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Physics

by

Physics Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Walker uses an integrated "suite" of tools, worked Examples, Active Examples, and Conceptual Checkpoints,  to make conceptual understanding an integral part of solving quantitative problems.  The pedagogy and approach are based on over 20 years of teaching and reflect the results of physics education research.

About the Author

    James S. Walker James Walker obtained his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the University of Washington in 1978. He subsequently served as a post-doc at the University of Pennsylvania, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of California at San Diego before joining the physics faculty at Washington State University in 1983. Professor Walker’s research interests include statistical mechanics, critical phenomena, and chaos. His many publications on the application of renormalization-group theory to systems ranging from absorbed monolayers to binary-fluid mixtures have appeared in Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physica, and a host of other publications. He has also participated in observations on the summit of Mauna Kea, looking for evidence of extra-solar planets.

    Jim Walker likes to work with students at all levels, from judging elementary school science fairs to writing research papers

with graduate students, and has taught introductory physics for many years. His enjoyment of this course and his empathy for students have earned him a reputation as an innovative, enthusiastic, and effective teacher. Jim’s educational publications include “Reappearing Phases” (Scientific American, May 1987) as well as articles in the American

Journal of Physics and The Physics Teacher. In recognition of his contributions to the teaching of physics, Jim was named Boeing Distinguished Professor of Science and Mathematics Education for 2001–2003.

    When he is not writing, conducting research, teaching, or developing new classroom demonstrations and pedagogical materials, Jim enjoys amateur astronomy, bird watching, photography, juggling, unicycling, boogie boarding, and kayaking. Jim is also an avid jazz pianist and organist. He has served as ballpark organist for several Class A minor league baseball teams, including minor league affiliates of the Seattle Mariners and San Francisco Giants.

Table of Contents

Contents

 

Applications in the Text               xxi

 

Preface: To the Instructor           xxv

 

Preface: To the Student               xxxix

 

Guide to Features of the Text    xl

 

 

1       Introduction to Physics                1

 

1-1    Physics and the Laws of Nature     2

 

1-2    Units of Length, Mass, and Time    2

 

1-3    Dimensional Analysis    4       

 

1-4    Significant Figures       5

 

1-5    Converting Units          8

 

1-6    Order-of-Magnitude Calculations    10

 

1-7    Scalars and Vectors     11

 

1-8    Problem Solving in Physics    11

 

        Chapter Summary       13

 

        Conceptual Questions           14

 

        Conceptual Exercises   14

 

        Problems    14

 

 PART I   MECHANICS

 

2       One-Dimensional Kinematics     17

 

2-1    Position, Distance, and Displacement      18

 

2-2    Average Speed and Velocity          19

2-3    Instantaneous Velocity         23

 

2-4    Acceleration       25

 

2-5    Motion with Constant Acceleration  29

 

2-6    Applications of the Equations of Motion   35

 

2-7    Freely Falling Objects           37

 

        Chapter Summary       43

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    45

 

        Conceptual Questions           46

 

        Conceptual Exercises           46

 

        Problems            47

 

 

3       Vectors in Physics               57

 

3-1    Scalars Versus Vectors         58

 

3-2    The Components of a Vector         58

 

3-3    Adding and Subtracting Vectors     63

 

3-4    Unit Vectors        66

 

3-5    Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors 67            

3-6    Relative Motion   71

 

Chapter Summary       73

 

Problem-Solving Summary    74

 

Conceptual Questions           74

 

Conceptual Exercises   75

 

Problems    75

 

4       Two-Dimensional Kinematics              81

 

4-1    Motion in Two Dimensions     82

 

4-2    Projectile Motion: Basic Equations  85

 

4-3    Zero Launch Angle       86

 

4-4    General Launch Angle          91

 

4-5    Projective Motion: Key Characteristics    95

 

        Chapter Summary       99

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    101

 

        Conceptual Questions           101

 

        Conceptual Exercises           102

 

        Problems            103

 

 

5       Newton’s Laws of Motion            109

 

5-1    Force and Mass           110

 

5-2    Newton’s First Law of Motion         110

 

5-3    Newton’s Second Law of Motion     112

 

5-4    Newton’s Third Law of Motion                120

 

5-5    The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions    123

 

5-6    Weight       126

 

5-7    Normal Forces    130

 

Chapter Summary       134

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    135

 

        Conceptual Questions           135

 

        Conceptual Exercises           137

 

        Problems            138

 

 

6       Applications of Newton’s Laws           143

 

6-1    Frictional Forces          144

 

6-2    Strings and Springs      152

 

6-3    Translational Equilibrium       156

 

6-4    Connected Objects      160

 

6-5    Circular Motion            164

 

        Chapter Summary       169

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    170

 

        Conceptual Questions           170

 

        Conceptual Exercises           171

 

        Problems            172

 

 

7       Work and Kinetic Energy             179

 

7-1    Work Done by a Constant Force     180

 

7-2    Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem         186

 

7-3    Work Done by a Variable Force     190

 

7-4    Power        195

 

        Chapter Summary       197

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    198

 

        Conceptual Questions           199

 

        Conceptual Exercises           199

 

        Problems            200

 

 

8       Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy     205

 

8-1    Conservative and Nonconservative Forces       206

 

8-2    Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces      209

 

8-3    Conservation of Mechanical Energy                215

 

8-4    Work Done by Nonconservative Forces   223

 

8-5    Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials      228

 

        Chapter Summary       231

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    232

 

        Conceptual Questions           232

 

        Conceptual Exercises           233

 

        Problems            234

 

 

9       Linear Momentum and Collisions        241

 

9-1    Linear Momentum       242

 

9-2    Momentum and Newton’s Second Law    244

 

9-3    Impulse     245

 

9-4    Conservation of Linear Momentum         249

 

9-5    Inelastic Collisions        254

 

9-6    Elastic Collisions          260

 

9-7    Center of Mass            265

 

*9-8  Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion       270

 

        Chapter Summary       272

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    274

 

        Conceptual Questions           274

 

        Conceptual Exercises           275

 

        Problems            276

 

 

10     Rotational Kinematics and Energy               283

 

10-1  Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration             284

 

10-2  Rotational Kinematics           288

 

10-3  Connections Between Linear and Rotational Quantities       291

 

10-4  Rolling Motion     296

 

10-5  Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia         297

 

10-6  Conservation of Energy                301

 

Chapter Summary       306

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    308

 

        Conceptual Questions           309

 

        Conceptual Exercises           309

 

        Problems            310

 

 

11     Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium        317

 

11-1  Torque       318

 

11-2  Torque and Angular Acceleration    321

 

11-3  Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium         325

 

11-4  Center of Mass and Balance  332

 

11-5  Dynamic Applications of Torque     335

 

11-6  Angular Momentum     337

 

11-7  Conservation of Angular Momentum       340

 

11-8  Rotational Work and Power           345

 

*11-9          The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion         346

 

        Chapter Summary       348

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    350

 

        Conceptual Questions           350

 

        Conceptual Exercises           350

 

        Problems            352

 

 

12     Gravity                360

 

12-1  Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation     361

 

12-2  Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies      364

 

12-3  Kepler’s Laws of Orbital Motion      369

 

12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy        376

 

12-5  Energy Conservation            379

 

*12-6          Tides       386

 

        Chapter Summary       388

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    390

 

        Conceptual Questions           390

 

        Conceptual Exercises           390

 

        Problems            391

 

 

13     Oscillations About Equilibrium            396

 

13-1  Periodic Motion           397

 

13-2  Simple Harmonic Motion       398

 

13-3  Connections Between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion          401

 

13-4  The Period of a Mass on a Spring           407

 

13-5  Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion       411

 

13-6  The Pendulum             414

 

13-7  Damped Oscillations             420

 

13-8  Driven Oscillations and Resonance          421

 

        Chapter Summary       423

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    425

 

        Conceptual Questions           425

 

        Conceptual Exercises           426

 

        Problems            427

 

 

14     Waves and Sound                433

 

14-1      Types of Waves          434

 

14-2      Waves on a String       436

 

*14-3          Harmonic Wave Functions           439

 

14-4      Sound Waves              440

 

14-5      Sound Intensity           444

 

14-6      The Doppler Effect               449

 

14-7      Superposition and Interference              455

 

14-8      Standing Waves          458

 

14-9      Beats                 466

 

Chapter Summary       468

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    470

 

        Conceptual Questions           470

 

        Conceptual Exercises           470  

 

        Problems    471  

 

 

15         Fluids          479

 

15-1      Density              480

 

15-2      Pressure            480

 

15-3      Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth        484

 

15-4      Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy               489

 

15-5      Applications of Archimedes’ Principle               491

 

15-6      Fluid Flow and Continuity              496

 

15-7      Bernoulli’s Equation              498

 

15-8      Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation         501

 

*15-9          Viscosity and Surface Tension              504

        Chapter Summary       507

 

        Problem-Solving Summary            509

 

        Conceptual Questions           509  

 

        Conceptual Exercises           510  

 

        Problems            511

 

 PART II  THERMAL PHYSICS

 

16             Temperature and Heat       517

 

16-1      Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics               518

 

16-2      Temperature Scales     519

 

16-3      Thermal Expansion              523

 

16-4      Heat and Mechanical Work            529

 

16-5      Specific Heats             531

 

16-6      Conduction, Convection, and Radiation            534

 

Chapter Summary       542

 

        Problem-Solving Summary            544

 

        Conceptual Questions           544  

 

        Conceptual Exercises           545  

 

        Problems                    546  

 

 

17             Phases and Phase Changes                  551

 

17-1      Ideal Gases                552

 

17-2      Kinetic Theory             558

 

17-3      Solids and Elastic Deformation               563

 

17-4      Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation         568

 

17-5      Latent Heats               574

 

17-6      Phase Changes and Energy Conservation        577

 

Chapter Summary               579

 

        Problem-Solving Summary            581

 

        Conceptual Questions           581

 

        Conceptual Exercises           582

 

        Problems            582

 

 

18             The Laws of Thermodynamics             588

 

18-1      The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics               589

 

18-2      The First Law of Thermodynamics          589

 

18-3      Thermal Processes               594

 

18-4  Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume  599  

 

18-5      The Second Law of Thermodynamics              603

 

18-6      Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle         603

 

18-7      Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps               607

 

18-8      Entropy              611

 

18-9      Order, Disorder, and Entropy        615

 

18-10   The Third Law of Thermodynamics       617

 

Chapter Summary       618

 

        Problem-Solving Summary            620

 

        Conceptual Questions           620

 

        Conceptual Exercises           621

 

        Problems            622

 

 PART III       ELECTROMAGNETISM

 19     Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields            625

 

19-1  Electric Charge            626

 

19-2  Insulators and Conductors     629

 

19-3  Coulomb’s Law            630

 

19-4  The Electric Field         637

 

19-5  Electric Field Lines                       643

 

19-6  Shielding and Charging by Induction       646

 

19-7  Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law        649

 

        Chapter Summary       653

 

        Problem-Solving Summary            654

 

        Conceptual Questions           655

 

        Conceptual Exercises           655

 

        Problems            657

 

 20     Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy  662

 

20-1  Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential    663

 

20-2  Energy Conservation            666

 

20-3  The Electric Potential of Point Charges    669

 

20-4  Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field     673

 

20-5  Capacitors and Dielectrics     677

 

20-6  Electrical Energy Storage      683

 

        Chapter Summary       685

 

        Problem-Solving Summary            687

 

        Conceptual Questions           687

 

        Conceptual Exercises           688

 

        Problems            689

 

 21     Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits        695

 

21-1  Electric Current           696

 

21-2  Resistance and Ohm’s Law            702

 

21-3  Energy and Power in Electric Circuits      705

 

21-4  Resistors in Series and Parallel       708

 

21-5  Kirchoff’s Rules           714

 

21-6  Circuits Containing Capacitors                717

 

21-7  RC Circuits          720

 

*21-8        Anmeters and Voltmeters            723

 

Chapter Summary       724

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    726

 

        Conceptual Questions           727

 

        Conceptual Exercises           727

 

        Problems            729

 

 22     Magnetism                   735

 

21-1  The Magnetic Field               736

 

22-2  The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges  738

 

22-3  The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field          742

 

22-4      The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire    747

 

22-5  Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque    749

 

22-6  Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampère’s Law                751

 

22-7  Current Loops and Solenoids         755

 

22-8  Magnetism in Matter            758

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 23     Magnetic Flux and Faraday’s Law of Induction             771

 

23-1  Induced Electromotive Force         772

 

23-2  Magnetic Flux     773

 

23-3  Faraday’s Law of Induction           775

 

23-4  Lenz’s Law          778

 

23-5  Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy           781

 

23-6  Generators and Motors         784

 

23-7  Inductance         787

23-8  RL Circuits          790

 

23-9  Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field          791

 

23-10        Transformers             793

 

Chapter Summary       796

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    798

 

        Conceptual Questions   798

 

        Conceptual Exercises   799

 

        Problems    800

 

 24     Alternating-Current Circuits                 806

 

24-1  Alternating Voltages and Currents          807

 

24-2  Capacitors in AC Circuits               812

 

24-3  RC Circuits          815

 

24-4  Inductors in AC Circuits        820

 

24-5  RLC Circuits        823

 

24-6  Resonance in Electrical Circuits      827

 

Chapter Summary       832

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    834

 

        Conceptual Questions   834

 

        Conceptual Exercises   864

 

        Problems    835

 

 PART IV LIGHT AND OPTICS   25     Electromagnetic Waves

 

25-1      The Production of Electromagnetic Waves

 

25-2      The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

 

25-3      The Electromagnetic Spectrum

 

25-4      Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves

 

25-5      Polarization

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 26             Geometrical Optics

 

26-1      The Reflection of Light

 

26-2      Forming Images with a Plane Mirror

 

26-3  Spherical Mirrors

 

26-4  Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation

 

26-5      The Refraction of Light

 

26-6      Ray Tracing for Lenses

 

26-7      The Thin-Lens Equation

 

26-8      Dispersion and the Rainbow

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 27             Optical Instruments

 

27-1      The Human Eye and the Camera

 

27-2      Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics

 

27-3      The Magnifying Glass

 

27-4      The Compound Microscope

 

27-5      Telescopes

 

27-6      Lens Aberrations

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 28             Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction

 

28-1      Superposition and Interference

 

28-2      Young’s Two-Slit Experiment

 

28-3      Interference in Reflected Waves

 

28-4      Diffraction

 

28-5      Resolution

 

28-6      Diffraction Gratings

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 PART V  MODERN PHYSICS

 29             Relativity

 

29-1      The Postulates of Special Relativity

 

29-2      The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation

 

29-3      The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction

 

29-4      The Relativistic Addition of Velocities

 

29-5      Relativistic Momentum

 

29-6      Relativistic Energy and E = mc2

 

29-7      The Relativistic Universe

 

29-8      General Relativity

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 30             Quantum Physics

 

30-1      Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis of Quantized Energy

 

30-2      Photons and the Photoelectric Effect

 

30-3      The Mass and Momentum of a Photos

 

30-4      Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect

 

30-5      The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave-Particle Duality

 

30-6      The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

 

30-7      Quantum Tunneling

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 31             Atomic Physics

 

31-1      Early Models of the Atom

 

31-2      The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen

 

31-3      Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

 

31-4      de Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model

 

31-5      The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom

 

31-6      Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table

 

31-7      Atomic Radiation

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 32             Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation

 

32-1      The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei

 

32-2      Radioactivity

 

32-3      Half-Life and Radioactive Dating

 

32-4      Nuclear Binding Energy

 

32-5      Nuclear Fission

 

32-6      Nuclear Fusion

 

32-7      Practical Applications of Nuclear Physics

 

32-8      Elementary Particles

 

32-9      Unified Forces and Cosmology

 

Chapter Summary       760

 

        Problem-Solving Summary    763

 

        Conceptual Questions   763

 

        Conceptual Exercises   763

 

        Problems    765

 

 Appendices

 

Appendix A

Basic Mathematical Tools      A-1

 

Appendix B

Typical Values             A-11

 

Appendix C

Planetary Data            A-12

 

Appendix D

Elements of Electrical Circuits                A-13

 

Appendix E

Periodic Table of the Elements       A-14

 

Appendix F

Properties of Selected Isotopes      A-15

 

Answers to Your Turn Problems     ANS-1

 

Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Questions     ANS-21

 

Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Exercises      ANS-28

 

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems      ANS-35

 

Photo Credits      P-1

 

Index                I-1

Product Details

ISBN:
9780131014169
Author:
Walker, James S
Publisher:
Addison Wesley
Author:
Walker, James S.
Location:
Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Subject:
Physics
Copyright:
Edition Number:
2
Series:
MasteringPhysics Series
Series Volume:
107-561
Publication Date:
20070731
Binding:
Mixed media, eg book and CD-ROM, book and toy etc
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Yes
Pages:
1216
Dimensions:
11.1 x 8.7 x 1.9 in 2812 gr

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