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Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings

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Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Introduction to Philosophy, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Building on the exceptionally successful tradition of previous editions, this edition for the first time incorporates the insights of a new coeditor, John Martin Fischer, and has been updated and revised to make it more accessible. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the text includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, knowledge and reality, the philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, freedom of will, consciousness, ethics, and philosophical puzzles and paradoxes. It presents seventy substantial--and in some cases complete--selections from the best and most influential works in philosophy, offering a unique balance between classical and contemporary material. An extensive glossary of philosophical terms is also included.

The fourth edition features fifteen new readings, including work by Albert Camus, Roderick M. Chisholm, Daniel Dennett, Harry G. Frankfurt, William Paley, Derek Parfit, John Perry, Richard Taylor, Peter Van Inwagen, Bernard Williams, and Susan Wolf. Part III, Knowledge and Reality, has been restructured and now includes Plato's Thaetetus, selections by Edmund L. Gettier and Robert Nozick, and an essay by Christopher Grau that explores the philosophical concepts presented in the popular film The Matrix. Two new ethics puzzles--"The Trolley Problem" and "Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others"--are also included. This edition incorporates Study Questions after each reading and is accompanied by an Instructor's CD and a Student Companion Website, both containing helpful resources.

Synopsis:

Introduction to Philosophy, 3/e is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the third edition of this classic text now includes a general introduction and features eighteen selections new to this volume and an expanded glossary of philosophical terms. A serious and challenging work, it includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, epistemology, philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, freedom of will, consciousness, ethics, and philosophical puzzles. This exceptionally successful anthology presents a large number of substantial--and in some cases complete--selections from major works, offering a unique balance between classical and contemporary readings.

This third edition adds selections by Plato, Nelson Pike, J.L. Mackie, Elizabeth Anderson, David Lewis, Hilary Putnam, Frank Jackson, John Perry, Peter Strawson, Rosalind Hursthouse, G.A. Cohen, Samuel Scheffler, Debra Satz, and Kwame Anthony Appiah as well as Kavka's Toxin Puzzle and Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer.

Table of Contents

*=New to this edition

Preface to the Fourth Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Introduction: On the Study of Philosophy

PART I: PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE

Bertrand Russell, The Value of Philosophy

J. J. C. Smart, The Province of Philosophy

Thomas Nagel, The Absurd

Plato, Apology: Defence of Socrates

* Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus

* Richard Taylor, The Meaning of Human Existence

* Susan Wolf, The Meanings of Lives

PART II: GOD AND EVIL

Introduction

A. Why Believe?

Saint Anselm, The Ontological Argument

Saint Thomas Aquinas, The Existence of God

Blaise Pascal, The Wager

Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Theist

B. The Problem of Evil

David Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

Gottfried Leibniz, God, Evil and the Best of All Possible Worlds

* William Paley, Natural Theology

* John Perry, Dialogue on Good, Evil, and the Existence of God

PART III: KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY

Introduction

* A. Plato and the Concept of Knowledge

* Plato, Thaetetus

* Edmund Gettier, Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?

B. Descartes and the Problems of Skepticism

Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy

* Christopher Grau, Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix

* Robert Nozick, Excerpt from Philosophical Explanations

C. Hume's Problems and Some Solutions

David Hume, Of Scepticism with Regard to the Senses

David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

W. C. Salmon, The Problem of Induction

PART IV: MINDS, BODIES, AND PERSONS

Introduction

A. The Traditional Problem of Mind and Body

Bertrand Russell, The Argument from Analogy for Other Minds

Gilbert Ryle, Descartes's Myth

David M. Armstrong, The Nature of Mind

David Lewis, Mad Pain and Martian Pain

Daniel Dennett, Intentional Systems

Paul M. Churchland, Eliminative Materialism

B. Minds, Brains, and Machines

Hilary Putnam, Turing Machines

A. M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence

John R. Searle, Minds, Brains, and Programs

C. Consciousness

Thomas Nagel, What Is It Like to Be a Bat?

Frank Jackson, What Mary Didn't Know

David Lewis, Knowing What It's Like

D. Personal Identity

John Perry, A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality

* Bernard Williams, The Self and the Future

* Derek Parfit, Personal Identity

* Daniel Dennett, Where Am I?

E. Freedom, Determinism, and Responsibility

* Roderick M. Chisholm, Human Freedom and the Self

* Peter Van Inwagen, The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will

David Hume, Of Liberty and Necessity

Richard Taylor, Freedom and Determinism

* Harry G. Frankfurt, Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility

Harry G. Frankfurt, Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person

PART V: ETHICS AND SOCIETY

Introduction

A. Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham, The Principle of Utility

John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism

E. F. Carritt, Criticisms of Utilitarianism

J. J. C. Smart, Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism

Bernard Williams, Utilitarianism and Integrity

Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality

B. Kantian Ethics

Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

Onora O'Neill, Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems

Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre

C. Aristotelian Ethics

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics

Thomas Nagel, Aristotle on Eudaimonia

Rosalind Hursthouse, Virtue Theory and Abortion

D. Justice and Equality

John Rawls, A Theory of Justice

Robert Nozick, Justice and Entitlement

G. A. Cohen, Where the Action Is: On the Site of Distributive Justice

John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women

Debra Satz, Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor

Kwame Anthony Appiah, Racisms

E. Challenges to Morality

1. Morality and Self-Interest

Plato, The Republic

David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals

David Gauthier, Morality and Advantage

J. L. Mackie, The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution

2. Subjectivism, Relativism, and Skepticism

J. L. Mackie, The Subjectivity of Values

Gilbert Harman, Ethics and Observation

Nicholas L. Sturgeon, Moral Explanations

PART VI: PUZZLES AND PARADOXES

Introduction

A. Zeno's Paradoxes

Achilles and the Tortoise

The Racecourse

The Argument Against Plurality

B. Metaphysical and Epistemological Puzzles and Paradoxes

The Paradox of Identity

The Paradox of the Heap

The Surprise Examination

Goodman's New Riddle of Induction

C. Puzzles of Rational Choice

The Prisoner's Dilemma

Newcomb's Problem

Kavka's Toxin Puzzle

Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer

D. Paradoxes of Logic, Set Theory, and Semantics

The Paradox of the Liar

Other Versions of the Liar

Russell's Paradox

Grelling's Paradox

* E. Puzzles of Ethics

* The Trolley Problem

* Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others

Glossary of Philosophical Terms

Product Details

ISBN:
9780195169249
Subtitle:
Classical and Contemporary Readings
Author:
Perry, John
Editor:
Bratman, Michael
Editor:
Fischer, John Martin
Author:
null, John Martin
Author:
null, Michael
Author:
Bratman, Michael
Author:
Fischer, John Martin
Author:
null, John
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Subject:
General
Subject:
Philosophy
Subject:
General Philosophy
Copyright:
Edition Number:
4
Edition Description:
Fourth
Publication Date:
20060928
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
6 illus.
Pages:
840
Dimensions:
7.3 x 9.2 x 1.4 in 2.763 lb

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Product details 840 pages Oxford University Press, USA - English 9780195169249 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Introduction to Philosophy, 3/e is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the third edition of this classic text now includes a general introduction and features eighteen selections new to this volume and an expanded glossary of philosophical terms. A serious and challenging work, it includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, epistemology, philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, freedom of will, consciousness, ethics, and philosophical puzzles. This exceptionally successful anthology presents a large number of substantial--and in some cases complete--selections from major works, offering a unique balance between classical and contemporary readings.

This third edition adds selections by Plato, Nelson Pike, J.L. Mackie, Elizabeth Anderson, David Lewis, Hilary Putnam, Frank Jackson, John Perry, Peter Strawson, Rosalind Hursthouse, G.A. Cohen, Samuel Scheffler, Debra Satz, and Kwame Anthony Appiah as well as Kavka's Toxin Puzzle and Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer.

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