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X Window System Administrator's Guideby Linda Mui
Synopses & Reviews
As X moves out of the hacker's domain and into the "real world," users can't be expected to master all the ins and outs of setting up and administering their own X software. That will increasingly become the domain of system administrators. Even for experienced system administrators, X raises many issues, both because of subtle changes in the standard UNIX way of doing things and because X blurs the boundaries between different platforms. Under X, users can run applications across the network on systems with different resources (including fonts, colors, and screen size). Many of these issues are poorly understood, and the technology for dealing with them is in rapid flux.
This book is the first and only book devoted to the issues of system administration for X and X-based networks, written not just for UNIX system administrators but for anyone faced with the job of administering X (including those running X on stand-alone workstations). The book includes:
Book News Annotation:
Volume 8 of O'Reilly & Associates' excellent series describes the role of systems administration for system administrators with a knowledge of UNIX and some familiarity with system and network administration. Discussion of the user environment and the X Display Manager are followed by a chapter on security (this chapter is a must for all administrators). Discussions of font managers, terminals and color are included. A set of useful appendices describe how to add a host, how to compile public domain software, X on non-UNIX, resources, and error messages.
Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
This book is the first and only book devoted to the issues of system administration for X and X-based networks, written not just for UNIX system administrators but for anyone faced with the job of administering X (including those running X on stand-alone workstations).
As X moves out of the hacker's domain and into the "real world," users can't be expected to master all the ins and outs of setting up and administering their own X software. That will increasingly become the domain of system administrators. Even for experienced system administrators, X raises many issues, both because of subtle changes in the standard UNIX way of doing things and because X blurs the boundaries between different platforms. Under X, users can run applications across the network on systems with different resources (including fonts, colors, and screen size). Many of these issues are poorly understood, and the technology for dealing with them is in rapid flux. This book is the first and only book devoted to the issues of system administration for X and X-based networks, written not just for UNIX system administrators, but for anyone faced with the job of administering X (including those running X on stand-alone workstations).
About the Author
Linda Mui started working for O'Reilly & Associates in 1986. She was first hired as a production assistant, later became an apprentice system administrator, and now is a writer. Her first writing job was for termcap and terminfo, which she co-authored with John Strang and Tim O'Reilly. She also wrote Pick BASIC, on programming applications for Pick systems. In between writing jobs, Linda works on troff macros and tools for the O'Reilly & Associates production staff. Linda was raised in the Bronx, New York and now lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lately she has been trying to improve herself by learning how to swim, play billiards, and accessorize.
Eric Pearce is an author and technical resource for O'Reilly & Associates. In addition to co-authoring this book, he is also responsible for developing CD-ROM companion disks for books produced by O'Reilly & Associates. Eric's interests include promoting public domain software, Internet connectivity, and network services. Before coming to work for O'Reilly & Associates, Eric worked as a systems programmer for Boston University, which he also attended as a student. His favorite activities include bicycling, snowboarding, rock climbing, and dangerous sports.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Preface How to Use this Book Assumptions Related Documents Font Conventions Used in This Book Request for Comments Bulk Sales Information Acknowledgments Chapter 1. An Introduction to X Administration 1.1 The Design of X11 1.1.1 Display Servers 1.1.2 Clients and Resources 1.1.3 Toolkits and GUIs 1.2 X Administration 1.2.1 Installing X 1.2.2 Supporting Users 1.2.3 Maintaining Software 1.2.4 Maintaining Multiple Machines 1.2.5 A Philosophy of X Administration Chapter 2. The X User Environment 2.1 The Configured X Session 2.1.1 The Twilight Zone 2.2 Components of the X Environment 2.2.1 Window Managers 2.2.2 Customizing Clients 184.108.40.206 The -fn Command-line Option 220.127.116.11 The -geometry Command-line Option 18.104.22.168 Specifying Colors 22.214.171.124 Using Resources 2.2.3 The Startup Script 126.96.36.199 The Foreground Process 2.3 The Shell Environment 2.3.1 Setting the DISPLAY Variable 188.8.131.52 Complications with Display Names 2.3.2 Redefining the Search Path 184.108.40.206 Setting the Search Path for OpenWindows Support 220.127.116.11 Setting the Search Path for Mixed Environments 2.3.3 xterm Issues 18.104.22.168 xterm and Terminal Emulation 22.214.171.124 The Resize Client 126.96.36.199 xterm and the Login Shell (C Shell) 2.3.4 Starting Remote Clients 188.8.131.52 Starting a Remote Client with rsh 2.4 Startup Methods 2.4.1 xinit and startx 2.4.2 Differences Between .xinitrc and .xsession 2.5 Related Documentation Chapter 3. The X Display Manager 3.1 xdm Concepts 3.2 xdm Configuration Files 3.3 xdm the Easy Way 3.4 Troubleshooting xdm 3.5 Customizing xdm 3.5.1 The Master Configuration File (xdm-config) 3.5.2 Listing X Servers (the Xservers File) 184.108.40.206 Xservers Syntax 3.5.3 xdm Host Access Control: the Xaccess File (R5 Only) 220.127.116.11 Direct and Broadcast Access 18.104.22.168 Indirect Access and the Chooser 22.214.171.124 Using Macros 126.96.36.199 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Chooser 3.5.4 The Xresources File 188.8.131.52 Configuring the Login Box 184.108.40.206 The xconsole Client 3.5.5 Starting Up Individual X Sessions (the Xsession File) 220.127.116.11 No Home Directory? (R5) 3.5.6 Display Classes 3.6 Testing Your xdm Setup 3.6.1 Resetting the Keyboard 3.6.2 Restarting xdm Using xdm-pid (R4 and Later) 3.6.3 Rereading XDM Configuration Files (R3) 3.7 Permanent Installation of xdm 3.8 Related Documentation Chapter 4. Security 4.1 Host-based Access Control 4.1.1 The /etc/Xn.hosts File 4.1.2 The xhost Client 4.1.3 Problems with Host-based Access Control 4.2 Access Control with MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 4.2.1 Using MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 with xdm 4.2.2 The xauth Program 4.2.3 Using MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE with xinit 4.2.4 xauth vs. xhost 4.3 The XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1 Mechanism (R5) 4.4 The SUN-DES-1 Mechanism (R5) 4.4.1 Public Key Encryption 4.4.2 Prerequisites for Using SUN-DES-1 4.4.3 Using SUN-DES-1 with xdm 4.4.4 Using SUN-DES-1 with xinit 4.4.5 Adding Another User with SUN-DES-1 4.4.6 xterm and SUN-DES-1 4.4.7 Troubleshooting SUN-DES-1 4.5 xterm and Secure Keyboard 4.6 Other Security Issues 4.6.1 The Console xterm (R4 and Earlier) 4.6.2 The Console and xdm (R5) 4.6.3 Hanging the Server Remotely (R3) 4.6.4 Reading the Framebuffer (Sun Workstations) 4.6.5 Removing Files in /tmp 4.6.6 The Network Design 4.7 Related Documentation Chapter 5. Font Management 5.1 Fonts on the X Window System 5.1.1 xlsfonts 5.1.2 xfd 5.1.3 xfontsel 5.1.4 The Font Path 5.1.5 The Font Directory File 5.1.6 The fonts.scale File (R5 only) 5.1.7 Wildcards 5.1.8 Aliases 18.104.22.168 The FILE_NAMES_ALIAS Alias 5.2 All About Fonts 5.2.1 Bitmap Versus Outline Fonts 5.2.2 Font Formats 5.2.3 Format Conversion Tools 5.3 Adding New Fonts 5.3.1 Adding a Single Font 5.3.2 Adding Multiple Fonts 22.214.171.124 Multiple Font Example 5.3.3 Problems with Running Vendor-specific Clients 5.3.4 DECWindows Examples 126.96.36.199 Aliasing 188.8.131.52 DECWindows Conversion 5.3.5 AIXWindows Example 5.3.6 OpenWindows Example 184.108.40.206 Aliasing 220.127.116.11 OpenWindows Conversion 18.104.22.168 Converting from X11/NeWS to PCF or SNF 22.214.171.124 More Conversions 5.4 Providing Fonts Over the Network 5.5 The R5 Font Server 5.5.1 The Configuration File 5.5.2 Installing the Font Server 126.96.36.199 Testing By Hand 188.8.131.52 Changing BSD Boot Files 184.108.40.206 Changing System V Boot Files 220.127.116.11 Changing AIX Boot Files 5.5.3 Font Server Name Syntax 5.5.4 Debugging the Font Server 5.5.5 Font Server Clients 5.5.6 The Font Path and the Font Server 5.5.7 Hostname Aliases 5.5.8 A Font Server Example 5.6 Related Documentation Chapter 6. Color 6.1 Color Specification in Release 4 and Earlier 6.1.1 RGB Color Names 6.1.2 Numeric Color Values 6.1.3 Adding Your Own Color Names (RGB) 6.1.4 Fixing a Corrupted Color Database 6.2 Color Specification in Release 5 (Xcms) 6.2.1 Xcms Color Names 6.2.2 Adding Your Own Color Names in Xcms 6.2.3 Xcms Database Example 6.2.4 Device Profiles 6.3 Related Documentation Chapter 7. X Terminals 7.1 Buying an X Terminal: What's What 7.1.1 Monitors 18.104.22.168 Screen Size 22.214.171.124 Resolution 126.96.36.199 Depth 188.8.131.52 Refresh Rate 7.1.2 Keyboard and Mouse 7.1.3 X Server Software 7.1.4 Special Features 7.1.5 Memory Configuration 7.1.6 Network Interface 7.2 X Terminal Setup 7.3 Network Setup 7.3.1 Getting the IP Address Using RARP 7.3.2 Getting Information Using BOOTP 7.3.3 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) 7.3.4 Setting Up the Network on the X Terminal 7.3.5 Debugging Hints 184.108.40.206 Error Messages 220.127.116.11 Updating the arp Table 18.104.22.168 Name Server Problems 7.4 Fonts on X Terminals 7.4.1 Font Formats 7.4.2 The Font Server (R5) 7.4.3 Choosing TFTP or NFS for Font Access 22.214.171.124 Reading Fonts Using TFTP 126.96.36.199 Reading Fonts Using NFS 7.5 Configuring for the X Display Manager 7.5.1 Configuring the X Terminal for xdm 7.5.2 Configuring an R5 Host 7.5.3 Configuring an R4 Host 7.5.4 Configuring xdm Without XDMCP 7.5.5 Setting Up Server Access Control 7.6 Remote Configuration of X Terminals 7.6.1 Remote Configuration on NCD Terminals 7.6.2 Remote Configuration on Visual Terminals 7.6.3 Remote Configuration on Tektronix Terminals 7.7 Reconfiguring the Host 7.7.1 Increasing the Number of Processes 7.7.2 Increasing the Number of Pseudo-ttys 7.7.3 Increasing the Amount of Swap Space 188.8.131.52 Swapping to a File 184.108.40.206 Swapping to a Disk 7.8 Related Documentation Chapter 8. Building the X Window System 8.1 Installation Issues 8.1.1 Should You Use MIT Source? 8.1.2 Types of Vendor-supplied X Distributions 220.127.116.11 X from Your OS Vendor 18.104.22.168 X from a Third Party 8.1.3 X Source Code from MIT 8.1.4 Complete or Client-only Distribution? 8.1.5 Installing Multiple X Releases 8.2 Source Preparation 8.2.1 Do You Have Enough Disk Space? 8.2.2 Is Your Platform Supported? 8.2.3 Applying OS Patches 8.2.4 Applying X Patches 8.2.5 Creating a Link Tree (Optional) 8.3 Simplest Case Build 8.4 Host Problems 8.4.1 Disk Space 22.214.171.124 Changing the tmp Directory Using TMPDIR (Ultrix and HP-UX) 199 126.96.36.199 Changing the tmp Directory Using -temp (SunOS) 8.4.2 Shared Library Installation (SunOS) 8.4.3 NFS Installation 188.8.131.52 NFS Installation Without Root Access 184.108.40.206 Installation Over the Network (rdist) 8.4.4 Installing the termcap or terminfo Definition for xterm 8.5 Simple Configuration 8.5.1 Configuration Parameters 220.127.116.11 site.def 18.104.22.168 The ProjectRoot Flag 22.214.171.124 The Platform Configuration File (platform.cf) 8.5.2 Configuration Example 1 8.5.3 Configuration Example 2 8.5.4 Configuration Example 3 8.5.5 Configuration Example 4 8.5.6 Configuration Example 5 8.5.7 Other Build Flags 126.96.36.199 Xterm Build Flags 8.6 Building Programs After X Is Installed 8.6.1 xmkmf 8.6.2 Include Files 8.6.3 Libraries 8.7 More About imake 8.7.1 The make Program 8.7.2 The C Preprocessor 8.7.3 Imake Syntax 188.8.131.52 Comments in imake 184.108.40.206 Multi-line Macros (@@) 220.127.116.11 Concatenating Macros 18.104.22.168 Dealing with Tabs 8.7.4 imake Configuration Files 22.214.171.124 A Quick Tour of Files Used by imake 8.7.5 Using imake to Build X11 8.8 Porting Hints 8.8.1 Undefined Symbols or Functions 126.96.36.199 Missing Header Files 188.8.131.52 Missing Function Definitions 8.8.2 Searching for Preprocessor Symbols 8.9 Related Documentation Appendix A. Useful Things to Know A.1 The comp.windows.x Newsgroup A.2 How to ftp a File A.2.1 Getting Files Using ftpmail A.2.2 BITFTP A.3 The xstuff Mail Archive Server A.4 Unpacking Files A.5 Making a Filesystem Available via NFS A.6 How to Add a Host A.6.1 Adding a Host to /etc/hosts A.6.2 Adding a Host Using NIS A.6.3 DNS A.7 Adding an Ethernet Address A.8 Printing Documentation in the MIT X Distribution A.9 Converting a Number Into Hexadecimal and Back A.10 Configuring a Sun as an X terminal A.11 Using More than One Frame Buffer Under SunOS Appendix B. Compiling Public Domain Software B.1 Finding the Sources B.1.1 Using an Archie Server B.1.2 Get the FAQ B.1.3 The Usual Suspects B.2 An Example: xarchie B.2.1 Getting the xarchie Sources B.2.2 Untarring the Sources B.2.3 Editing the Imakefile B.2.4 Compiling the Source B.3 Using Patches B.4 Another Example: xkeycaps B.5 Related Documentation Appendix C. X on Non-UNIX Platforms C.1 X on DOS-based PCs C.1.1 Requirements for PC X Servers C.1.2 Installing and Configuring PC X Servers C.1.3 Problems Particular to PC X Servers C.2 X on Macintosh Computers C.2.1 Macintosh-based X Servers C.2.2 MacTCP and the Communications Toolbox C.3 X on NeXT Computers Appendix D. Resources and Keysym Mappings D.1 Using Resources D.1.1 Resource Definition Syntax D.1.1.1 Loose and Tight Bindings D.1.1.2 The -name Command-line Option D.1.1.3 xterm Versus XTerm D.1.2 Where Resources Are Defined D.1.3 Advantages of xrdb D.1.4 Translation Tables D.2 Defining Keys and Button Presses With xmodmap D.2.1 Using xev to Learn Keysym Mappings D.3 Related Documentation Appendix E. The Components of X Products E.1 MIT X11 Release 5 E.2 OSF/Motif E.3 Sun OpenWindows E.4 DECWindows E.5 AIXWindows E.6 Silicon Graphics E.7 A Guide to X11 Libraries Appendix F. Getting X11 F.1 Where Can I Get X11R5? F.2 Where Can I Get Patches to X11R5? F.3 Where Can I Get X11R4? Appendix G. Error Messages G.1 X Errors G.2 UNIX Errors G.3 Compilation Errors Figures 1-1 An X server with clients from multiple hosts 2-1 A configured X session 2-2 A root menu 2-3 An unconfigured X session 2-4 Starting a new client 2-5 xclock window over xterm window 2-6 Starting the window manager 2-7 xterm window with new font 2-8 A window with a specified geometry 2-9 An xterm window in reverse video, decorated by twm 2-10 vi using only part of a window 2-11 Logging in with xdm 2-12 Starting the X server with xinit 3-1 xdm flow chart 3-2 Default xdm configuration files 3-3 xdm login box 3-4 Default xdm environment 3-5 XDMCP Direct, Indirect, and Broadcast queries 3-6 The chooser 3-7 An example chooser box 3-8 Chooser box with an R4 host 3-9 Adapted xlogin greeting 4-1 Host-based access control 4-2 XDMCP and the access code 4-3 User-based access control 4-4 Propagating the magic cookie between two hosts 5-1 Components of a font name 5-2 xfd 5-3 xfontsel 5-4 Font conversion utilities 5-5 dxcalendar with the wrong fonts 5-6 dxcalendar with aliases 5-7 cm without aliases 5-8 cm with aliases 6-1 Red, green, and blue color guns 6-2 Xcms vs. RGB color specification 6-3 xtici Edit menu 8-1 oclock without the SHAPE extension 8-2 oclock with the SHAPE extension 8-3 Recursive make 8-4 Files processed by imake B-1 Xarchie window B-2 xkeycaps window D-1 xcalc Tables 8-1 cpp Symbols B-1 Archie Servers as of January 3, 1992 E-1 X Distribution Directories E-2 MIT X11R5 Files E-3 Motif Files (Motif 1.1.x) E-4 OpenWindows Files (Sun4, SunOS 4.1.1) E-5 OPEN LOOK Files E-6 DECWindows Files (DecStation, Ultrix 4.2) E-7 AIXWindows files (RS/6000, AIX 3.2) E-8 Graphics X11 files (Indigo, IRIX 4.0) F-1 North America anonymous ftp F-2 Europe/Middle East/Australia anonymous ftp F-3 Japan anonymous ftp F-4 UUCP F-5 Other File Transfer Methods
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