of view sighting telescopes

  Variable power telescopes

CHAPTER V-THE MICROSCOPE

  Hand magnifiers

  "Compound microscope, optical bench models and modern instruments"

  Correct setting up of the microscope

  Numerical aperture

  Apertometers

  "Resolving power, theory and practical testing"

  Necessary magnification to employ

  Photo-micrography

  Opaque objects

  Ultra-violet microscopy at various wavelengths

  Reflection microscopes

  Electron microscope

CHAPTER VI-PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES

  Aberrations

  Principles for reducing coma and astigmatism

  "Optical bench models illustrating definition performance for meniscus, symmetrical and anastigmat types of photographic lenses"

  Theory with numerical examples illustrating the advantages of various types of glass

  Measurement of astigmatic fields

  Telephoto lenses

  Complete tests on photographic lenses

  "Resolving power, theory and practical tests"

  "Depth of focus, image space and object space"

  Schmidt camera

CHAPTER VII-OPTICAL PROJECTION SYSTEMS

  Measurement of solid angle

  "Intrinsic brightness, transmission factors, intensity of illumination on projection screens"

  Sources of light for projection purposes

  Projection of transparencies

  Loss of light in projection systems

  Projection of opaque objects

  "Searchlights, signaling lamps, headlights"

  Projection in engineering practice

  Physical experiments

  Microprojection

  "Lighthouse projection systems, marine lanterns, railway signal lamps"

CHAPTER VIII-OPTICAL GLASS: ITS WORKING AND TESTING

  Advantages of a variety in optical glasses

  Production of optical glass

  Annealing

  Strain

  Homogeneity

  Optical constants

  Refractometry

  "Glass working, principles of grinding and polishing processes"

  Abrasives

  "Edging, radius of curvature measurements, mechanical and optical"

  "Test plates, flat and curved"

  Methods of producing test plates

  "Angle measurement, goniometer, auto-collimator, naked eye tests"

  Non-reflecting films on glass

APPENDIX

  Cleaning of glass surfaces

  Breath figures

  Balsaming

  Viscometer for pitch and balsam

  Silvering

  Photographic items

  Graticules

  Developers

  Webs

  Collodion films

  Waxes and cements

  Sources of light

INDEX

Product Details

ISBN:
9780486606422
Author:
Johnson, B. K.
Publisher:
Dover Publications
Author:
Physics
Subject:
General
Subject:
Reference
Subject:
Science
Subject:
Physics
Subject:
Optics
Subject:
Ophthalmology
Subject:
Telescopes
Subject:
Microscopes
Subject:
Photographic lenses
Subject:
Health and Medicine-Medical Specialties
Edition Number:
3
Edition Description:
Trade Paper
Series:
Dover Books on Physics
Publication Date:
20111131
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Language:
English
Pages:
256
Dimensions:
8.5 x 5.38 in 0.59 lb

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Related Subjects

Health and Self-Help » Health and Medicine » Medical Specialties
Health and Self-Help » Health and Medicine » Professional Medical Reference
Reference » Science Reference » Technology
Religion » Comparative Religion » General
Science and Mathematics » Physics » General
Science and Mathematics » Physics » Optics

Optics and Optical Instruments: An Introduction New Trade Paper
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Product details 256 pages Dover Publications - English 9780486606422 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by ,
Practical guide shows how to set up working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses and projecting systems; how to conduct experiments for determining accuracy, resolving power, more. 234 diagrams.
"Synopsis" by , Practical guide shows how to set up working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses and projecting systems; how to conduct experiments for determining accuracy, resolving power, more. 234 diagrams.
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