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Four Colors Suffice: How the Map Problem Was Solved (Revised Color Edition) (Princeton Science Library)by Robin Wilson
Synopses & ReviewsPublisher Comments:On October 23, 1852, Professor Augustus De Morgan wrote a letter to a colleague, unaware that he was launching one of the most famous mathematical conundrums in historyone that would confound thousands of puzzlers for more than a century. This is the amazing story of how the "map problem" was solved.
The problem posed in the letter came from a former student: What is the least possible number of colors needed to fill in any map (real or invented) so that neighboring counties are always colored differently? This deceptively simple question was of minimal interest to cartographers, who saw little need to limit how many colors they used. But the problem set off a frenzy among professional mathematicians and amateur problem solvers, among them Lewis Carroll, an astronomer, a botanist, an obsessive golfer, the Bishop of London, a man who set his watch only once a year, a California traffic cop, and a bridegroom who spent his honeymoon coloring maps. In their pursuit of the solution, mathematicians painted maps on doughnuts and horseshoes and played with patterned soccer balls and the great rhombicuboctahedron. It would be more than one hundred years (and countless colored maps) later before the result was finally established. Even then, difficult questions remained, and the intricate solutionwhich involved no fewer than 1,200 hours of computer timewas greeted with as much dismay as enthusiasm. Providing a clear and elegant explanation of the problem and the proof, Robin Wilson tells how a seemingly innocuous question baffled great minds and stimulated exciting mathematics with farflung applications. This is the entertaining story of those who failed to prove, and those who ultimately did prove, that four colors do indeed suffice to color any map. This new edition features many color illustrations. It also includes a new foreword by Ian Stewart on the importance of the map problem and how it was solved. Synopsis:"I loved Robin Wilson's book on the four color problem, because it gives the history as well as the arguments. The history is presented so entertainingly, and the arguments so lucidly, that I'm sure the book will find a large audience, and delight any audience as much as it did me."John Conway
"An intriguing historical account of one of the most baffling enigmas in mathematics: the Four Color Theorem. Robin Wilson provides fascinating insights into how mathematicians think, and shows that questions that are simple to ask may not be simple to answer."Ian Stewart "Robin Wilson has combined a complete history of the approach that led to the solution of the four color problem with a description of the techniques involved that can be read with pleasure and comprehension by undergraduates as well as professional mathematicians."Kenneth Appel, University of New Hampshire About the AuthorRobin Wilson is emeritus professor of pure mathematics at the Open University and emeritus professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. He has written and edited many books on topics ranging from graph theory and combinatorics, via sudoku, philately, and the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, to the history of mathematics. He is currently president of the British Society for the History of Mathematics.
Table of ContentsForeword by Ian Stewart xi
Preface to the Revised Color Edition xiii Preface to the Original Edition xv 1 The FourColor Problem 1 What Is the FourColor Problem?  Why Is It Interesting?  Is It Important?  What Is Meant by "Solving" It?  Who Posed It, and How Was It Solved?  Painting by Numbers  Two Examples 2 The Problem Is Posed 12 De Morgan Writes a Letter  Hotspur and the Athenaeum  Möbius and the Five Princes  Confusion Reigns 3 Euler's Famous Formula 28 Euler Writes a Letter  From Polyhedra to Maps  Only Five Neighbors  A Counting Formula 4 Cayley Revives the Problem . . . 45 Cayley's Query  Knocking Down Dominoes  Minimal Criminals  The SixColor Theorem 5 . . . and Kempe Solves It 55 Sylvester's New Journal  Kempe's Paper  Kempe Chains  Some Variations  Back to Baltimore 6 A Chapter of Accidents 71 A Challenge for the Bishop  A Visit to Scotland  Cycling around Polyhedra  A Voyage around the World  Wee Planetoids 7 A Bombshell from Durham 86 Heawood's Map  A Salvage Operation  Coloring Empires  Maps on Bagels  Picking Up the Pieces 8 Crossing the Atlantic 105 Two Fundamental Ideas  Finding Unavoidable Sets  Finding Reducible Configurations  Coloring Diamonds  How Many Ways? 9 A New Dawn Breaks 124 Bagels and Traffic Cops  Heinrich Heesch  Wolfgang Haken  Enter the Computer  Coloring Horseshoes 10 Success! 139 A HeeschHaken Partnership?  Kenneth Appel  Getting Down to Business  The Final Onslaught  A Race against Time  Aftermath 11 Is It a Proof? 157 Cool Reaction  What Is a Proof Today?  Meanwhile . . .  A New Proof  Into the Next Millennium  The Future Chronology of Events 171 Notes and References 175 Glossary 187 Picture Credits 193 Index 195 What Our Readers Are SayingBe the first to add a comment for a chance to win!Product Details
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