Preliminary Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Clashing Views in Gender, Fifth Edition
Unit 1 Definitions and Cultural Boundaries: A Moving Target
- Issue 1. Is Anatomy Destiny?
YES: John L. Rinn and Michael Snyder (2005). Sexual dimorphism in mammalian gene expression. Trends in Genetics, 21, 5, 298305.
NO: Mahin Hassibi (2008). Ending the male patina in biology & Busing bogus biology and beliefs from Our Genders, Our Rights. On The Issues Magazine, summer-Winter 2009. www.ontheissuesmagazine.com
Professor of pathology John L. Rinn and biologist Michael Snyder demonstrate that a number of molecular and genetic differences underlie behaviors and physiologies of mammalian sexes. Psychiatrist Mahin Hassibi suggests that environmental and social factors, combined with myths about biology, explain gendered behavior better than genetic and biological factors.
- Issue 2. Is Sexual Orientation Innate?
YES: Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Curtis Dolezal, Susan W. Baker and Maria I. New (2008). Sexual Orientation in Women with Classical or Non-classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia as a Function of Degree of Prenatal Androgen Excess. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(1).
NO: Lisa M. Diamond and Molly Butterworth (2008). Questioning gender and sexual identity: Dynamic links over time. Sex Roles, 59, 365-376.
Clinical psychologist HYPERLINK http://www.springerlink.com/content/?Author=Heino+F.+L.+Meyer-Bahlburg Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg and his colleagues report that sexual orientation is related to specific molecular genotypes in women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), supporting a sexual-differentiation perspective involving the effects prenatal androgens on the development of sexual orientation. Psychologist Lisa M. Diamond and her student use a feminist theoretical framework of intersectionality to analyze data from the experiences of individuals who claim neither an unambiguously female nor male identity to demonstrate that sexual orientation, sexual identify and gender identify are fluid and change over time.
- Issue 3. Do Sex Differences in Careers in Mathematics and Sciences Have a Biological Basis?
YES: Steven Pinker, from The Science of Gender and Science: Pinker vs. Spelke, The Edge (May 16, 2005)
NO: Elizabeth Spelke, from The Science of Gender and Science: Pinker vs. Spelke, The Edge (May 16, 2005)
Steven Pinker reviews arguments supporting the claim that there is a biological basis for gender differences in math and science. Elizabeth Spelke argues that the underrepresentation of women in the sciences is due to environmental factors.
Unit 2 Different Strokes: the Question of Difference
- Issue 4. Are Women and Men More Similar Than Different?
YES: Janet Shibley Hyde, from The Gender Similarities Hypothesis, American Psychologist (2005)
NO: Kingsley R. Browne, from Biology at Work: Rethinking Sexual Equality (Rutgers University Press, 2002)
Psychology professor Janet Shibley Hyde of the University of Wisconsin at Madison argues that claims of gender differences are overinflated, resulting in serious consequences for women and men in the workplace and in relationships. Kingsley R. Browne, a professor at Wayne State University Law School, claims that the differences are real, rooted in biology.
- Issue 5. Are Different Patterns of Communication in Women and Men Innately Determined?
YES: Louann Brizendine, from The Female Brain (2006)
NO: Brenda J. Allen, from Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity (Waveland Press, 2004)
Louann Brizendine argues that womens brains are hard-wired to communicate differently from men, suggesting on the jacket of her book men will develop a serious case of brain envy. In contrast, Brenda J. Allen argues that socialization leads to forms of communication that are based on power and privilege.
- Issue 6. Do Nice Guys Finish Last
YES: Adrian Furnham (2009). Sex differences in mate selection preferences. Personality and individual differences, 47, 262-267.
NO: Peter K. Jonason, Norman P. Li, Gregory D. Webster, and David P. Schmitt (2009). The dark triad: Facilitating a short-term mating strategy in men. European Journal of Personality, 23, 5-18.
Psychologist Peter K. Jonason, taking an evolutionary perspective, demonstrates that the Dark Triad of attributes (narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) promotes a reproductively adaptive strategy, especially for short-term mating behaviors. Psychologist Adrian Furnham found consistent sex differences that revealed womens preference for nice guys, i.e., those who were intelligent, stable, conscientious, better educated, with good social skills and political/and religious compatibility.
Unit 3 Violence in the Daily Lives of Women and Men
- Issue 7. Gender Symmetry: Do Women and Men Commit Equal Levels of Violence Against Intimate Partners?
YES: Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez, from Gender Symmetry in Prevalence, Severity, and Chronicity of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners by University Students in Mexico and USA, Aggressive Behavior (2007)
NO: Suzanne C. Swan and David L. Snow, from The Development of a Theory of Womens Use of Violence in Intimate Relationships, Violence Against Women (2006)
Murray A. Straus and his colleague Ignacio Luis Ramirez argue that women are just as likely to commit physical aggression against dating partners as are men, suggesting that gender symmetry exists in different cultural contexts. On the other hand, social psychologist Suzanne C. Swan and colleague David L. Snow argue that womens use of aggression does not equate to gender symmetry. Rather cultural context, motives, and history of trauma must be considered.
- Issue 8. Does Pornography Reduce the Incidence of Rape?
YES: Anthony DAmato, from Porn Up, Rape Down, Northwestern University School of Law, Public Law and Legal Theory Research Series (June 23, 2006)
NO: Judith Reisman, from Pornographys Link to Rape, Worldnet Daily.com (July 29, 2006)
Professor of law Anthony DAmato highlights statistics from the most recent National Crime Victimization Survey that demonstrate a correlation between the increased consumption of pornography over the years with the decreased incidence of rape. Some people, he argues, watch pornography in order to push any desire to rape out of their minds, and thus have no further desire to go out and actually do it. Judith Reisman, president of the Institute for Media Education, asserts that sex criminals imitate what they see depicted in the media, providing examples of serial rapists and killers who had large stores of pornography in their possession, and research in which approximately 33 percent of rapists said that they had viewed pornography immediately prior to at least one of their rapes.
- Issue 9. Is Cyberbullying Related to Gender?
YES: Quing Li, Cyberbullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences.School Psychology International, 27(2), May, 2006. pp. 157-170.
NO: Kirk R. Williams and Nancy G. Guerra (2007). Prevalence and predictors of Internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41,6, S14-S21.
Educator Quing Li found, in a survey of students, males reported more bullying and cyberbullying than female students, and female cyberbully victims were more likely to report the cyberbullying to adults than were males. Criminal justice expert Kirk R. Williams and psychologist Nancy G. Guerra found that buoys were more likely to bully than girls, but there were no sex differences in cyberbullying.
Unit 4 From Ozzie and Harriet to My Two Dads: Gender In Childhood
- Issue 10. Should Same-Sex Marriages Be Legal?
YES: Human Rights Campaign, from Answers to Questions about Marriage Equality (Human Rights Campaign, 2009)
NO: John Cornyn, from In Defense of Marriage, National Review ( July 2004)
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC), Americas largest gay and lesbian organization, explains why same-sex couples should be afforded the same legal right to marry as heterosexual couples. John Cornyn, United States senator from Texas, says a constitutional amendment is needed to define marriage as permissible only between a man and a woman. Senator Cornyn contends that the traditional institution of marriage needs to be protected from activist courts that would seek to redefine ne it.
- Issue 11. Can Lesbian and Gay Couples Be Appropriate Parents for Children?
YES: American Psychological Association, from APA Policy Statement on Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children. Adopted July 2004.
NO: Timothy J. Dailey, from State of the States: Update on Homosexual Adoption in the U.S., Family Research Council (2004)
The American Psychological Associations Council of Representatives adopted this resolution that was drafted by a task force of expert psychologists. The resolution, based on a thorough review of the literature, opposes any discrimination based on sexual orientation and concludes that children reared by same-sex parents benefit from legal ties to each parent. Timothy J. Dailey, senior research fellow at the Center for Marriage and Family Studies, provides an overview of state laws that pertain to adoption by lesbian and gay couples. He points to studies that children do much better in family settings that include both a mother and a father, and that the sexual behaviors same-sex parents engage in make them, by definition, inappropriate role models for children.
- Issue 12. Are Fathers Essential for Childrens Well-Being?
YES: Natasha J. Cabrera, Jacqueline d. Shannon, and Catherine Tamis-LeMonda (2007). Fathers influence n their childrens cognitive and emotional development from toddlers to pre-K. Applied Developmental Science, 11, 4, 208-313.
NO: Peggy Drexler, from Raising Boys Without Men (Rodale Books, 2005)
Professor of human development Natasha J. Cabrera reports that father engagement has positive effects on childrens cognition and language, as well as their social and emotional development. In contrast, Peggy Drexler studied what she terms maverick moms to show how boys can succeed in homes without fathers.
- Issue 13. Should Parents Be Allowed to Choose the Sex of Their Children?
YES: Z. O. Merhi and L. Pal (2008). Gender tailored conceptions: should the option of embryo gender selection be available to infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology? Journal of Medical Ethics, 34, 590-593.
NO: American College of Obstreticians and Gynecologists. (2007). Sex selection. Opinion No. 360. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 109, 475-478.
Physicians Z. O. Merhi and L. Pal discuss the conditions under which selection of the sex of a child does not breach any ethical considerations in family planning among infertile couples. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Ethics supports the practice of offering patients procedures for the purpose of preventing serious sex-linked genetic diseases, but opposes sex selection for personal and family reasons, including family balancing.
Unit 5 From 9 To 5: Gender in the World Of Work
- Issue 14. Does the Mommy Track (Part-Time Work) Improve Womens Lives?
YES: E. Jeffrey Hill, Vjollca K. Märtinson, Maria Ferris, and Robin Zenger Baker, from Beyond the Mommy Track: The Influence of New-Concept Part-Time Work for Professional Women on Work and Family, Journal of Family and Economic Issues (2004)
NO: Mary C. Noonan and Mary E. Corcoran, from The Mommy Track and Partnership: Temporary Delay or Dead End? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2004)
Brigham Young University colleagues E. Jeffrey Hill and Vjollca K. Martinson, along with Maria Ferris of IBM and Robin Zenger Baker at Boston University, suggest that women in professional careers can successfully integrate family and career by following a new-concept part-time work model. In contrast, Mary C. Noonan, an assistant professor in the department of sociology at the University of Iowa, and Mary E. Corcoran, a professor of political science at the University of Michigan, document the various costs of the mommy track for female attorneys, including lower salaries and decreased likelihood of promotion to partner.
- Issue 15. Can Social Policies Improve Gender Inequalities in the Workplace?
YES: Hilda Kahne, from Low-Wage Single-Mother Families in This Jobless Recovery: Can Improved Social Policies Help? Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (2004)
NO: Hadas Mandel and Moshe Semyonov, from A Welfare State Paradox: State Interventions and Womens Employment Opportunities in 22 Countries, American Journal of Sociology (2006)
Hilda Kahne, professor emerita at Wheaton College in Massachusetts and a member of the Scholars Program and a Resident Scholar at Brandeis University, makes the argument that incomplete education and few training programs, rather than gender discrimination, makes it more difficult for low-wage single mothers to raise their earnings. In contrast, Hadas Mandel of the department of sociology and anthropology and Moshe Semyonov of the department of sociology and labor studies anthropology at Tel Aviv University review extensive data from 22 countries and conclude that social policies have the counterintuitive impact of decreasing womens opportunities for access to more desirable and powerful positions.
- Issue 16. Is the Gender Wage Gap Justified?
YES: John Shackleton (2008). Explaining the overall pay gap. From Should We Mind the Gap? Gender Pay Differentials and Public Policy London, England: The Institute of Economic Affairs. Pp 45-66.
NO: Hilary M. Lips, H. M. (2009).The gender wage gap: Debunking the rationalizations AND Blaming womens choices for the gender pay gap. From Expert Advice for Working Women. www.womensmedia.com.
John Shackleton, a professor of Economics and Dean of the Business School,University of East London, suggests that the gender gap is largely due to nondiscriminatory factors, most notable are those associated with compensation for the differential value of associated with womens choices due to lifestyle, preferences, attitudes and expectations. NO: Hilary M. Lips, a professor of psychology and the director of the Center for Gender Studies at Radford University, documents the continuing gender gap in wages and argues that a continuing undervaluing of womens work, whatever it happens to be, due to stereotypes and prejudice maintains the wage gap. She argues that the language of choice is deceptive.
- Issue 17. Are Barriers to Womens Success as Leaders Due to Societal Obstacles?
YES: Alice H. Eagly and Linda L. Carli, from Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership, Harvard Business Review (September 2007)
NO: Kingsley R. Browne, from Biology at Work: Rethinking Sexual Equality (Rutgers University Press, 2002)
Alice H. Eagly and Linda L. Carli contend that barriers exist for women at every stage of their career trajectories, resulting in, not a glass ceiling, but a labyrinth. Kingsley R. Browne asserts that the division of labor by sex is rooted in biologically based differences between women and men. Evolutionarily based natural selection has led to inclinations that make women and men better suited for different types of jobs.
Unit 6 Gender And Sexuality: Double Standards, Triple Standards
- Issue 18. Should Abstinence-Until-Marriage Be the Only Message to Teens?
YES: Bridget E. Maher, from Abstinence Until Marriage: The Best Message for Teens, Family Research Council (2004)
NO: Debra Hauser (2008). Five Years of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education: Assessing the Impact. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth. http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=623&Itemid=177
Bridget E. Maher, policy analyst at the Center for Marriage and Family Studies at Family Research Council, argues that far too much funding has gone into programs that teach young people about sexuality and contraception—programs that she concludes are ineffective. Debra Hauser, vice president of Advocates for Youth, in an evaluation of numerous abstinence-only-until-marriage programs that received funding under the Title V Social Security Act, concludes that they show few short-term benefits and no lasting, positive effects; rather such programs may actually worsen sexual health outcomes.
- Issue 19. Is Gender Identity Disorder an Appropriate Psychiatric Diagnosis?
YES: Mercedes Allen, from Destigmatization Versus Coverage and Access: The Medical Model of Transsexuality http://dentedbluemercedes.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/destigmatization- versuscoverage-and-access-the-medical-model-of-transsexuality/ (2008)
NO: Kelley Winters, GID Reform Advocates, Issues of GID Diagnosis for Transsexual Women and Men adapted from http://www.gidreform.org/GID30285a.pdf (2007)
Mercedes Allen, educator, trainer, and founder of AlbertaTrans.org, recognizes the bias in the DSMs classification of Gender Identity Disorder as a mental disorder, but argues that changes run the risk of leaving the trans community at risk of losing medical care and treatment. Kelley Winters, Ph.D., writer and founder of GID Reform Advocates, artues the inclusion of Gender Identity Disorder in the DSM adds to the stigma faced by transpersons and that reclassification is necessary in order to adequately address the populations health care needs.
- Issue 20. Should Transgendered Women Be Considered Real Women?
YES: Lisa Mottet and Justin Tanis (2008). Opening the Door to the Inclusion of Transgender People: The Nine Keys to Making Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Organizations Fully Transgender-Inclusive. Washington,DC: The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute.
NO: Jaimie R. Veale, Dave E. Clarke, and Terri C. Lomax (2008). Sexuality of male-to-females transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 586-597.
Attorney and activist Lisa Mottet and program manager of theNationalCenter for Transgender Equality Justin Tanis argue for recognizing diversity is all aspects of peoples lives and reject efforts to categorize on the basis of rigid definitions. Jaimie R. Veale, a graduate student inNew Zealand, along with university faculty compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females and found a number of differences that distinguish the groups in terms of patterns of sexual attraction to males.