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Lex & Yacc 2ND Editionby John R Levine
Synopses & Reviews
This book shows you how to use two Unix utilities, lex andyacc, in program development. These tools help programmers build compilers and interpreters, but they also have a wider range of applications.The second edition contains completely revised tutorial sections for novice users and reference sections for advanced users. This edition is twice the size of the first and has an expanded index.The following material has been added:
Shows programmers how to use two UNIX utilities, lex and yacc, in program development. This second edition contains completely revised tutorial sections for novice users and reference sections for advanced users. Twice the size of the original book, this edition features an expanding index; an explanation of each utility that covers basic usage and simple, stand-alone applications; and more.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 339-340) and index.
About the Author
DOUG BROWN is Professor of Economics in the College of Business at Northern Arizona University. His areas of research focus on institutional economics, comparative economic systems, the globalization of capitalism, and human and environmental sustainability. His books include The Economic Status of Women Under Capitalism (1994) and Thorstein Veblen in the Twenty-first Century (1998). He is active in the Association for Institutional Economics and the Association for Evolutionary Economics.
Mason is Research Professor in History at De Montfort University, Leicester, where his work is internationally regarded as pioneering research on the social history of football.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Preface What's New in the Second Edition Scope of This Book Availability of Lex and Yacc Sample Programs Conventions Used in This Handbook Acknowledgments 1. Lex and Yacc The Simplest Lex Program Recognizing Words with Lex Symbol Tables Grammars Parser-Lexer Communication The Parts of Speech Lexer A Yacc Parser The Rules Section Running Lex and Yacc Lex vs. Hand-written Lexers Exercises 2. Using Lex Regular Expressions Examples of Regular Expressions A Word Counting Program Parsing a Command Line Start States A C Source Code Analyzer Summary Exercises 3. Using Yacc Grammars Recursive Rules Shift/Reduce Parsing What Yacc Cannot Parse A Yacc Parser The Definition Section The Rules Section Symbol Values and Actions The Lexer Compiling and Running a Simple Parser Arithmetic Expressions and Ambiguity When Not to Use Precedence Rules Variables and Typed Tokens Symbol Values and 0nion Symbol Tables Functions and Reserved Words Reserved Words in the Symbol Table Interchangeable Function and Variable Names Building Parsers with Make Summary Exercises 4. A Menu Generation Language Overview of the MGL Developing the MGL Building the MGL Initialization Screen Processing Termination Sample MGL Code Exercises 5. Parsing SQL A Quick Overview of SQL Relational Data Bases Manipulating Relations Three Ways to Use SQL The Syntax Checker The Lexer Error and Main Routines The Parser Definitions Top Level Rules The Schema Sublanguage The Module Sublanguage The Manipulation Sublanguage Odds and Ends Using the Syntax Checker Embedded SQL Changes to the Lexer Changes to the Parser Auxiliary Routines Using the Preprocessor Exercises 6. A Reference for Lex Specifications Structure of a Lex Specification Definition Section Rules Section User Subroutines BEGIN Bugs Ambiguous Lookahead AT&T Lex Flex Character Translations Context Sensitivity Left Context Right Context Definitions (Substitutions) ECHO Include Operations (Logical Nesting of Files) File Chaining with yywrap() File Nesting Input from Strings AT&T Lex Flex Abraxas Pclex MKS Lex POSIX Lex input() Internal Tables (N Declarations) lex Library main() Other Library Routines Line Numbers and yylineno Literal Block Multiple Lexers in One Program Combined Lexers Multiple Lexers output() Portability of Lex Lexers Porting Lex Specifications Porting Generated C Lexers Regular Expression Syntax Metacharacters POSIX Extensions REJECT Returning Values from yylex() Start States unput() yyinput(), yyoutput(), yyunput() yyleng yyless() yylex() User Code in yylex() yymore() yytext Enlarging yytext yywrap() 7. A Reference for Yacc Grammars Structure of a Yacc Grammar Symbols Definition Section Rules Section User Subroutines Section Actions Embedded Actions Symbol Types for Embedded Actions Obsolescent Feature Ambiguity and Conflicts Types of Conflicts Bugs in Yacc Real Bugs Infinite Recursion Unreal Bugs End Marker Error Token and Error Recovery 423936dent Declaration Inherited Attributes ($0) Symbol Types for Inherited Attributes Lexical Feedback Literal Block Literal Tokens Portability of Yacc Parsers Porting Yacc Grammars Porting Generated C Lexers Precedence, Associativity, and Operator Declarations Precedence and Associativity Operator Declarations Using Precedence and Associativity to Resolve Conflicts Typical Uses of Precedence Recursive Rules Left and Right Recursion Rules Special Characters Start Declaration Symbol Values Declaring Symbol Types Example Explicit Symbol Types Tokens Token Numbers Token Values type Declaration 0nion Declaration Variant and Multiple Grammars Combined Parsers Multiple Parsers Recursive Parsing Lexers for Multiple Parsers y.output Files Yacc Library main() yyerror() YYABORT YYACCEPT YYBACKUP yyclearin yydebug and YYDEBUG YYDEBUG yydebug yyerrok YYERROR yyerror() yyparse() YYRECOVERING() 8. Yacc Ambiguities and Conflicts The Pointer Model and Conflicts Types of Conflicts Parser States Contents of y.output Review of Conflicts in y.output Common Examples of Conflicts Expression Grammars IF-THEN-ELSE Nested List Grammars How Do I Fix the Conflict? IF-THEN-ELSE (Shift/Reduce) Loop Within a Loop (Shift/Reduce) Expression Precedence (Shift/Reduce) Limited Lookahead (Shift/Reduce or Reduce/Reduce) Overlap of Alternatives (Reduce/Reduce) Summary Exercises 9. Error Reporting and Recovery Error Reporting Better Lex Error Reports Error Recovery Yacc Error Recovery Where to Put Error Tokens Compiler Error Recovery Exercises A. AT&T Lex Error Messages B. AT&T Yacc Options Error Messages C. Berkeley Yacc Options Error Messages Fatal Errors Regular Errors Warnings Informative Messages D. GNU Bison Differences E. Flex Flex Differences Options Error Messages Flex Versions of Lexer Examples F. MKS lex and yacc Differences New Features G. Abraxas lex and yacc Differences New Features H. POSIX lex and yacc Options Differences I. MGL Compiler Code MGL Yacc Source MGL Lex Source Supporting C Code J. SQL Parser Code Yacc Parser Cross-reference Lex Scanner Supporting Code Glossary Bibliography Index Figures 3. Using Yacc 3-1 A parse tree 3-2 A parse using recursive rules 3-3 Ambiguous input 2+3x4 5. Parsing SQL 5-1 Two relational tables 8. Yacc Ambiguities and Conflicts 8-1 Ambiguous input expr - expr - expr Examples 1. Lex and Yacc 1-1 Word recognizer ch1-02.l 1-2 Lex example with multiple parts of speech ch1-03.l 1-3 Lexer with symbol table (part 1 of 3) ch1-04.l 1-4 Lexer with symbol table (part 2 of 3) ch1-04.l 1-5 Lexer with symbol table (part 3 of 3) ch1-04.l 1-6 Lexer to be called from the parser ch1-05.l 1-7 Simple yacc sentence parser ch1-05.y 1-8 Extended English parser ch1-06.y 1-9 A lexer written in C 1-10 The same lexer written in lex 2. Using Lex 2-1 Lex specification for decimal numbers 2-2 User subroutines for word count program ch2-02.l 2-3 Multi-file word count program ch2-03.l 2-4 Lex specification to parse command-line input ch2-04.l 2-5 Lex specification to parse a command line ch2-05.l 2-6 Lex command scanner with filenames ch2-06.l 2-7 Start state example ch2-07.l 2-8 Broken start state example ch2-08.l 2-9 C source analyzer ch2-09.l 3. Using Yacc 3-1 The calculator grammar with expressions and precedence ch3-02.y 3-2 Calculator grammar with variables and real values ch3-03.y 3-3 Lexer for calculator with variables and real values ch3-03.l 3-4 Header for parser with symbol table ch3hdr.h 3-5 Rules for parser with symbol table ch3-04.y 3-6 Symbol table routine ch3-04.pgm 3-7 Lexer with symbol table ch3-04.l 3-8 Final calculator header ch3hdr2.h 3-9 Rules for final calculator parser ch3-05.y 3-10 User subroutines for final calculator parser ch3-05.y 3-11 Final calculator lexer ch3-05.l 3-12 Makefile for the calculator 4. A Menu Generation Language 4-1 First version of MGL lexer 4-2 First version of MGL parser 4-3 Grammar with items and actions 4-4 Grammar with command identifiers 4-5 Grammar with titles 4-6 Complete MGL grammar 4-7 MGL lex specification 4-8 Alternative lex specification 4-9 MGL main() routine 4-10 Screen end code 5. Parsing SQL 5-1 Example of SQL module language 5-2 Example of embedded SQL 5-3 The first SQL lexer 5-4 Definition section of first SQL parser 5-6 Schema sublanguage, top part 5-7 Schema sublanguage, base tables 5-8 Schema view definitions 5-9 Schema privilege definitions 5-10 Cursor definition 5-11 Manipulation sublanguage, top part 5-12 Simple manipulative statements 5-13 FETCH statement 5-14 INSERT statement 5-15 DELETE statement 5-16 UPDATE statement 5-17 Scalar expressions 5-18 SELECT statement, query specifications and expressions 5-19 Table expressions 5-20 Search conditions 5-21 Conditions for embedded SQL 5-22 Makefile for SQL syntax checker 5-23 Definitions in embedded lexer 5-24 Embedded lexer rules 5-25 Highlights of embedded SQL text support routines 5-26 Output from embedded SQL preprocessor 6. A Reference for Lex Specifications 6-1 Taking flex input from a string E. Flex E-1 Flex specification to parse a command line ape-05.l E-2 Flex command scanner with filenames ape-06.l
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