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Philosophical Explanations

Philosophical Explanations Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

In this highly original work, Robert Nozick develops new views on philosophy's central topics and weaves them into a unified philosophical perspective. It is many years since a major work inEnglish has ranged so widely over philosophy's fundamental concerns: the identity of the self, knowledge and skepticism, free will, the question of why there is something rather than nothing, the foundations of ethics, the meaning oflife.

Writing in a distinctive and personal philosophical voice, Mr. Nozick presents a new mode of philosophizing. In place of the usual semi-coercive philosophical goals of proof, of forcing peopleto accept conclusions, this book seeks philosophical explanations and understanding, and thereby stays truer to the original motivations for being interested in philosophy.

Combining new concepts,daring hypotheses, rigorous reasoning, and playful exploration, the book exemplifies how philosophy can be part of the humanities.

About the Author

<>Robert Nozickwas Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. His book Anarchy, State, and Utopiareceived a National Book Award.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Coercive Philosophy

Philosophical Explanations

Status of the Hypotheses

Explanation versus Proof

Philosophical Pluralism

METAPHYSICS

1. The Identity of the Self

I. Personal Identity ThroughTime

The Closest Continuer Theory

The Theory Applied

Overlap

Structuring Philosophical Concepts

Problem Cases

Ties and Caring

II.Reflexivity

Reflexive Self-Reference

Essence as a Self

How is Reflexive Self-Knowledge Possible?

Classification and Entification

Self-Synthesis

What Synthesis Explains

Unities and Wholes

The Self-Conception of the Self

Reflexive Caring

An Ontologically Solid Self?

2. Why Is There Something Rather Than Nothing?

Explaining Everything

InegalitarianTheories

Egalitarianism

Fecundity

Fecundity and Self-Subsumption

Ultimacy

The Principle of Sufficient Reason

How Are Laws Possible? Beyond

Mystical Experience

EPISTEMOLOGY

3. Knowledge and Skepticism

I. Knowledge

Conditions for Knowledge

Ways and Methods

Knowledge of Necessities

Cases and Complications

II. Skepticism

Skeptical Possibilities

Skeptical Results

Nonclosure

Skepticism and the Conditions for Knowledge

NarrowerSkepticisms

Details of Nonclosure

Proof and the Transmission of Knowledge

Skepticism Revisited

Knowing That One Knows

III. Evidence

The Evidential Connection

Evidence Based on Probability

Inference Based on Probability

The Contingency of the Evidential Tie

Is There Evidence for Skepticism?

Knowledge, Evidence, and Justification

Evidence for the Evidential Relation

How the Regress Stops

Knowing Inside Out

What's So Special about Knowledge?

VALUE

4. Free Will

I. Choice andIndeterminism

Weigh(t)ing Reasons

Nonrandom Weighting

Understanding and Explaining FreeChoices

Could One Have Bestowed Otherwise?

Why Free Will, and How

Is Free Will Valuable?

II. Deteminism and Aligning with Value

Tracking Bestness

How the Tracking IsMediated

How Illuminating Is the Parallel?

Does Neurophysiological Reduction Undercut Tracking?

Does SociobiologyUndercut Tracking?

Acts in Equilibrium

Self-choosing

III. RetributivePunishment

A Framework for Retribution

A Rationale Is Needed

Retribution and Revenge

The Message of Retribution

Connecting with Correct Values

The Act Requirement

FloutingCorrect Values

Retributive Contours

More on the r x H Structure

Offenders and the Law

Determinism and Punishment

5. Foundations of Ethics

I. Ethical Push

Glaucon's Challenge

Inconsistency and Motivation

The Moral Benefit

Leading the MostValuable

Life

Intrinsic Value

Degree of Organic Unity

Value as Degree ofOrganic Unity

The Structure of Value

Conditions on Value and Disvalue

The Allure of Value

Explaining the Role of Organic Unity

Designing Value

Pluralism and Creativity

II. Ethical Pull

The Moral Basis

Seeking Value

Blocking MoralAvoidance

Moral Responsiveness

Responding and Anti-Responding

Responsive Interaction and Moral Principles

III. The Structure of Ethical Pull

Moral Complications and Moral Structures

The SimpleBalancing Structure

Judgment in Ethics

The Complex Structure: Alternative Actions

Measurement of MoralWeight

The Complex Structure: Larger Courses of Action

Deontology and Teleology

Rights

IV. The Life of Value

Self-Improvement

Harmonious Hierarchical Development

Developing Self and Others

Flourishing

The Value of Valuers

Treating in Accordance with Value

Responsive Connection to Reality

Parity of Push and Pull

Does Push Cover Pull?

V. Fact and Value

Chasms

Ethical Explanation and Self-Subsumption

KantianStructuring

VI. The Basis of Value

The Euthyphro Question

Nihilism, Realism,Idealism, Romanticism, and Realizationism

Choosing That There Be Value

The Relationship Between Fact and Value

6. Philosophy and the Meaning of Life

Modes of Meaning(fulness)

Death

Traces

God's Plan

Transcending Limits

The Unlimited

Meaning andValue

Philosophy as Part of the Humanities

Reductionism

Nonreductive Understanding

Philosophy as an Art Form

Notes

Product Details

ISBN:
9780674664487
Publisher:
Belknap Press
Location:
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Author:
Nozick, Robert
Subject:
Philosophy
Subject:
Values
Subject:
Knowledge, theory of
Subject:
Filosofia contemporanea
Subject:
Teoria do conhecimento
Subject:
General Philosophy
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Series Volume:
6
Publication Date:
19810928
Binding:
Hardback
Grade Level:
General/trade
Illustrations:
None
Pages:
784

Related Subjects

Humanities » Philosophy » General

Philosophical Explanations
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Product details 784 pages Belknap Press of Harvard University Press - English 9780674664487 Reviews:
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