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This title in other editionsCollege Physicsby Bo Lou
Synopses & ReviewsPublisher Comments:This book presents fundamental physics principles in a clear, concise manner. The Sixth Edition adds a focus on biomedical applications of physical principles, while continuing to emphasize conceptual understanding as the basis for mastering a variety of problemsolving tools. Provides a wide range of relevant applications and illustrative examples to help students understand concepts and relate physics principles to everyday life. Topics include mechanics, thermodynamics, oscillations and wave motion, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. For anyone hoping to learn more about the fundamentals of physics and applying principles to a variety of realworld situations, devices, and topics. Table of ContentsPreface XV
1 Measurement and Problem Solving 1 Insight: 1.1 Why Study Physics? 2 1.1 Why and How We Measure 2 1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, and Time 3 Insight: 1.2 What Is Time? 6 1.3 More about the Metric System 7 1.4 Unit Analysis 10 1.5 Unit Conversions 12 Insight: 1.3 Is Unit Conversion Important? 16 1.6 Significant Figures 17 1.7 Problem Solving 20 Chapter Review 24 Exercises 25
2 Kinematics: Description of Motion 32 2.1 Distance and Speed: Scalar Quantities 33 2.2 OneDimensional Displacement and Velocity: Vector Quantities 35 Learn by Drawing: Cartesian Coordinates and OneDimensional Displacement 35 2.3 Acceleration 40 Learn by Drawing: Signs of Velocity and Acceleration 42 2.4 Kinematic Equations (Constant Acceleration) 45 2.5 Free Fall 49 Insight: 2.1 Galileo Galilei and the Leaning Tower of Pisa 51 Chapter Review 56 Exercises 57
3 Motion in Two Dimensions 67 3.1 Components of Motion 68 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction 73 Learn by Drawing: Make a Sketch and Add Them Up 80 3.3 Projectile Motion 81 3.4 Relative Velocity 90 Chapter Review 94 Exercises 95
4 Force and Motion 103 4.1 The Concepts of Force and Net Force 104 4.2 Inertia and Newton’s First Law of Motion 105 4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 106 Insight: 4.1 g’s of Force and Effects on the Human Body 108 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 112 Insight: 4.2 Sailing into the Wind–Tacking 115 4.5 More on Newton’s Laws: FreeBody Diagrams and Translational Equilibrium 116 Learn by Drawing: Forces on an Object on an Inclined Plane and Freebody Diagrams 116 4.6 Friction 121 Chapter Review 130 Exercises 131
5 Work and Energy 140 5.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 141 Learn by Drawing: Work: Area under the Fversusx Curve 142 Learn by Drawing: Determining the Sign of Work 143 5.2 Work Done by a Variable Force 145 5.3 The Work—Energy Theorem: Kinetic Energy 148 5.4 Potential Energy 152 5.5 Conservation of Energy 155 Insight: 5.1 People Power: Using Body Energy 156 Learn by Drawing: Energy Exchanges: A Falling Ball 161 5.6 Power 164 Insight: 5.2 Hybrid Energy Conversion 164 Chapter Review 168 Exercises 169
6 Linear Momentum and Collisions 177 6.1 Linear Momentum 178 6.2 Impulse 182 6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 185 Insight: 6.1 The Automobile Air Bag and Martian Air Bags 186 6.4 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 191 6.5 Center of Mass 198 6.6 Jet Propulsion and Rockets 204 Chapter Review 207 Exercises 207
7 Circular Motion and Gravitation 216 7.1 Angular Measure 217 7.2 Angular Speed and Velocity 219 Learn by Drawing: The SmallAngle Approximation 219 7.3 Uniform Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration 223 Insight: 7.1 The Centrifuge: Separating Blood Components 225 7.4 Angular Acceleration 228 7.5 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 231 Insight: 7.2 Space Exploration: Gravity Assists 238 7.6 Kepler’s Laws and Earth Satellites 238 Insight: 7.3 “Weightlessness”: Effects on the Human Body 245 Chapter Review 247 Exercises 248
8 Rotational Motion and Equilibrium 256 8.1 Rigid Bodies, Translations, and Rotations 257 8.2 Torque, Equilibrium, and Stability 259 8.3 Rotational Dynamics 270 Insight: 8.1 Stability in Action 271 8.4 Rotational Work and Kinetic Energy 277 8.5 Angular Momentum 280 Insight: 8.2 Slide or Roll to a Stop? Antilock Brakes 281 Chapter Review 287 Exercises 288
9 Solids and Fluids 297 9.1 Solids and Elastic Moduli 298 9.2 Fluids: Pressure and Pascal’s Principle 302 Insight: 9.1 Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) 304 Insight: 9.2 An Atmospheric Effect: Possible Earaches 311 Insight: 9.3 Blood Pressure and Its Measurement 312 9.3 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle 313 9.4 Fluid Dynamics and Bernoulli’s Equation 319 *9.5 Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Poiseuille’s Law 324 Insight: 9.4 The Lungs and Baby’s First Breath 325 Chapter Review 329 Exercises 330
10 Temperature and Kinetic Theory 338 10.1 Temperature and Heat 339 10.2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Scales 340 Insight: 10.1 Human Body Temperature 343 10.3 Gas Laws, Absolute Temperature, and the Kelvin Temperature Scale 343 Insight: 10.2 WarmBlooded versus ColdBlooded 344 10.4 Thermal Expansion 350 Learn by Drawing: Thermal Area Expansion 351 10.5 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 354 Insight: 10.3 Physiological Diffusion in Life Processes 357 *10.6 Kinetic Theory, Diatomic Gases, and the Equipartition Theorem 357 Chapter Review 360 Exercises 361
11 Heat 367 11.1 Definition and Units of Heat 368 11.2 Specific Heat and Calorimetry 370 11.3 Phase Changes and Latent Heat 374 Learn by Drawing: From Cold Ice to Hot Steam 377 11.4 Heat Transfer 379 Insight: 11.1 Physiological Regulation of Body Temperature 380 Insight: 11.2 Physics, the Construction Industry, and Energy Conservation 384 Insight: 11.3 The Greenhouse Effect 388 Chapter Review 390 Exercises 391
12 Thermodynamics 397 12.1 Thermodynamic Systems, States, and Processes 398 12.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 399 12.3 Thermodynamic Processes for an Ideal Gas 403 Learn by Drawing: Leaning on Isotherms 409 12.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy 410 Insight: 12.1 Life, Order, and the Second Law 414 12.5 Heat Engines and Thermal Pumps 414 Learn by Drawing: Representing Work in Thermal Cycles 415 Insight: 12.2 Thermodynamics and the Human Body 420 12.6 The Carnot Cycle and Ideal Heat Engines 422 Chapter Review 425 Exercises 426
13 Vibrations and Waves 433 13.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 434 Learn by Drawing: Oscillating in a Parabolic Potential Well 437 13.2 Equations of Motion 439 13.3 Wave Motion 446 13.4 Wave Properties 449 Insight: 13.1 Earthquakes, Seismic Waves, and Seismology 450 13.5 Standing Waves and Resonance 454 Insight: 13.2 Desirable and Undesirable Resonances 458 Chapter Review 459 Exercises 460
14 Sound 467 14.1 Sound Waves 468 Insight: 14.1 Ultrasound in Medicine 470 14.2 The Speed of Sound 471 14.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Intensity Level 474 Insight: 14.2 The Physiology and Physics of the Ear and Hearing 475 14.4 Sound Phenomena 481 14.5 The Doppler Effect 484 Insight: 14.3 Doppler Applications: Blood Cells and Raindrops 490 14.6 Musical Instruments and Sound Characteristics 491 Chapter Review 496 Exercises 498
15 Electric Charge, Forces, and Fields 505 15.1 Electric Charge 506 15.2 Electrostatic Charging 508 15.3 Electric Force 512 15.4 Electric Field 517 Learn by Drawing: Using the Superposition Principle to Determine the Electric Field Direction 518 Learn by Drawing: Sketching Electric Lines of Force 521 Insight: 15.1 Lightning and Lightning Rods 523 Insight: 15.2 Electric Fields in Law Enforcement and Nature: Stun Guns and Electric Fish 524 15.5 Conductors and Electric Fields 526 *15.6 Gauss’s Law for Electric Fields: A Qualitative Approach 528 Chapter Review 529 Exercises 530
16 Electric Potential, Energy, and Capacitance 536 16.1 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential Difference 537 Learn by Drawing: ¢V Is Independent of Reference Point 538 16.2 Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field 543 Learn by Drawing: Graphical Relationship between Electric Field Lines and Equipotentials 547 16.3 Capacitance 549 Insight: 16.1 Electric Potential and Nerve Signal Transmission 552 16.4 Dielectrics 552 16.5 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 557 Chapter Review 561 Exercises 562
17 Electric Current and Resistance 568 17.1 Batteries and Direct Current 569 Learn by Drawing: Sketching Circuits 571 17.2 Current and Drift Velocity 571 17.3 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 573 Insight: 17.1 The “BioGeneration” of High Voltage 575 Insight: 17.2 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) 578 17.4 Electric Power 580 Chapter Review 585 Exercises 586
18 Basic Electric Circuits 591 18.1 Resistances in Series, Parallel, and Series—Parallel Combinations 592 18.2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules 599 Learn by Drawing: Kirchhoff Plots: A Graphical Interpretation of Kirchhoff’s Loop Theorem 602 18.3 RC Circuits 604 18.4 Ammeters and Voltmeters 607 Insight: 18.1 Applications of RC Circuits to Cardiac Medicine 608 18.5 Household Circuits and Electrical Safety 611 Insight: 18.2 Electricity and Personal Safety 614 Chapter Review 615 Exercises 616
19 Magnetism 623 19.1 Magnets, Magnetic Poles, and Magnetic Field Direction 624 19.2 Magnetic Field Strength and Magnetic Force 626 19.3 Applications: Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields 629 19.4 Magnetic Forces on CurrentCarrying Wires 632 19.5 Applications: CurrentCarrying Wires in Magnetic Fields 635 19.6 Electromagnetism: The Source of Magnetic Fields 637 19.7 Magnetic Materials 641 Insight: 19.1 The Magnetic Force in Future Medicine 642 *19.8 Geomagnetism: The Earth’s Magnetic Field 644 Insight: 19.2 Magnetism in Nature 645 Chapter Review 647 Exercises 648
20 Electromagnetic Induction and Waves 656 20.1 Induced emf: Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 657 20.2 Electric Generators and Back emf 663 Insight: 20.1 Electromagnetic Induction at Work: Flashlights and Antiterrorism 664 Insight: 20.2 Electromagnetic Induction at Play: Hobbies and Transportation 666 20.3 Transformers and Power Transmission 668 20.4 Electromagnetic Waves 672 Chapter Review 679 Exercises 679
21 AC Circuits 686 21.1 Resistance in an AC Circuit 687 21.2 Capacitive Reactance 689 21.3 Inductive Reactance 691 21.4 Impedance: RLC Circuits 693 21.5 Circuit Resonance 697 Insight: 21.1 Oscillator Circuits: Broadcasters of Electromagnetic Radiation 699 Chapter Review 700 Exercises 701
22 Reflection and Refraction of Light 705 22.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 706 22.2 Reflection 707 22.3 Refraction 708 Learn by Drawing: Tracing the Reflected Rays 708 Insight: 22.1 A Dark, Rainy Night 709 Insight: 22.2 Negative Index of Refraction and the “Perfect” Lens 715 22.4 Total Internal Reflection and Fiber Optics 717 Insight: 22.3 Fiber Optics: Medical Applications 720 22.5 Dispersion 721 Insight: 22.4 The Rainbow 722 Chapter Review 723 Exercises 724
23 Mirrors and Lenses 729 23.1 Plane Mirrors 730 23.2 Spherical Mirrors 732 Insight: 23.1 It’s All Done with Mirrors 733 Learn by Drawing: A Mirror Ray Diagram (see Example 23.2) 734 23.3 Lenses 740 Learn by Drawing: A Lens Ray Diagram (see Example 23.5) 743 Insight: 23.2 Fresnel Lenses 748 23.4 The Lens Maker’s Equation 750 *23.5 Lens Aberrations 752 Chapter Review 753 Exercises 754
24 Physical Optics: The Wave Nature of Light 760 24.1 Young’s DoubleSlit Experiment 761 24.2 ThinFilm Interference 764 Insight: 24.1 Nonreflecting Lenses 768 24.3 Diffraction 768 24.4 Polarization 775 Learn by Drawing: Three Polarizers (see Integrated Example 24.6.) 778 *24.5 Atmospheric Scattering of Light 782 Insight: 24.2 LCDs and Polarized Light 783 Insight: 24.3 Optical Biopsy 785 Chapter Review 785 Exercises 786
25 Vision and Optical Instruments 792 25.1 The Human Eye 793 Insight: 25.1 Cornea “Orthodontics” and Surgery 797 25.2 Microscopes 799 25.3 Telescopes 803 25.4 Diffraction and Resolution 807 Insight: 25.2 Telescopes Using Nonvisible Radiation 808 *25.5 Color 810 Chapter Review 813Exercises 814
26 Relativity 819 26.1 Classical Relativity and the Michelson—Morley Experiment 820 26.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity and the Relativity of Simultaneity 822 26.3 The Relativity of Length and Time: Time Dilation and Length Contraction 825 26.4 Relativistic Kinetic Energy, Momentum, Total Energy, and Mass—Energy Equivalence 833 26.5 The General Theory of Relativity 837 Insight: 26.1 Relativity in Everyday Living 838 *26.6 Relativistic Velocity Addition 841 Insight: 26.2 Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LIGO 842 Chapter Review 844 Exercises 845
27 Quantum Physics 851 27.1 Quantization: Planck’s Hypothesis 852 27.2 Quanta of Light: Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 854 Learn by Drawing: The Photoelectric Effect and Energy Conservation 856 27.3 Quantum “Particles”: The Compton Effect 858 27.4 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 860 27.5 A Quantum Success: The Laser 866 Insight: 27.1 CD and DVD Systems 869 Insight: 27.2 Lasers in Modern Medicine 870 Chapter Review 871 Exercises 873
28 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Physics 877 28.1 Matter Waves: The de Broglie Hypothesis 878 28.2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation 881 Insight: 28.1 The Electron Microscope 883 Insight: 28.2 The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 884 28.3 Atomic Quantum Numbers and the Periodic Table 885 Insight: 28.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 888 28.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 894 28.5 Particles and Antiparticles 896 Chapter Review 897 Exercises 898
29 The Nucleus 902 29.1 Nuclear Structure and the Nuclear Force 903 29.2 Radioactivity 906 29.3 Decay Rate and HalfLife 911 29.4 Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy 917 29.5 Radiation Detection, Dosage, and Applications 922 Insight: 29.1 Biological and Medical Applications of Radiation 927 Chapter Review 929 Exercises 930
30 Nuclear Reactions and Elementary Particles 935 30.1 Nuclear Reactions 936 30.2 Nuclear Fission 939 30.3 Nuclear Fusion 944 30.4 Beta Decay and the Neutrino 946 30.5 Fundamental Forces and Exchange Particles 948 30.6 Elementary Particles 951 30.7 The Quark Model 953 30.8 Force Unification Theories, the Standard Model, and the Early Universe 954 Chapter Review 956 Exercises 957
APPENDIX I Mathematical Review (with Examples) for College Physics A1 APPENDIX II Kinetic Theory of Gases A5 APPENDIX III Planetary Data A6 APPENDIX IV Alphabetical Listing of the Chemical Elements A7 APPENDIX V Properties of Selected Isotopes A7 Answers to FollowUp Exercises A10 Answers to OddNumbered Exercises A18 Photo Credits P1 Index I1
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