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Original Essays | April 11, 2014

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2 Burnside Reference- Speech and Debate

Everything's an Argument with Readings

by

Everything's an Argument with Readings Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Designed to be a true alternative to traditional argument texts, Everything's an Argument takes a fresh and friendly approach to the subject by showing students that argument is everywhere. Everything's an Argument with Readings complements this approach with a uniquely broad range of examples — from essays to billboards to emails to radio programs — that help students recognize and respond to the arguments all around them. Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszkiewicz's instruction is fresh, elegant, and jargon-free, emphasizing inclusivity (moving beyond simple pro/con positions), humor, and visual argument to make Everything's an Argument immediately accessible. Students like this book because it helps them see and understand that a world of argument already surrounds them; instructors like it because it helps students construct their own arguments about that world.

About the Author

Andrea A. Lunsford is professor of English at Stanford University and also teaches at the Bread Loaf School of English. A past chair of the CCCC, she has won the major publication awards in both the CCCC and MLA. For Bedford/St. Martin's she is the author of The St. Martin's Handbook (2007); EasyWriter (2006); The Everyday Writer (2005); The Presence of Others (2004), with John Ruszkiewicz; and Everything's an Argument (2007), with John Ruszkiewicz.

John J. Ruszkiewicz is professor of rhetoric and composition and director of the division of rhetoric and composition at the University of Texas at Austin. For Bedford/St. Martin's he is the author of The Presence of Others (2004), with Andrea Lunsford; and Everything's an Argument (2007), with Andrea Lunsford.

Keith Walters is professor of linguistics, anthropology, and Middle Eastern studies at the University of Texas at Austin. Much of his research focuses on language and identity in North Africa, especially Tunisia, and the United States. He has also taught freshman composition and English as a second/foreign language.

Table of Contents

Preface

Part 1: Reading Arguments

1. Everything Is an Argument

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Purposes of Argument

        Arguments to Inform

        Arguments to Convince

        Arguments to Explore

        Arguments to Make Decisions

        Arguments to Meditate or Pray

    Occasions for Argument

        Arguments about the Past

        Arguments about the Future

        Arguments about the Present

    Kinds of Argument

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Arguments of Fact — Did Something Happen?

        Arguments of Definition — What Is the Nature of the Thing?

        Arguments of Evaluation — What Is the Quality of the Thing?

        Proposal Arguments — What Actions Should Be Taken?

            STASIS QUESTIONS AT WORK

    Audiences for Arguments

        Considering Contexts

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

    Appealing to Audiences

        Emotional Appeals

        Ethical Appeals

        Logical Appeals

        Arguments and Their Rhetorical Situations

        Respond

2. Arguments from the Heart — Pathos 

    Understanding How Emotional Arguments Work

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Using Emotions to Build Bridges

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

    Using Emotions to Sustain an Argument

    Using Humor

    Using Arguments from the Heart

        Respond

3. Arguments Based on Character — Ethos

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Understanding How Arguments Based on Character Work

    Claiming Authority

    Establishing Credibility

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

    Coming Clean about Motives

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Respond

4. Arguments Based on Facts and Reason — Logos

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Providing Hard Evidence 

        Facts 

        Statistics

        Surveys and Polls

        Testimonies, Narratives, and Interviews 

    Using Reason and Common Sense

        Cultural Assumptions and Values

    Providing Logical Structures for Argument

        Degree

        Analogies

        Precedent

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Respond

5. Thinking Rhetorically

    Composing a Rhetorical Analysis

    Understanding the Purpose of an Argument

    Understanding Who Makes an Argument

    Identifying and Appealing to Audiences

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

    Examining Arguments from the Heart: Pathos

    Examining Arguments Based on Character: Ethos

    Examining Arguments Based on Facts and Reason: Logos

    Examining the Shape and Media of Arguments

            NOT JUST WORDS 

    Looking at Style

    Examining a Rhetorical Analysis

        Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression at Harvard

        Milena Ateya, A Curse and a Blessing

            GUIDE TO WRITING A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS

        Respond

Part 2: Writing Arguments

6. Structuring Arguments

 
            NOT JUST WORDS

    Toulmin Argument

        Making Claims

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Offering Evidence and Good Reasons

        Determining Warrants

        Offering Evidence: Backing

        Using Qualifiers

         Understanding Conditions of Rebuttal

    Outline of a Toulmin Argument

    A Toulmin Analysis

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Alan M. Dershowitz, Testing Speech Codes

    What Toulmin Teaches

    Beyond Toulmin

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Respond

7. Arguments of Fact

    Understanding Arguments of Fact

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Characterizing Factual Arguments

    Developing a Factual Argument

        Identifying an Issue

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Researching Your Hypothesis

        Refining Your Claim

        Deciding Which Evidence to Use

        Presenting Your Evidence

        Considering Design and Visuals 

   Key Features of Factual Arguments

            GUIDE TO WRITING AN ARGUMENT OF FACT 

        Respond 

        Two Sample Factual Arguments

        Michael Osofsky, The Psychological Experience of Security Officers Who Work with Executions

        FactCheck.org, Abortion Distortions: Senators from Both Sides Make False Claims about Roe v. Wade 

8. Arguments of Definition

    Understanding Arguments of Definition

            NOT JUST WORDS 

 

    Kinds of Definition

        Formal Definitions

        Operational Definitions

        Definitions by Example

        Other Issues of Definition

    Developing a Definitional Argument

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Formulating Claims

        Crafting Definitions

        Matching Claims to Definitions 

        Considering Design and Visuals

    Key Features of Definitional Arguments

    GUIDE TO WRITING AN ARGUMENT OF DEFINITION 

        Respond

    Two Sample Definitional Arguments

        Sayoh Mansaray, The Offbeat Allure of Cult Films

        Lynn Peril, Pink Think

9. Evaluations

    Understanding Evaluations

    Criteria of Evaluation

    Characterizing Evaluation

        Quantitative Evaluations

            NOT JUST WORDS

        Qualitative Evaluations

    Developing an Evaluative Argument

        Formulating Criteria

        Making Claims

        Presenting Evidence

 

        Considering Design and Visuals

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

    Key Features of Evaluations

    GUIDE TO WRITING AN EVALUATION

        Respond

    Two Sample Evaluations

   

        Nisey Williams, Why I Hate Britney

        Jon Pareles, The Case against Coldplay

10. Causal Arguments

    Understanding Causal Arguments

    Characterizing Causal Arguments

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Developing Causal Arguments

        Formulating a Claim

        Developing the Argument

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Considering Design and Visuals

     Key Features of Causal Arguments 

    GUIDE TO WRITING A CAUSAL ARGUMENT

        Respond

    Two Sample Causal Arguments

        La Donna Beaty, What Makes a Serial Killer?

        Dana Gioia, Why Literature Matters

11. Proposals 

Understanding and Categorizing Proposals 

Characterizing Proposals 

Developing Proposals 

    Defining a Need or Problem 

    Making a Strong and Clear Claim 

 

    Showing That the Proposal Addresses the Need or Problem 

    Showing That the Proposal Is Feasible

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . . 

    Using Personal Experience 

    Considering Design and Visuals

            NOT JUST WORDS 

    Key Features of Proposals 

    GUIDE TO WRITING A PROPOSAL

       Respond

    Two Sample Proposals

        Manasi Deshpande, A Call to Improve Campus Accessibility for the Mobility Impaired

        P. J. ORourke, Mass Transit Hysteria

Part 3: Style and Presentation in Arguments

12. Style in Arguments

Style and Word Choice 

            NOT JUST WORDS

Sentence Structure and Argument

Punctuation and Argument

Special Effects: Figurative Language and Argument

    Tropes

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

    Other Tropes

    Schemes

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

    Respond

13. Humor in Arguments

    Understanding Humor as Argument

    Characterizing Kinds of Humor

            NOT JUST WORDS

        Satire

        Parody

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

    Developing Humorous Arguments

        Respond

14. Visual Arguments

    The Power of Visual Arguments

    Shaping the Message

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Achieving Visual Literacy

    Analyzing Visual Elements of Arguments

    Using Visuals in Your Own Arguments

        Visual Arguments Based on Character

        Visual Arguments Based on Facts and Reason

        Visual Arguments That Appeal to Emotion

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Respond

15. Presenting Arguments

        Print Presentations

            NOT JUST WORDS

        Oral/Multimedia Presentations

            Oral Arguments and Discussion

        Formal Oral/Multimedia Presentations

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Arguments to Be Heard

        Arguments to Be Remembered

        The Role of Visuals in Oral/Multimedia Arguments

        Some Oral/Multimedia Presentation Strategies

        A Note about Webcasts--Live Presentations over the Web

    Web-Based Presentations

        Web Sites

        Blogs

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Respond

Part 4: Conventions of Argument

16. What Counts as Evidence

        Evidence and the Rhetorical Situation

        Firsthand Evidence and Research

        Observations

        Interviews

        Surveys and Questionnaires

        Experiments Personal Experience

            NOT JUST WORDS 

    Secondhand Evidence and Research

        Library Sources

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Online Sources 

    Using Evidence Effectively

        Considering Audiences

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Building a Critical Mass

IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Arranging Evidence 

        Respond

17. Fallacies of Argument 

    Flashpoints of Emotional Argument

        Scare Tactics

        Either-Or Choices

            NOT JUST WORDS

        Slippery Slope

        Sentimental Appeals

        Bandwagon Appeals

    Flashpoints of Ethical Argument

        Appeals to False Authority

       

        Dogmatism

        Moral Equivalence

        Ad Hominem Arguments

    Flashpoints of Logical Argument

        Hasty Generalization

        Faulty Causality

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

 
        Begging the Question

        Equivocation

        Non Sequitur

        The Straw Man

        Faulty Analogy

        Respond

18. Intellectual Property, Academic Integrity, and Avoiding Plagiarism

    Crediting Sources in Arguments

    Citing Sources and Recognizing Plagiarism 

            NOT JUST WORDS

    Inaccurate or Incomplete Citation of Sources

    Acknowledging Your Use of Sources

    Using Copyrighted Internet Sources

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

    Acknowledging Collaboration

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Respond

19. Evaluating and Using Sources

    Evaluating Sources

        Print Sources

            SOURCE MAP: EVALUATING ARTICLES

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . .

        Electronic Sources

            SOURCE MAP: EVALUATING WEB SOURCES

        Field Research

    Using Sources 

        Signal Words and Introductions

            NOT JUST WORDS

        Quotations

            CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT

        Paraphrases

        Summaries

        Visuals

        Respond

20. Documenting Sources

            IF EVERYTHINGS AN ARGUMENT . . . 

MLA Style 

    In-Text Citations 

    Explanatory and Bibliographic Notes

 
    List of Works Cited 

        Sample First Page for an Essay in MLA Style 

        Sample List of Works Cited for an Essay in MLA Style

            NOT JUST WORDS

APA Style

    In-Text Citations

    Content Notes

    List of References

        Respond

Part 5: Arguments

21. Whos the Fairest of Them All?

P. Byrnes, It Begins [cartoon]

Ellen Goodman, The Culture of Thin Bites Fiji [essay]

Anne E. Becker, Abstract, Discussion, and Conclusion of Television, Disordered Eating, and Young Women in Fiji: Negotiating Body Image and Identity During Rapid Social Change [EXCERPT FROM Research Article]

Jane Stern, Big, Review of Fat Girl: A True Story by Judith Moore [book review]

W. Charisse Goodman, One Picture Is Worth a Thousand Diets [essay]

New York Times, Reshaping America: Popular Cosmetic Procedures, By Sex [Graph]

Rob Walker, Social Lubricant: How A Marketing Campaign Became the Catalyst for a Societal Debate [magazine article]

Meghan Daum, Those Unnerving Ads Using "Real" Women [essay]

Guy Trebay, When Did Skivvies Get Rated NC-17? [newspaper article]

Making a Visual Argument: Three Views on Body Image [photograph + cartoon + poster]

        Toby Old, From Waterlog: The Beach Series

        Mikhaela Blake Reid, Your Yucky Body: A Repair Manual

        Jason Stirman, Crossroads Baptist Church, Reflections: Body Image Seminar

 

22. How Does the Media Stereotype You?

Making a Visual Argument: Artists and Comics Take On Stereotyping [poster + web homepage + poster]

        Geo Vittoratos, Come as Your Favorite Stereotype

        Latino Comedy Project, Will Stereotype for Food

        New York Arab-American Comedy Festival, The Arabs Are Coming!

Tania Ralli, Whos a Looter? In Storms Aftermath, Pictures Kick Up a Different Kind of Tempest [newspaper article]

Chong-suk Han, Gay Asian-American Male Seeks Home [essay]

David Carr, On Covers of Many Magazines, a Full Racial Palette Is Still Rare [newspaper article]

Commercial Closet Association, Mainstream/Business-to-Business Advertising Best Practices [Web text]

Anne-Marie OConnor, Not Only Natalee Is Missing: Is the Media Inattention to Missing Women Who Aren't White Due to Deliberate Racism or Unconscious Bias? [newspaper article]

David Bositis, Skin-Deep: What Polls of Minorities Miss [newspaper article]

William Sea, Advertising Sets Double Standard for the Male Gender [essay]

The Onion, Graphic Artist Carefully Assigns Ethnicities to Anthropomorphic Recyclables [WEB TEXT]

23. Is Sports Just a Proxy for Politics?

Juliet Macur, Rowing Scholarships Available. No Experience Necessary [newspaper article]

Jessica Gavora, Times Up for Title IX Sports [essay]

Ruth Conniff, Title IX: Political Football [essay]

Leslie Heywood, Despite the Positive Rhetoric about Womens Sports, Female Athletes Face a Culture of Sexual Harassment [newspaper article]

Barbara Munson, Common Themes and Questions about the Use of "Indian" Logos [manifesto]

Jim Shore, Play with Our Name [newspaper editorial]

Making a Visual Argument: Editorial Cartoonists Take On the Use of Native American Mascots and Imagery [3 cartoons]

        Lucy A. Ganje, Reality TV

        Lalo Alcaraz, But Im Honoring You, Dude!

        Thom Little Moon, Which One Is the Mascot?

Thad Williamson, Bad as They Wanna Be: Loving the Game Is Harder as Colleges Sell Out Themselves, the Fans, the Athletes [essay]

Tom Sorensen, Dress Code Suitable Only to NBA Suits [Newspaper article]

Larry Stewart, Barkley Fully Supports NBAs New Dress Code [newspaper article]

Bryan Curtis, Cheerleaders: What to Do about Them? [WEB TEXT]

24. Whats It Like to Be Bilingual in the United States?

Tom Meyer, Just 180 Days to Learn Miwok [cartoon]

Janny Scott, Foreign Born in the U.S. at Record High [newspaper article]

Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002 National Survey of Latinos [survey summary]

Rolando Briseño, Bicultural Tablesetting [painting]

Myriam Marquez, Why and When We Speak Spanish in Public [Newspaper editorial]

Sandra Cisneros, From Bien Pretty [SHORT STORY excerpt]

Marjorie Agosín, Always Living in Spanish and English [essay + POEM]

Lan Cao, The Gift of Language [BOOK excerpt]

Andrea Lo, Finding Myself through Language [essay]

Mary Pipher, Language and High School, from The Middle of Everywhere: Helping Refugees Enter the American Community [Book excerpt]

National Institute of Mental Health, En la comunidad latina tenemos una cultura de silencio [poster]

Samuel G. Freedman, It's Latino Parents Speaking Out on Bilingual Education Failures [Newspaper ARTIcle]

Firoozeh Dumas, From Funny in Farsi: A Memoir of Growing Up Iranian in America [Book excerpt]

25. What Does Your Language Say about Your Identity?

Chicago Womens Club, Pledge for Children [Pledge]

Ariel Dorfman, If Only We All Spoke Two Languages [essay]

Chang-rae Lee, Mute in an English-Only World [newspaper article]

Amy Tan, Mother Tongue [essay]

John Rickford, Suite for Ebony and Phonics [essay]

David D. Troutt, Defining Who We Are in Society [essay]

Making a Visual Argument: Public Service Campaigns Use Language to Send a Message [5 posters]

        National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, He Might Dump Me…

        National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, You Smoked Weed…

        National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, Labeled…

        National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, You Scan Me…

        National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, Filed under: Pothead…

Steve Rushin, Hip Unchecked:In Sports and on TV, Sarcasm and Cynicism Are Drowning Out Sincerity and Compassion [magazine article]

Deborah Tannen, From Youre Wearing That? [BOOK EXCERPT]

Making a Visual Argument: Gendering

Product Details

ISBN:
9780312447502
Author:
Lunsford, Andrea A
Publisher:
Bedford/St. Martin's
Author:
Lunsford, Andrea A.
Author:
Walters, Keith
Author:
Ruszkiewicz, John J.
Subject:
Composition & Creative Writing
Subject:
English language
Subject:
College readers
Subject:
Mass Media - General
Subject:
Persuasion (rhetoric)
Subject:
Report writing
Subject:
Media Studies
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Fourth Edition
Publication Date:
20061228
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
Women and Men Speaking in <I>New Yorker</I> Cartoons<B> </B>[5 cartoons] <BR><BR><B></B>&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; Mick Stevens, <I>Talk to Me Alice, I Speak Woman</I> <BR><BR>&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; Leo Cullum, <I>
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
1115
Dimensions:
8.25 x 7.38 in

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