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Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brainby Maryanne Wolf
Synopses & Reviews
The act of reading is a miracle. Every new reader's brain possesses the extraordinary capacity to rearrange itself beyond its original abilities in order to understand written symbols. But how does the brain learn to read? As world-renowned cognitive neuroscientist and scholar of reading Maryanne Wolf explains in this impassioned book, we taught our brain to read only a few thousand years ago, and in the process changed the intellectual evolution of our species.
Wolf tells us that the brain that examined tiny clay tablets in the cuneiform script of the Sumerians is configured differently from the brain that reads alphabets or of one literate in today's technology.
There are critical implications to such an evolving brain. Just as writing reduced the need for memory, the proliferation of information and the particular requirements of digital culture may short-circuit some of written language's unique contributions--with potentially profound consequences for our future.
Turning her attention to the development of the individual reading brain, Wolf draws on her expertise in dyslexia to investigate what happens when the brain finds it difficult to read. Interweaving her vast knowledge of neuroscience, psychology, literature, and linguistics, Wolf takes the reader from the brains of a pre-literate Homer to a literacy-ambivalent Plato, from an infant listening to Goodnight Moon to an expert reader of Proust, and finally to an often misunderstood child with dyslexia whose gifts may be as real as the challenges he or she faces.
As we come to appreciate how the evolution and development of reading have changed the very arrangement of our brain and our intellectual life, webegin to realize with ever greater comprehension that we truly are what we read. Ambitious, provocative, and rich with examples, Proust and the Squid celebrates reading, one of the single most remarkable inventions in history. Once embarked on this magnificent story of the reading brain, you will never again take for granted your ability to absorb the written word.
"Wolf, a professor of child development at Tufts University, integrates psychology and archaeology, linguistics and education, history and neuroscience in a truly path-breaking look at the development of the reading brain-a complicated phenomenon that Wolf seeks to chronicle from both the early history of humanity and the early stages of an individual's development ('unlike its component parts such as vision and speech... reading has no direct genetic program passing it on to future generations'). Along the way, Wolf introduces concepts like 'word poverty,' the situation in which children, by age five, have heard 32 million less words than their counterparts (with chilling long-term effects), and makes time for amusing and affecting anecdotes, like the only child she knew to fake a reading disorder (attempting to get back into his beloved literacy training program). Though it could probably command a book of its own, the sizable third section of the book covers the complex topic of dyslexia, explaining clearly and expertly 'what happens when the brain can't learn to read.' One of those rare books that synthesizes cutting edge, interdisciplinary research with the inviting tone of a curious, erudite friend (think Malcolm Gladwell), Wolf's first book for a general audience is an eye-opening winner, and deserves a wide readership." Publishers Weekly (Starred Review) (Copyright Reed Business Information, Inc.)
"Anyone who reads is bound to wonder, at least occasionally, about how those funny squiggles on a page magically turn into 'Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang' or 'After a while I went out and left the hospital and walked back to the hotel in the rain.' Where did this unlikely skill called reading come from? What happens in our brain when our eyes scan a line of type? Why do some of... Washington Post Book Review (read the entire Washington Post review) us, or some of our children, find it difficult to process the visual information held in words? In 'Proust and the Squid,' Maryanne Wolf, a professor at Tufts University and director of its Center for Reading and Language Research, offers explanations for all these questions, but with an emphasis that is 'more biological and cognitive than cultural-historical.' This means that Wolf focuses on the physiological character of the human brain, which holds at its disposal 'three ingenious design principles: the capacity to make new connections among older structures; the capacity to form areas of exquisitely precise specialization for recognizing patterns in information, and the ability to learn to recruit and connect information from these areas automatically.' These 'design principles' provide the neuronal foundation of reading, and Wolf spends half her book explaining the evolution and minutiae of this 'reading brain.' Nearly all this material makes for very hard slogging, even though 'Proust and the Squid' is confidently described as the author's 'first book for the general public.' (The catchy but utterly uninformative title, by the way, refers to the novelist's impressionistic thoughts about childhood reading and a scientist's use of the squid brain for neurological research.) A work of popularization needs a light clear style, lots of anecdotes and some plot or story line that moves along at a good clip. At times, Wolf makes a stab at including some human-interest element or personal example, but all too soon she reverts to her normal prose, which is austere, technical and, finally, wearisome: 'In a pathbreaking meta-analysis of twenty-five imaging studies of different languages, cognitive scientists from the University of Pittsburgh found three great common regions used differentially across writing systems. In the first, the occipital-temporal area (which includes the hypothesized locus of "neuronal recycling" for literacy), we become proficient visual specialists in whatever script we read. In the second, the frontal region around Broca's area, we become specialists in two different ways — for phonemes in words and for their meanings. In the third, the multifunction region spanning the upper temporal lobes and the lower, adjacent parietal lobes, we recruit additional areas that help to process multiple elements of sounds and meanings, which are particularly important for alphabetic and syllabary systems.' Out of context such prose sounds perfectly dreadful — and in context sadly characteristic of the writing in professional journals, no matter what the field. In fact, everything Wolf says makes sense, the specialized terms she uses have been previously defined, and there are line illustrations on a facing page. Nonetheless, such technical onslaughts are extremely tiring to read, and Wolf seldom lets up on the information-rich barrage for very long. At different points she does quote passages from Proust and George Eliot, but even these two great novelists are hardly what you'd call sprightly, and they merely add their own specific gravity to already forbidding pages. In the second half of the book, Wolf examines the reading difficulties generally subsumed under the term dyslexia. We learn that one of her sons suffers from this disability, that there are various forms and theories about its origin and character, that it can sometimes result in a special talent for fields that emphasize pattern and spatial creativity (such as art, design and engineering) and that 'programs which systematically and explicitly teach young readers phoneme awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence are far more successful in dealing with reading disabilities than other programs.' As this last sentence makes evident, no relief awaits the once-eager reader who by this point has begun to wonder if he could be suffering from a sudden case of adult-onset dyslexia. Despite Wolf's failure to write a truly popular book, she clearly does know her stuff, and those professionally involved with the teaching of reading might be more patient than I. In particular, she addresses the special needs of children raised in cultures where standard English isn't the dominant language, and she speculates, with real concern, about the impact of computer culture on the 'reading brain.' Dyslexia has taught her that humans were never genetically designed to read, and this peculiar technique of sustained mental attention could be reduced, reconfigured or even lost in the rising digital age: 'Will unguided information lead to an illusion of knowledge, and thus curtail the more difficult, time-consuming, critical thought processes that lead to knowledge itself? Will the split-second immediacy of information gained from a search engine and the sheer volume of what is available derail the slower, more deliberative processes that deepen our understanding of complex concepts, of another's inner thought processes, and of our own consciousness?' Wolf never fully answers these questions, though they strike me as the basis for a much needed book. Still, like any parent with a child transfixed by flashing screens, she is troubled by what she observes. She urges that we 'teach our children to be "bitextual" or "multitextual," able to read and analyze texts flexibly in different ways' so that our sons and daughters don't end up as mere 'decoders of information,' distracted from the 'deeper development of their intellectual potential.' Early on in 'Proust and the Squid,' she had noted that infants and toddlers who aren't told stories by their caregivers, who aren't read to from a very early age, nearly always fail to learn to read well themselves. By implication, it may already be too late for many young people: They will never be able to read with the same thoughtfulness and comprehension as their parents. Think about that. Michael Dirda's e-mail address is mdirda(at symbol)gmail.com. " Reviewed by Michael Dirda, Washington Post Book World (Copyright 2006 Washington Post Book World Service/Washington Post Writers Group)
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"Throughout, Wolf's intriguing combination of linguistic history, sociology, psychology, and neuroscience is engaging and clear." Library Journal
"[Maryanne Wolf] displays extraordinary passion and perceptiveness concerning the reading brain, its miraculous achievements and tragic dysfunctions." BookForum
A provocative young scholar gives us the first book on the new science of storytelling: the latest thinking on why we tell stories, what stories reveal about human nature, what makes a story transporting, which plots and themes are universal, and what it means to have a storytelling brainand#8212;what are the implications for how we process information and think about the world?
Humans live in landscapes of make-believe. We spin fantasies. We devour novels, films, and plays. Even sporting events and criminal trials unfold as narratives. Yet the world of story has long remained an undiscovered and unmapped country. Itand#8217;s easy to say that humans are and#8220;wiredand#8221; for story, but why?
In this delightful and original book, Jonathan Gottschall offers the first unified theory of storytelling. He argues that stories help us navigate lifeand#8217;s complex social problemsand#8212;just as flight simulators prepare pilots for difficult situations. Storytelling has evolved, like other behaviors, to ensure our survival.
Drawing on the latest research in neuroscience, psychology, and evolutionary biology, Gottschall tells us what it means to be a storytelling animal. Did you know that the more absorbed you are in a story, the more it changes your behavior? That all children act out the same kinds of stories, whether they grow up in a slum or a suburb? That people who read more fiction are more empathetic?
Of course, our story instinct has a darker side. It makes us vulnerable to conspiracy theories, advertisements, and narratives about ourselves that are more and#8220;truthyand#8221; than true. National myths can also be terribly dangerous: Hitlerand#8217;s ambitions were partly fueled by a story.
But as Gottschall shows in this remarkable book, stories can also change the world for the better. Most successful stories are moraland#8212;they teach us how to live, whether explicitly or implicitly, and bind us together around common values. We know we are master shapers of story. The Storytelling Animal finally reveals how stories shape us.
"Human beings were never born to read," writes Tufts University cognitive neuroscientist and child development expert Maryanne Wolf. Reading is a human invention that reflects how the brain rearranges itself to learn something new. In this ambitious, provocative book, Wolf chronicles the remarkable journey of the reading brain not only over the past five thousand years, since writing began, but also over the course of a single child's life, showing in the process why children with dyslexia have reading difficulties and singular gifts.
Lively, erudite, and rich with examples, Proust and the Squid asserts that the brain that examined the tiny clay tablets of the Sumerians was a very different brain from the one that is immersed in today's technology-driven literacy. The potential transformations in this changed reading brain, Wolf argues, have profound implications for every child and for the intellectual development of our species.
About the Author
Maryanne Wolf is a professor of child development at Tufts University, where she is also the director of the Center for Reading and Language Research. She lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Table of Contents
The Witchery of Storyand#8195;1
The Riddle of Fictionand#8195;21
Hell Is Story-Friendlyand#8195;45
The Mind Is a Storytellerand#8195;87
The Moral of the Storyand#8195;117
Ink People Change the Worldand#8195;139
The Future of Storyand#8195;177
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