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How Languages Are Learned (Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers)

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How Languages Are Learned (Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

This series offers useful references for language teachers, teacher trainers, and trainees. This book presents the main theories of language acquisition, and considers their bearing on language teaching. It also discusses the effects of factors such as intelligence, personality, and age on language learning.

Synopsis:

An introduction to first and second language acquisition. The authors believe that by understanding research and theories on how languages are learned, teachers will be able to judge the merits of teaching methodologies and textbooks, and to make the most of the time they spend with learners.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements


Introduction


1. Learning a first language


Milestones and patterns in development


Early childhood bilingualism


Developmental sequences


Summary


Theoretical approaches to explaining first language learning


Behaviourism: Say what I say


Activity: Analysing children's speech


Innatism: It's all in your mind


The interactionist position: A little help from my friends


Summary


2. Theoretical approaches to explaining second language learning


Activity: Learner problems


Behaviourism


Innatism


Universal Grammar


Krashen's 'monitor model'


Recent psychological theories


Information processing


Connectionism


The interactionist position


Summary


3. Factors affecting second language learning


Activity: Characteristics of the 'good language learner'


Research on learner characteristics


Intelligence


Aptitude


Personality


Motivation and attitudes


Learner preferences


Learner beliefs


Age of acquisition


Activity: Comparing child, adolescent, and adult language learners


Summary


4. Learner language


The concept of learner language


Activity: The Great Toy Robbery


Developmental sequences


Grammatical morphemes


Negation


Questions


Activity: Learners' questions


Activity: More about questions


Relative clauses


Reference to past


Movement through developmental sequences


New ways of looking at first language influence


Summary


5. Observing second language teaching


Comparing instructional and natural settings for language learning


Activity: Natural and instructional settings


Activity: Classroom comparisons: teacher-student interactions


Classroom observation schemes


Activity: Observing the kinds of questions you ask your students


Feedback in the classroom


Activity: Analysing classroom interaction


Summary of transcripts


Activity: Observing how you respond to students' errors


Summary


6. Second language learning in the classroom: Five proposals for classroom teaching


1 Get it right from the beginning


2 Say what you mean and mean what you say


3 Just listen . . . and read


4 Teach what is teachable


5 Get it right in the end


The implications of classroom research for teaching


Summary


7. Popular ideas about language learning: Facts and opinions


1 Languages are learned mainly through imitation


2 Parents usually correct young children when they make grammatical errors


3 People with high IQs are good language learners


4 The most important factor in second language acquisition success is motivation


5 The earlier a second language is introduced in school programs, the greater the likelihood of success


6 Most of the mistakes which second language learners make are due to interference from their first language


7 Teachers should present grammatical rules one at a time


8 Teachers should teach simple structures before complex ones


9 Learners' errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent bad habits


10 Teachers should use materials that expose students only to language structures they have already been taught


11 When learners are allowed to interact freely they learn each others' mistakes


12 Students learn what they are taught



Conclusion


Glossary


Bibliography


Index


Product Details

ISBN:
9780194370004
Author:
Lightbown, Patsy M
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Author:
Spada, Nina
Author:
Lightbown, Patsy M.
Subject:
English as a Second Language
Subject:
English Language Learning (ESL)
Edition Number:
2
Edition Description:
Revised
Series:
Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers Series
Publication Date:
19990401
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
ELT/ESL: intended for use in teaching English as a
Language:
English
Illustrations:
b/w illus.
Pages:
208
Dimensions:
6.400 x 9.600 in 0.781 lb

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Related Subjects

Education » Classroom Resources
Education » Teaching » Reading and Writing
History and Social Science » Anthropology » Linguistics
History and Social Science » Linguistics » General
Languages » ESL » Language Teaching

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Product details 208 pages Oxford University Press - English 9780194370004 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , An introduction to first and second language acquisition. The authors believe that by understanding research and theories on how languages are learned, teachers will be able to judge the merits of teaching methodologies and textbooks, and to make the most of the time they spend with learners.
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