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Biomedical Ethics

by

Biomedical Ethics Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

This best-selling anthology of readings with case studies provides insightful and comprehensive treatment of ethical issues in medicine. Appropriate for courses taught in philosophy departments as well as in schools of medicine and nursing, the collection covers provocative topics such as conflicts of interest in medicine, advance directives, physician-assisted suicide, and the rationing of health care. The text's effective pedagogical features include chapter introductions, argument sketches, explanations of medical terms, headnotes, and annotated bibliographies.

About the Author

Thomas A. Mappes holds a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Dayton and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Georgetown University. He is professor of philosophy at Frostburg State University, where he has taught since 1973. He is the coeditor (with Jane S. Zembaty) of Social Ethics: Morality and Social Policy (McGraw-Hill, 4/e, 1992) and his published work appears in journals such as American Philosophical Quarterly and Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. In 1985, the Frostburg State University Foundation presented him with the Faculty Achievement Award for Teaching.David DeGrazia earned a B.A. from the University of Chicago, an M.St. from Oxford University, and a Ph.D. from Gerogetown University, each in philosophy. He has been teaching philosophy and biomedical ethics at George Washington University since 1989. He is the author of Taking Animals Seriously (Cambridge University Press) and of articles published in such journals as Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Public Affairs Quarterly, History of Philosophy Quarterly, and Southern Journal of Philosophy.

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The Nature of Biomedical Ethics

Recently Dominant Ethical Theories

The Critical Assessment of Competing Ethical Theories

Teleological Versus Deontological Theories

Act-Utilitarianism

Rule-Utilitarianism

Kantian Deontology

W.D. Ross's Theory of Prima Facie Duties

The Principles of Biomedical Ethics

Alternative Directions and Methods

Virtue Ethics

The Ethics of Care and Feminist Ethics

Casuistry: Case-Based Reasoning in Historical Context

Reflective Equilibrium and Appeals to Coherence

Confronting Ethical Relativism

Fundamental Concepts and Principles

Autonomy

Liberty-Limiting Principles

Paternalism

Notes

Annotated Bibliography

Appendix: Selected Reference Sources in Biomedical Ethics

Print Resources

Web Resources

Chapter 2: THE PHYSICIAN-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP

Physicians' Obligations and Virtues

The Hippocratic Oath

Council of Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association, Fundamental Elements of the

Patient-Physician Relationship

Edmund D. Pellegrino, The Virtuous Physician and the Ethics of Medicine

Physician-Patient Models and Patient Autonomy

James F. Childress and Mark Siegler, Metaphors and Models of Doctor-Patient Relationships: Their

Implications for Autonomy

Terrence F. Ackerman, Why Doctors Should Intervene

Truth Telling

Roger Higgs, On Telling Patients the Truth

*Benjamin Freedman, Offering the Truth: One Ethical Approach to the Uninformed Cancer Patient

Informed Consent

Judge Spotswood W. Robinson III, Opinion in Canterbury v. Spence

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, The Values Underlying Informed Consent

Howard Brody, Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care

The Practice of Medicine in a Multicultural Society

Ruth Macklin, Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society

Kenneth Kipnis, Quality Care and the Wounds of Diversity

Contested Therapies within the Physician-Patient Relationship

*Franklin G. Miller, Howard Brody, and Kevin C. Chung, Cosmetic Surgery and the Internal Morality of Medicine

*Claudia Mills, One Pill Makes You Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin

Conflicts of Interest, Problems of Conscience, and Managed Care

Marcia Angell, The Doctor as Double Agent

Daniel Callahan, Managed Care and the Goals of Medicine

*James F. Childress, Conscience and the Conscientious Actions in the Context of MCOs

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 3: HOSPITALS, NURSES, FAMILIES, AND MEDICAL CONFIDENTIALITY

Professional Statements

*American Hospital Association, The Patient Care Partnership: Understanding Expectations, Rights and Responsibilities

American Nurses' Association, Code of Ethics for Nurses

The Role and Responsibilities of Nurses

Lisa H. Newton, In Defense of the Traditional Nurse

Helga Kuhse, Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?

Amy H. Haddad, The Nurse/Physician Relationship and Ethical Decision Making

Families and Medical Decision Making

Thomas A. Mappes and Jane S. Zembaty, Patient Choices, Family Interests, and Physician Obligations

*Bonnie Poitras Tucker, Deaf Culture, Cochlear Implants, and Elective Disability

*Sherri A. Groveman, The Hanukkah Bush: Ethical Implications in the Clinical Management of Intersex

Confidentiality

Justice Mathew O. Tobriner, Majority Opinion in Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California

Justice William P. Clar, Dissenting Opinion in Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California

Please Don't Tell!: A Case About HIV and Confidentiality (with commentaries by Leonard Fleck and Marcia Angell)

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 4: HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH

Ethical Codes

The Nuremberg Code

World Medical Association, Declaration of Helsinki

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals

Research Involving "Vulnerable" Populations

*Barry F. Brown, Proxy Consent for Research on the Incompetent Elderly

Patricia A. King, The Dangers of Difference

Alexander Morgan Capron, Ethical and Human-Rights Issues in Research on Mental Disorders That May Affect Decision-Making Capacity

Experimental Design and Randomized Clinical Trials

Samuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman, Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial

*Don Marquis, How to Resolve and Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials in Developing Countries

*Leonard H. Glantz, George J. Annas, Michael A. Grodin, and Wendy K. Mariner, Research in Developing Countries: Taking Benefit Seriously

*Baruch Brody, Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries

Animal Research

Carl Cohen, The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research

Edwin Converse Hettinger, The Responsible Use of Animals in Biomedical Research

*David DeGrazia, The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 5: DEATH AND DECISIONS REGARDING LIFE-SUSTAINING TREATMENT

The Definition and Determination of Death

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Why "Update" Death?

Charles M. Culver and Bernard Gert, The Definition and Criterion of Death

Martin Benjamin, Pragmatism and the Determination of Death

Competent Adults and the Refusal of Life-Sustaining Treatment

Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association, Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment

Tia Powell and Bruce Lowenstein, Refusing Life-Sustaining Treatment After Catastrophic Injury: Ethical Implications

*Vicki Michel, Suicide by Persons with Disabilities Disguised as the Refusal of Life-Sustaining Treatment

DNR Orders and Medical Futility

Tom Tomlinson and Howard Brody, Ethics and Communication in Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders

Mark R. Wicclair, Medical Futility: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis

Advance Directives and Treatment Decisions for Incompetent Adults

Thomas A. Mappes, Some Reflections on Advance Directives

Norman L. Cantor, My Annotated Living Will

*Rebecca Dresser, The Conscious Incompetent Patient

The Treatment of Impaired Infants

John A. Robertson, Involuntary Euthanasia of Defective Newborns

Members of The Hastings Center Research Project on the Care of Imperiled Newborns, Standards of Judgment for Treatment of Imperiled Newborns

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 6: SUICIDE, PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE, AND ACTIVE EUTHANASIA

The Morality of Suicide

Immanuel Kant, Suicide

R.B. Brandt, The Morality and Rationality of Suicide

The Morality of Active Euthanasia

James Rachels, Active and Passive Euthanasia

Daniel Callahan, Killing and Allowing to Die

Dan W. Brock, Voluntary Active Euthanasia

The Supreme Court, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Terminal Sedation

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, Opinion of the Court in Washington v. Glucksberg

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, Opinion of the Court in Vacco v. Quill

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, Concurring Opinion in Washington v. Glucksberg and Vacco v. Quill

David Orentlicher, The Supreme Court and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Rejecting Assisted Suicide but Embracing Euthanasia

Physician-Assisted Suicide, Active Euthanasia, and Social Policy

Timothy E. Quill, Christine K. Cassel, and Diane E. Meier, Care of the Hopelessly Ill: Proposed Clinical Criteria for Physician-Assisted Suicide

*The Oregon Death with Dignity Act

Franklin G. Miller, Timothy E. Quizz, Howard Brody, John C. Fletcher, Lawrence O. Gostin, and Diane E. Meier, Regulating Physician-Assisted Death

John D. Arras, On the Slippery Slope in the Empire State: The New York State Task Force on Physician-Assisted Death

James L. Bernat, Bernard Gert, and R. Peter Mogielnicki, Patient Refusal of Hydration and Nutrition: An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide or Voluntary Active Euthanasia

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 7: ABORTION AND RESEARCH ON EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

The Morality of Abortion

Pope John Paul II, The Unspeakable Crime of Abortion

Mary Anne Warren, On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion

Don Marquis, Why Abortion Is Immoral

Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion

*Margaret Olivia Little, The Morality of Abortion

Abortion and Social Policy

Justice Harry Blackmun, Majority Opinion in Roe v. Wade

*George J. Annas, "Partial-Birth Abortion" and the Supreme Court

Research on Embryonic Stem Cells

*National Institutes of Health, Stem Cells: A Primer

*Bonnie Steinbock, What Does "Respect for Embryos" Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?

*President's Council on Bioethics, The Moral Case against Cloning-for-Biomedical-Research

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 8: GENETICS AND HUMAN REPRODUCTION

Reproductive Risk, Prenatal Diagnosis, and Selective Abortion

Leon R. Kass, Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life

Laura M. Purdy, Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?

Reproductive Technologies

*Peter Singer, IVF: The Simple Case

Susan Sherwin, Feminist Ethics and In Vitro Fertilization

The New York State Task Force on Life and the Law, Ethical Debates About Infertility and Its Treatment

*President's Council on Bioethics, Assisted Reproduction

Gamete Donation and Surrogacy

Thomas H. Murray, Families, the Marketplace and Values: New Ways of Making Babies

Bonnie Steinbock, Surrogate Motherhood as Prenatal Adoption

Human Cloning

Leon R. Kass, Cloning of Human Beings

*Thomas H. Murray, Even If It Worked, Cloning Wouldn't Bring Her Back

Robert Wachbroit, Genetic Encores: The Ethics of Human Cloning

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

*John A. Robertson, Extending Preimplanation Genetic Diagnosis: Medical and Non-Medical Uses

*President's Council on Bioethics, Selecting Embryos for Desired Traits

Gene Therapy

*Sophia Kolehmainen, The Dangerous Promise of Gene Therapy

*Marina Cavazzana-Calvo, Adrian Thrasher, and Fulvio Mavilio, The Future of Gene Therapy: Balancing the Risks and Benefits of Clinical Trials

LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer, Germ-Line Gene Therapy

Genetic Enhancement

*Walter Glannon, Genetic Enhancement

*Dan W. Brock, Genetic Engineering

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 9: SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HEALTH-CARE POLICY

Justice, Rights and Societal Obligations

Allen Buchanan, Justice: A Philosophical Review

Kai Nelson, Autonomy, Equality and a Just Health Care System

Rationing, Managed Care, and Health-Care Reform in the United States

Norman Daniels, Is the Oregon Rationing Plan Fair?

Allen Buchanan, Managed Care: Rationing Without Justice, but Not Unjustly

*Leonard M. Fleck, Rationing: Don't Give Up

Norman Daniels and James Sabin, Closure, Fair Procedures, and Setting Limits Within Managed Care Organizations

*Ezekiel Emanuel, Health Care Reform: Still Possible

International Models and Perspectives

Pat Armstrong, Managing Care the Canadian Way

*John K. Iglehart, Restoring the Status of an Icon: A Talk with Canada's Minister of Health

Gerd Richter, The German Health Care System

Nicholas Mays and Justin Keen, Will the Fudge on Equity Sustain the NHS into the Next Millennium?

*Giovanna Ruberto, Ethics, Politics, and Priorities in the Italian Health-Care System

Annotated Bibliography

Product Details

ISBN:
9780072976441
Author:
Mappes, Thomas A
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Langua
Author:
DeGrazia, David
Author:
Mappes, Thomas A.
Author:
Mappes Thomas
Author:
Mappes, Thomas
Subject:
Ethics
Subject:
Bioethics
Subject:
Medical ethics
Subject:
Health and Medicine-Professional Medical Reference
Copyright:
Edition Number:
6
Edition Description:
Mappes
Series:
Biomedical Ethics
Publication Date:
August 2005
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Pages:
752
Dimensions:
9.14x7.34x1.05 in. 2.40 lbs.

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