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City of Light the Story of Fiber Opt 4TH Editionby Jeff Hecht
Synopses & Reviews
City of Light tells the story of fiber optics, tracing its transformation from 19th-century parlor trick into the foundation of our global communications network. Written for a broad audience by a journalist who has covered the field for twenty years, the book is a lively account of both the people and the ideas behind this revolutionary technology.
The basic concept underlying fiber optics was first explored in the 1840s when researchers used jets of water to guide light in laboratory demonstrations. The idea caught the public eye decades later when it was used to create stunning illuminated fountains at many of the great Victorian exhibitions. The modern version of fiber optics--using flexible glass fibers to transmit light--was discovered independently five times through the first half of the century, and one of its first key applications was the endoscope, which for the first time allowed physicians to look inside the body without surgery. Endoscopes became practical in 1956 when a college undergraduate discovered how to make solid glass fibers with a glass cladding.
With the invention of the laser, researchers grew interested in optical communications. While Bell Labs and others tried to send laser beams through the atmosphere or hollow light pipes, a small group at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories looked at guiding light by transparent fibers. Led by Charles K. Kao, they proposed the idea of fiber-optic communications and demonstrated that contrary to what many researchers thought glass could be made clear enough to transmit light over great distances. Following these ideas, Corning Glass Works developed the first low-loss glass fibers in 1970.
From this point fiber-optic communications developed rapidly. The first experimental phone links were tested on live telephone traffic in 1977 and within half a dozen years long-distance companies were laying fiber cables for their national backbone systems. In 1988, the first transatlantic fiber-optic cable connected Europe with North America, and now fiber optics are the key element in global communications.
The story continues today as fiber optics spread through the communication grid that connects homes and offices, creating huge information pipelines and replacing copper wires. The book concludes with a look at some of the exciting potential developments of this technology.
This readable account is likely to become the definitive history of fiber optics. Starting from early Victorian times, when fiber optics was viewed simply as a parlor trick, Jeff Hecht gives us the full story, including the characters, discoveries, and fortuitous accidents that made the technology possible. Fiber optics is now the backbone of a multi-billion dollar global communications network which includes the internet, telecommunications, and cable TV, plus laser, military, and medical uses, and this fascinating survey covers the full range of its applications. The book concludes with a realistic took into future possibilities.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Building a City of Light
2. Guiding Light and Luminous Fountains (1841-1890)
3. Fibers of Glass
4. The Quest for Remote Viewing: Television and the Legacy of Sword Swallowers (1895-1940)
5. A Critical Insight: The Birth of the Clad Optical Fiber (1950-1955)
6. 99 Percent Perspiration: The Birth of an Industry (1954-1960)
7. A Vision of the Future: Communicating with Light (1880-1960)
8. The Laser Stimulates the Emission of New Ideas (1960-1969)
9. "The Only Thing Left Is Optical Fibers" (1960-1969)
10. Trying to Sell a Dream (1965-1970)
11. Breakthrough: The Clearest Glass in the World (1966-1972)
12. Recipes for Grains of Salt: The Semiconductor Laser (1962-1977)
13. A Demonstration for the Queen (1970-1975)
14. Three Generations in Five Years (1975-1983)
15. Submarine Cables: Covering the Ocean Floor with Glass (1970-1995)
16. The Last Mile: An Elusive Vision
17. Reflections on the City of Light
Appendix A. Dramatis Personae: Cast of Characters
Appendix B. A Fiber-Optic Chronology
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