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1 Burnside Aviation- Helicopters and Gyroplanes

Helicopter Theory

by

Helicopter Theory Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The history of the helicopter may be traced back to the Chinese flying top (c. 400 BC) and to the work of Leonardo da Vinci, who sketched designs for a vertical flight machine utilizing a screw-type propeller. In the late 19th-century, Thomas Edison experimented with helicopter models, realizing that no such machine would be able to fly until the development of a sufficiently lightweight engine. When the internal combustion gasoline engine came on the scene around 1900, the stage was set for the real development of helicopter technology.

While this text provides a concise history of helicopter development, its true purpose is to provide the engineering analysis required to design a highly successful rotorcraft. Toward that end the book offers thorough, comprehensive coverage of the theory of helicopter flight: the elements of vertical flight, forward flight, performance, design, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, stall, noise and more.

Wayne Johnson has worked for the U.S. Army and NASA at the Ames Research Center in California. Through his company Johnson Aeronautics, he is engaged in the development of software that is used throughout the world for the analysis of rotorcraft. In this book, Dr. Johnson has compiled a monumental resource that is essential reading for any student or aeronautical engineer interested in the design and development of vertical-flight aircraft.

Book News Annotation:

**** Reprint of the standard work originally published by Princeton U.P. in 1980 (& cited in BCL3).
Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

Synopsis:

Monumental engineering text covers vertical flight, forward flight, performance, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, stall, noise, and more. 189 illustrations. 1980 edition.

Synopsis:

Monumental engineering text covers vertical flight, forward flight, performance, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, stall, noise, and more. 189 illustrations. 1980 edition.

Synopsis:

Monumental text offers comprehensive, detailed coverage of every aspect of theory and design: elements of vertical flight, forward flight, performance, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, more. Essential reading for those interested in design and development of vertical-flight aircraft. 189 illustrations. 1980 edition.

Description:

Includes bibliographical references (p. [961]-1084) and index.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

Notation

1. Introduction

  1-1 The Helicopter

    1-1.1 The Helicopter Rotor

    1-1.2 Helicopter Configuration

    1-1.3 Helicopter Operation

  1-2 History

    1-2.1 Helicopter Development

    1-2.2 Literature

  1-3 Notation

    1-3.1 Dimensions

    1-3.2 Physical Description of the Blade

    1-3.3 Blade Aerodynamics

    1-3.4 Blade Motion

    1-3.5 Rotor Angle of Attack and Velocity

    1-3.6 Rotor Forces and Power

    1-3.7 Rotor Disk Planes

    1-3.8 NACA Notation

2. Vertical Flight I

  2-1 Momentum Theory

    2-1.1 Actuator Disk

    2-1.2 Momentum Theory in Hover

    2-1.3 Momentum Theory in Climb

    2-1.4 Hover Power Losses

  2-2 Figure of Merit

  2-3 Extended Momentum Theory

    2-3.1 Rotor in Hover or Climb

    2-3.2 Swirl in the Wake

    2-3.3 Swirl Due to Profile Torque

  2-4 Blade Element Theory

    2-4.1 History of the Development of Blade Element Theory

    2-4.2 Blade Element Theory for Vertical Flight

      2-4.2.1 Rotor Thrust

      2-4.2.2 Induced Velocity

      2-4.2.3 Power or Torque

  2-5 Combined Blade Element and Momentum Theory

  2-6 Hover Performance

    2-6.1 Tip Losses

    2-6.2 Induced Power Due to Nonuniform Inflow and Tip Losses

    2-6.3 Root Cutout

    2-6.4 Blade Mean Lift Coefficient

    2-6.5 Equivalent Solidity

    2-6.6 The Ideal Rotor

    2-6.7 The Optimum Hovering Rotor

    2-6.8 Effect of Twist and Taper

    2-6.9 Examples of Hover Polars

    2-6.10 "Disk Loading, Span Loading, and Circulation"

  2-7 Vortex Theory

    2-7.1 Vortex Representation of the Rotor and Its Wake

    2-7.2 Actuator Disk Vortex Theory

    2-7.3 Finite Number of Blades

      2-7.3.1 Wake Structure for Optimum Rotor

      2-7.3.2 Prandtl's Tip Loading Solution

      2-7.3.3 Goldstein's Propeller Analysis

      2-7.3.4 Applications to Low Inflow Rotors

    2-7.4 Nonuniform Inflow (Numerical Vortex Theory)

    2-7.5 Literature

  2-8 Literature

3. Vertical Flight II

  3-1 Induced Power in Vertical Flight

    3-1.1 Momentum Theory for Vertical Flight

    3-1.2 Flow States of the Rotor in Axial Flight

      3-1.2.1 Normal Working State

      3-1.2.2 Vortex Ring State

      3-1.2.3 Turbulent Wake State

      3-1.2.4 Windmill Brake State

    3-1.3 Induced Velocity Curve

      3-1.3.1 Hover Performance

      3-1.3.2 Autorotation

      3-1.3.3 Vortex Ring State

    3-1.4 Literature

  3-2 Autorotation in Vertical Descent

  3-3 Climb in Vertical Flight

  3-4 Vertical Drag

  3-5 Twin Rotor Interference in Hover

  3-6 Ground Effect

4. Forward Flight I

  4-1 Momentum Theory in Forward Flight

    4-1.1 Rotor Induced Power

    4-1.2 "Climb, Descent, and Autorotation in Forward Flight"

    4-1.3 Tip Loss Factor

  4-2 Vortex Theory in Forward Flight

    4-2.1 Classical Vortex Theory Results

    4-2.2 Induced Velocity Variation in Forward Flight

    4-2.3 Literature

  4-3 Twin Rotor Interference in Forward Flight

  4-4 Ground Effect in Forward Flight

5. Forward Flight II

  5-1 The Helicopter Rotor in Forward Flight

  5-2 Aerodynamics of Forward Flight

  5-3 Rotor Aerodynamic Forces

  5-4 Power in Forward Flight

  5-5 Rotor Flapping Motion

  5-6 Examples of Performance and Flapping in Forward Flight

  5-7 Review of Assumptions

  5-8 Tip Loss and Root Cutout

  5-9 Blade Weight Moment

  5-10 Linear Inflow Variation

  5-11 Higher Harmonic Flapping Motion

  5-12 Profile Power and Radial Flow

  5-13 Flap Motion with a Hinge Spring

  5-14 Flap Hinge Offset

  5-15 Hingeless Rotor

  5-16 Gimballed or Teetering Rotor

  5-17 Pitch-Flap Coupling

  5-18 "Helicopter Force, Moment, and Power Equilibrium"

  5-19 Lag Motion

  5-20 Reverse Flow

  5-21 Compressibility

  5-22 Tail Rotor

  5-23 Numerical Solutions

  5-24 Literature

6. Performance

  6-1 Hover Performance

    6-1.1 Power Required in Hover and Vertical Flight

    6-1.2 Climb and Descent

    6-1.3 Power Available

  6-2 Forward Flight Performance

    6-2.1 Power Required in Forward Flight

    6-2.2 Climb and Descent in Forward Flight

    6-2.3 D/L Formulation

    6-2.4 Rotor Lift and Drag

    6-2.5 P/T Formulation

  6-3 Helicopter Performance Factors

    6-3.1 Hover Performance

    6-3.2 Minimum Power Loading in Hover

    6-3.3 Power Required in Level Flight

    6-3.4 Climb and Descent

    6-3.5 Maximum Speed

    6-3.6 Maximum Altitude

    6-3.7 Range and Endurance

  6-4 Other Performance Problems

    6-4.1 Power Specified (Autogyro)

    6-4.2 Shaft Angle Specified (Tail Rotor)

  6-5 Improved Performance Calculations

  6-6 Literature

7. Design

  7-1 Rotor Types

  7-2 Helicopter Types

  7-3 Preliminary Design

  7-4 Helicopter Speed Limitations

  7-5 Autorotational Landings after Power Failure

  7-6 Helicopter Drag

  7-7 Rotor Blade Airfoil Selection

  7-8 Rotor Blade Profile Drag

  7-9 Literature

8. Mathematics of Rotating Systems

  8-1 Fourier Series

  8-2 Sum of Harmonics

  8-3 Harmonic Analysis

  8-4 Fourier Coordinate Transformation

    8-4.1 Transformation of the Degrees of Freedom

    8-4.2 Conversion of the Equations of Motion

  8-5 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of the Rotor motion

  8-6 "Analysis of Linear, Periodic Systems"

    8-6.1 "Linear, Constant Coefficient Equations"

    8-6.2 "Linear, Periodic Coefficient Equations"

9. Rotary Wing Dynamics I

  9-1 Sturm-Liouville Theory

  9-2 Out-of-Plane Motion

    9-2.1 Rigid Flapping

    9-2.2 Out-of-Plane Bending

    9-2.3 Nonrotating Frame

    9-2.4 Bending Moments

  9-3 In-plane Motion

    9-3.1 Rigid Flap and Lag

    9-3.2 In-Plane Bending

    9-3.3 In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Bending

  9-4 Torsional Motion

    9-4.1 Rigid Pitch and Flap

    9-4.2 Structural Pitch-Flap and Pitch-Lag Coupling

    9-4.3 Torsion and Out-of-Plane Bending

    9-4.4 Nonrotating Frame

  9-5 Hub Reactions

    9-5.1 Rotating Loads

    9-5.2 Nonrotating Loads

  9-6 Shaft Motion

  9-7 Coupled Flap-Lag Torsion Motion

  9-8 Rotor Blade Bending Modes

    9-8.1 Engineering Beam Theory for a Twisted Blade

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    10-8.2 Finite-Length Vortex Line Element

    10-8.3 Rectangular Vortex Sheet

11. Rotary Wing Aerodynamics II

  11-1 Section Aerodynamics

  11-2 Flap Motion

  11-3 Flap and Lag Motion

  11-4 Nonrotating Frame

  11-5 Hub Reactions

    11-5.1 Rotating Frame

    11-5.2 Nonrotating Frame

  11-6 Shaft Motion

  11-7 Summary

  11-8 Pitch and Flap Motion

12. Rotary Wing Dynamics II

  12-1 Flapping Dynamics

    12-1.1 Rotating Frame

      12-1.1.1 Hover Roots

      12-1.1.2 Forward Flight Roots

      12-1.1.3 Hover Transfer Function

    12-1.2 Nonrotating Frame

      12-1.2.1 HoverRoots and Modes

      12-1.2.2 Hover Transfer Functions

    12-1.3 Low Frequency Response

    12-1.4 Hub Reactions

    12-1.5 Two-Bladed Rotor

    12-1.6 Literature

  12-2 Flutter

    12-2.1 Pitch-Flap Equations

    12-2.2 Divergence Instability

    12-2.3 Flutter Instability

    12-2.4 Other Factors Influencing Pitch-Flap Stability

      12-2.4.1 Shed Wake Influence

      12-2.4.2 Wake-Excited Flutter

      12-2.4.3 Influence of Forward Flight

      12-2.4.4 Coupled Blades

      12-2.4.5 Additional Degrees of Freedom

    12-2.5 Literature

  12-3 Flap-Lag Dynamics

    12-3.1 Flap-Lag Equations

    12-3.2 Articulated Rotors

    12-3.3 Hingeless Rotors

    12-3.4 Improved Analytical Models

    12-3.5 Literature

  12-4 Ground Resonance

    12-4.1 Ground Resonance Equations

    12-4.2 No-Damping Case

    12-4.3 Damping Required for Ground Resonance Stability

    12-4.4 Two-Bladed Rotor

    12-4.5 Literature

  12-5 Vibration and Loads

    12-5.1 Vibration

    12-5.2 Loads

    12-5.3 Calculation of Vibration and Loads

    12-5.4 Blade Frequencies

    12-5.5 Literature

13. Rotary Wing Aerodynamics III

  13-1 Rotor Vortex Wake

  13-2 Nonuniform Inflow

  13-3 Wake Geometry

  13-4 Vortex-Induced Loads

  13-5 Vortices and Wakes

  13-6 Lifting-Surface Theory

  13-7 Boundary Layers

14 Helicopter Aeroelasticity

  14-1 Aeroelastic Analyses

  14-2 Integration of the Equations of Motion

  14-3 Literature

15 Stablity and Control

  15-1 Control

  15-2 Stability

  15-3 Flying Qualities in Hover

    15-3.1 Equations of Motion

    15-3.2 Vertical Dynamics

    15-3.3 Yaw Dynamics

    15-3.4 Longitudinal Dynamics

      15-3.4.1 Equations of Motion

      15-3.4.2 Poles and Zeros

      15-3.4.3 Loop Closures

      15-3.4.4 Hingeless Rotors

      15-3.4.5 Response to Control

      15-3.4.6 Examples

      15-3.4.7 Flying Qualities Characteristics

    15-3.5 Lateral Dynamics

    15-3.6 Coupled Longitudinal and Lateral Dynamics

    15-3.7 Tandem Helicopters

  15-4 Flying Qualities in Forward Flight

    15-4.1 Equations of Motion

    15-4.2 Longitudinal Dynamics

      15-4-2.1 Equations of Motion

      15-4-2.2 Poles

      15-4-2.3 Short Period Approximation

      15-4-2.4 Static Stability

      15-4-2.5 Example

      15-4-2.6 Flying Qualities Characteristics

    15-4.3 Lateral Dynamics

    15-4.4 Tandem Helicopters

    15-4.5 Hingeless Rotor Helicopters

  15-5 Low Frequency Rotor Response

  15-6 Stability Augmentation

  15-7 Flying Qualities Specifications

  15-8 Literature

16 Stall

  16-1 Rotary Wing Stall Characteristics

  16-2 NACA Stall Research

  16-3 Dynamic Stall

  16-4 Literature

17 Noise

  17-1 Helicopter Rotor Noise

  17-2 Vortex Noise

  17-3 Rotational Noise

    17-3.1 Rotor Pressure Distribution

    17-3.2 Hovering Rotor with Steady Loading

    17-3.3 Vertical Flight and Steady Loading

    17-3.4 Stationary Rotor with Unsteady Loading

    17-3.5 Forward Flight and Steady Loading

    17-3.6 Forward Flight and Unsteady Loading

    17-3.7 Thickness Noise

    17-3.8 Rotating Frame Analysis

    17-3.9 Doppler Shift

  17-4 Blade Slap

  17-5 Rotor Noise Reduction

  17-6 Literature

Cited Literature

Index

Product Details

ISBN:
9780486682303
Author:
Johnson, Wayne
Publisher:
Dover Publications
Author:
Engineering
Location:
New York :
Subject:
General
Subject:
Aviation - General
Subject:
Technology
Subject:
Aeronautics & Astronautics
Subject:
Helicopters
Subject:
Science Reference-General
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade Paper
Series:
Dover Books on Aeronautical Engineering
Series Volume:
no. 6
Publication Date:
19941031
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Yes
Pages:
1089
Dimensions:
8.25 x 5.63 in 2.62 lb

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Helicopter Theory Used Trade Paper
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Product details 1089 pages Dover Publications - English 9780486682303 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by ,
Monumental engineering text covers vertical flight, forward flight, performance, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, stall, noise, and more. 189 illustrations. 1980 edition.

"Synopsis" by ,
Monumental engineering text covers vertical flight, forward flight, performance, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, stall, noise, and more. 189 illustrations. 1980 edition.

"Synopsis" by ,
Monumental text offers comprehensive, detailed coverage of every aspect of theory and design: elements of vertical flight, forward flight, performance, mathematics of rotating systems, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, stability and control, more. Essential reading for those interested in design and development of vertical-flight aircraft. 189 illustrations. 1980 edition.
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