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Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing: A Brief Guide to Argument

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Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing: A Brief Guide to Argument Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing is a compact but thorough guide to critical thinking and argumentation. Comprising the text portion of the widely adopted Current Issues and Enduring Questions, it draws on the authors dual expertise in effective persuasive writing and rigorous critical thinking. It helps students move from critical thinking to argumentative and researched writing. With comprehensive coverage of classic and contemporary approaches to argument, including Aristotle, Toulmin, and a range of alternative views, it is an extraordinarily versatile text. This affordable guide can stand alone or supplement a larger anthology of readings. Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing has been revised to address current student interests and trends in argument, research, and writing.

About the Author

SYLVAN BARNET, professor of English and former director of writing at Tufts University, is the most prolific and consistently successful college English textbook author of the past 30 years. His several texts on writing and his numerous anthologies for introductory composition and literature courses have remained leaders in their field through many editions.

HUGO BEDAU, professor of philosophy at Tufts University, has served as chair of the philosophy department and chair of the universitys committee on College Writing. An internationally respected expert on the death penalty, and on moral, legal, and political philosophy, he has written or edited a number of books on these topics. He is the author of Thinking and Writing about Philosophy, Second Edition (Bedford/St. Martins, 2002).

Table of Contents

PART I. CRITICAL THINKING AND READING

1. Critical Thinking

Thinking about Drivers Licenses and Photographic Identification

Thinking about Another Issue Concerning Drivers Licenses: Imagination, Analysis, Evaluation

Writing as a Way of Thinking

A CHECKLIST FOR CRITICAL THINKING

A Short Essay Illustrating Critical Thinking

Alan Dershowitz, Why Fear National ID Cards?

Examining Assumptions

A CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS

]Thinking about Wild Horses

]Deanne Stillman, Last Roundup for Wild Horses

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING LETTERS OF RESPONSE

Letters of Response by Herb Kimsey and Tom Burke

]Luke Saginaw (Student Essay), Why Flag-Burning Ought Not to Be Permitted

Five Exercises in Critical Thinking

2. Critical Reading: Getting Started

Active Reading

Previewing

Skimming: Finding the Thesis

Reading with a Pencil: Underlining, Highlighting, Annotating

ÒThis; Therefore, ThatÓ

First, Second, and Third Thoughts

Summarizing and Paraphrasing

]A Note about Paraphrase and Plagiarism

]Last Words (Almost) About Summarizing

Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie

Summarizing Jacoby, Paragraph by Paragraph

A CHECKLIST FOR GETTING STARTED

]Gwen Wilde (Student Essay), Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be Revised

A Casebook for Critical Reading: Should Some Kinds of Speech Be Censored?

Susan Brownmiller, Lets Put Pornography Back in the Closet

Charles R. Lawrence III, On Racist Speech

Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus

]Stanley Fish, Conspiracy Theories

]Letters of Response By Jonah Seligman, Richard Dimatteo, Miriam Cherkes-Julkowski, Joseph Kyle, and Patrick Ward

Jean Kilbourne, ÒOwn This ChildÓ

Exercise: Letter To The Editor

3. Critical Reading: Getting Deeper Into Arguments

Persuasion, Argument, Dispute

Reason Versus Rationalization

Some Procedures in Argument

Definition

Assumptions

Premises and Syllogisms

Deduction

Sound Arguments

Induction

Evidence

Examples

Authoritative Testimony

Statistics

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL EVIDENCE

Nonrational Appeals

Satire

Irony

Sarcasm

Humor

Emotional Appeals

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT

Does All Writing Contain Arguments?

An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writers Strategies

George F. Will, Being Green at Ben and Jerrys

George F. Willss Strategies

Arguments for Analysis

Gloria JimŽnez (Student Essay), Against the Odds, and Against the Common Good

Anna Lisa Raya (Student Essay), Its Hard Enough Being Me

Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority

James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns

]Nadya Labi, Classrooms for Sale

]Nadine Strossen, Everyone is Watching You

]E-Mail Responses to Nadine Strossen

]Sally Satel, Deaths Waiting List

]Letters of Response By Dorothy H. Hayes, Charles B. Fruit, and Michelle Goodwin

]Paul Kane, A Peaceful Call to Arms

]Letters of Response By Julie E. Dinnerstein, Murray Polner, Joan Z. Greiner, and Joshua Zimmerman

4. Visual Rhetoric: Images as Arguments

Some Uses of Images

Appeals to the Eye

Are Some Images Not Fit to Be Shown?

Exercises: Thinking about Images

Reading Advertisements

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING IMAGES (ESPECIALLY ADVERTISEMENTS)

]Writing About a Political Cartoon

]A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING POLITICAL CARTOONS

]Jackson Smith (Student Essay), Pledging Nothing?

Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, Tables, and Pie Charts

A Note on Using Visuals In Your Own Paper

]A CHECKLIST FOR CHARTS AND GRAPHS

Additional Images for Analysis

Nora Ephron, The Boston Photographs

PART II. CRITICAL WRITING

5. Writing an Analysis Of an Argument

Analyzing an Argument

Examining the Authors Thesis

Examining the Authors Purpose

Examining the Authors Methods

Examining the Authors Persona

Summary

]A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING A TEXT

]An Argument, Its Elements, and a Students Analysis of the Argument

]Nicholas D. Kristof, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle

]Betsy Swinton (Student Essay), Tracking Kristof

]An Analysis of the Students Analysis

A CHECKLIST FOR WRITING AN ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT

Arguments for Analysis

Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging

John Irving, Wrestling With Title IX

Peter Singer, Animal Liberation

Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal

6. Developing An Argument of Your Own

Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument

Getting Ideas

The Thesis

]A CHECKLIST FOR A THESIS STATEMENT

Imagining an Audience

The Audience as Collaborator

]A CHECKLIST FOR IMAGINING AN AUDIENCE

The Title

The Opening Paragraphs

Organizing and Revising The Body of the Essay

The Ending

Two Uses of an Outline

Tone and the Writers Persona

We, One, Or I?

Avoiding Sexist Language

A CHECKLIST FOR ATTENDING TO THE NEEDS OF THE AUDIENCE

Peer Review

A PEER REVIEW CHECKLIST FOR A DRAFT OF AN ARGUMENT

A Students Essay, from Rough

Notes to Final Version

Emily Andrews, Why I Dont Spare ÒSpare ChangeÓ

The Essay Analyzed

Exercise

7. Using Sources

Why Use Sources?

Choosing a Topic

Finding Material

Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities

Finding Quality Information on the Web

Finding Articles Using Library Databases

]Locating Books

Evaluating Sources

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING PRINT SOURCES

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Taking Notes

A Note on Plagiarizing, Paraphrasing, and Using Common Knowledge

A CHECKLIST FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM

Compiling an Annotated Bibliography

Writing The Paper

Organizing Your Notes

The First Draft

Later Drafts

Choosing a Tentative Title

The Final Draft

Quoting From Sources

The Use and Abuse of Quotations How to Quote

]A CHECKLIST FOR USING QUOTATIONS RATHER THAN SUMMARIES

Documentation

A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)

MLA Format: Citations Within the Text

MLA Format: the List of Works Cited

APA Format: Citations Within the Text

APA Format: The List of References

A CHECKLIST FOR PAPERS USING SOURCES

An Annotated Student Research Paper In MLA Format

Theresa Washington, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised

An Annotated Student Research Paper In APA Format

Laura Deveau, The Role of Spirituality and Religion In Mental Health

 

PART III. FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT

8. A Philosophers View: The Toulmin Model

The Claim

Grounds

Warrants

Backing

Modal Qualifiers

Rebuttals

A Model Analysis Using The Toulmin Method

A CHECKLIST FOR USING THE TOULMIN METHOD

]Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument

]Michael S. Dukakis and Daniel J. B. Mitchell, Raise Wages, Not Walls

]Thinking With Toulmins Method

9. A Logicians View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies

Deduction

Induction

Observation and Inference

Probability

Mills Methods

Confirmation, Mechanism, and Theory

Fallacies

]Fallacies of Ambiguity

]Fallacies of Presumption

]Fallacies of Relevance

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT FROM A LOGICAL POINT OF VIEW

Max Shulman, Love Is a Fallacy

10. A Moralists View: Ways Of Thinking Ethically

Amoral Reasoning

Immoral Reasoning

Moral Reasoning: A Closer Look

Criteria for Moral Rules

A CHECKLIST FOR MORAL REASONING

Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality

Garrett Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping The Poor

Randy Cohen, Three Letters (To an Ethicist)

11. A Lawyers View: Steps Toward Civic Literacy

Civil and Criminal Cases

Trial and Appeal

Decision and Opinion

Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions

Facts and Law

Balancing Interests

A Word of Caution

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING LEGAL ARGUMENTS

A Casebook on the Law and Society: What Rights Do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Protect?

William J. Brennan Jr. and William H. Rehnquist, Texas V. Johnson

Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey V. T.L.O.

Harry Blackmun and William H. Rehnquist, Roe V. Wade

12. A Psychologists View: Rogerian Argument

Rogerian Argument: An Introduction

Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING ROGERIAN ARGUMENT

]Jane Willy (Student Essay), Is the College Use of American Indian Mascots Racist?

13. A Literary Critics View: Arguing About Literature

Interpreting

Judging (or Evaluating)

Theorizing

A CHECKLIST FOR AN ARGUMENT ABOUT LITERATURE

Examples: Two Students Interpret Robert Frosts "Mending Wall"

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker In Frosts ÒMending WallÓ

Felicia Alonso, The Debate In Robert Frosts "Mending Wall"

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

Thinking About the Effects of Literature

Plato, "The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject"

Thinking About Government Funding for the Arts

14. A Forensic View: Oral Presentation and Debate

Standard Debate Format

The Audience

Delivery

The Talk

A CHECKLIST FOR PREPARING FOR A DEBATE

 

PART IV. A CASEBOOK ON THE STATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL

15. What Is the Ideal Society?

Thomas More, From Utopia

Niccol˜ Machiavelli, From The Prince

Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions

Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas

Index of Authors and Titles

Index of Terms

 
 
] new to this edition

Product Details

ISBN:
9780312459871
Subtitle:
A Brief Guide to Argument
Author:
Barnet, Sylvan
Author:
Badau, Hugo
Author:
Bedau, Hugo
Publisher:
Bedford/St. Martin's
Subject:
Readers
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Sixth Edition
Publication Date:
20070709
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
608
Dimensions:
9.13 x 6.00 in

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