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Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice, an

by

Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice, an Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Complete, up-to-date coverage of social welfare programs and policies with special coverage of how history, politics, and the economy shape these programs

This text puts the field of human services into a historical context, provides insights into the social welfare field, and gives concrete examples of how primary intervention strategies are put into daily practice in human service agencies.

It presents the many options offered in the field of human services and discusses the stresses that a human service worker will face in day-to-day work, with practical suggestions for avoiding burnout. The text compares the U.S. social welfare systems to systems in other countries, and uses a strong multicultural and social systems approach that distinguishes it from other texts.

 

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Note: MyHelpingLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyHelpingLab, please visit: www.myhelpinglab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyHelpingLab (at no additional cost). VP: 0205060560

Synopsis:

An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice puts the field of human services into a historical context, provides insights into the overall social welfare field, and gives concrete examples of how primary intervention strategies are put into daily practice in human service agencies. It also provides a well-rounded look at the many options offered in the field of human services and discusses the stresses that a human service worker will face in day-to-day work, with practical suggestions for avoiding burnout

About the Author

Betty Reid Mandell is Professor Emerita at Bridgewater State College, Massachusetts. She is the editor of The Crisis of Caregiving: Social Welfare Policy in the United States, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2010, and is the co-editor of New Politics.

 

 

Barbara Schram graduated from Antioch College and received masters degrees in both sociology and social work from Columbia University and a doctorate from Harvard University with a specialization in education and social policy.

Worked as a  program direction of a large  recreational and cultural organization, planning programs for children and young adults and supervising staff who delivered these services.  Spent several years as the director of a community agency in a low income urban area helping parents become involved in their children’s education and effect changes in the schools that better reflected their cultural background and values.  Spent 26 years at Northeastern University where she originated and then taught in the Human Services Program.  Designed appropriated courses and supervised student internships.  

Has done extension volunteer work with citizen groups involved in interracial and special needs adoptions, improving services for persons with learning disabilities and improving prison education programs.

In addition to this text she has written over 20 articles and a book entitled, Creating the Small Scale Social Program:  From idea to implementation to evaluation.     

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

What Are Human Services? What Do Human Service Workers Do?   

Human Service Networks    

Helpers Have Varied Backgrounds and Job Titles    

Helpers Have Different Agency Affiliations and Orientations    

Finding the Appropriate Human Services Program    

Barriers That Prevent People from Getting Help    

A Paradox    

Choosing Our Work Role    

Our Attributes    

Our Lifestyles    

Our Personal Ideologies    

Agencies in the Local Community    

Interview with Stephanie Lake, Program Coordinator, Drug and Alcohol Education Project    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

Chapter 2

The Changing Nature of the Helping Process    

Society Shapes Helping Behavior   

Helping in Western Culture    

Change as a Cyclical Path    

Blaming the Victim versus Blaming the Social System    

Means-Tested versus Universal Programs    

Programs to Provide Money    

The War on Poverty    

The Welfare Rights Movement    

Culture of Poverty versus Opportunity Theory    

Welfare Reform and Racism    

The War against Women    

Cycles of Helping    

Cycles in Welfare Reform   

Cycles of Treatment of Mental Illness    

Interview with Judi Chamberlin, Mental Patients’ Liberation Front    

Cycles in Juvenile Justice    

Behavior Defined as a Social Problem    

Defining Problems    

The Drug Scare    

How the Media Demonize People    

AIDS    

Welfare    

Preventive Health Care    

The History of Human Service Work   

The COSs and the Settlement House Movement    

Social Work Schools    

Current Trends in Social Work    

The Roots of the Human Service Field    

New Disciplines    

Declassification and Deprofessionalization    

Breaking Down Boundaries    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

Chapter 3

Intervention Strategies    

The Concept of Multicausality    

The Strategies of Intervention Defined    

Interview with Ruth Bork, Administrator, Disabilities Resource Center    

Direct-Service Strategies    

Caregiving    

Case Managing/Counseling    

Teaching/Training/Coaching and Behavior Changing   

Direct-Service and Systems-Change Strategies   

Group Facilitating   

Outreaching    

Mobilizing and Advocating    

Consulting and Assisting a Specialist    

Systems-Change Strategies    

Planning    

Administering    

Collecting and Managing Data    

Evaluating/Researching    

Activities and Tasks Used to Implement Each Strategy    

Gathering Data   

Storing and Sharing Information    

Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems    

Building Relationships    

Designing and Implementing Action Plans    

Monitoring and Evaluating the Work    

Putting Together the Interventions and the Activities    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 4

Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge   

The Professional Helping Relationship   

The Structure of the Professional Helping Relationship    

The Content of the Professional Helping Relationship    

The Pyramid Model   

Attitudes and Values Form the Base of the Pyramid   

Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge: An Overview    

Interview with John Torrente, Outreach Counselor at Sanctuary House, a Shelter for Teenagers    

Attitudes and Values of the Human Service Worker    

Patience    

Empathy    

Self-Awareness    

Capacity to Deal with Ambiguity and Take Risks    

Capacity to Ask for Help and Offer Feedback    

Belief in the Capacity to Change    

Open-Mindedness, Skepticism, and Rejection of Stereotypes   

Humor and a Light Touch    

Skills of the Human Service Worker    

Gathering Data    

Storing and Sharing Information    

Building Relationships    

Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems   

Constructing Action Plans    

Implementing Action Plans   

Monitoring and Evaluating    

Basic Knowledge of the Human Service Worker    

Human Growth and Development    

Abnormal Growth and Development    

Impact of Society and Culture on Behavior    

The Dynamics of Groups and Organizations    

Social and Political Forces That Affect Helping    

Social Problems, Populations, and Resources    

Research and Evaluation    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study   

 

CHAPTER 5

Values and Ethical Dilemmas   

Can Workers Be Completely Unbiased?    

Dilemmas Surrounding the Value of Self-Determination    

Self-Determination and Child Abuse    

Self-Determination When Treatment Is Mandated    

Self-Determination Is Undermined When Clients Are Manipulated    

Some Current Ethical Conflicts    

Conflicts Surrounding AIDS   

Conflicts Surrounding the Right to Die    

Conflicts Surrounding Reproductive Choice    

Conflicting Views on the Nature of Human Nature    

The Belief That People Need to Be Civilized    

The Belief That People Are Basically Rational    

The Belief That People Are Corrupted by Society    

The Belief That People Need to Be Connected to Each Other    

Conflicts Caused by Bureaucratic Demands    

Guidelines for Dealing with Conflicts in a Bureaucracy    

The Client as Our Employer    

Social Class Differences between Workers and Clients    

Conflicts Due to the Variation in National Values in the United States    

Age and Aging    

Sexual Orientation    

Keeping Values Straight in a Time of War    

Finding Your Way through the Maze of Ethical Conflicts    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 6

The Social Welfare System    

Surveying the Current Scene    

Social Welfare Programs and Policies   

Aid to Families with Dependent Children/Temporary Assistance to Needy Families    

Charitable Choice   

The Effects of Welfare Reform    

Social Security    

Supplemental Security Income    

General Assistance    

Food Stamps    

Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children  (WIC)    

School Breakfast and Lunch Programs    

Medical Aid Programs   

Fuel Assistance    

Unemployment Insurance    

Earned Income Tax Credit    

The Child Tax Credit (CTC)    

Child Care Tax Credit (CCTC)    

Personal Social Services    

Interview with Rashaad BenSalem, Red Cross Volunteer Disaster Worker    

Vital-Service Delivery Programs   

Mental Health Services    

Medical Social Work    

Services for the Disabled    

Services to the Military    

Where the Money Comes From    

Private Enterprise and Social Welfare Programs    

Our Vision    

Summary   

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

SECTION TWO

Implementing Human Service Interventions    

 

CHAPTER 7

Poverty   

Defining Poverty    

Raising the Minimum Wage    

The Increase in Poverty   

Interview with Suzanne Dennehy, Hospital Workers’ Union Intern   

Women, Minorities, and the Elderly    

Income Instability    

Children and Poverty   

The Importance of Social Supports    

Homelessness    

Federal Housing Programs   

Scratching the Surface    

Homeless Shelters   

Blaming the Victim    

Resistance    

Changes in the Economy    

Bankruptcy and Foreclosures    

Health Insurance    

Income Inequality    

Governmental Response to Poverty    

Conclusion    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 8

Working with Diversity    

An Overview of the Struggle for Equality    

Understanding Oppression and Privilege    

Impact of Prejudice on Self-Esteem   

Understanding Ethnicity    

The Definition of Culture    

Media Stereotypes    

Interview with Oly Reid and Inez Figueroa, Counselors at a Battered  Women’s Shelter    

Ethnic Identity    

The Power of Names    

Discrimination Hurts Everybody    

Institutional Racism    

Discrimination against Arab Americans    

Anti-Semitism   

Some Paradoxes about Prejudice against Jewish People and Arab/Muslim  People    

Prejudice against Arab/Americans and Muslim/Americans    

Prejudice against People of the Jewish Religion    

Fighting Back against the Rising Tide of Prejudice    

Affirmative Action    

Immigration    

Immigration in the United States    

Some Background to the Current Situation    

Fluctuations in Immigration Policy    

The Current State of Immigration Reform    

Key Elements in the Immigration Debate    

Resistance to Cutbacks in Immigrant Rights    

The Controversy over Bilingual Education in the Schools versus English  Immersion   

Guidelines for Ethnic-Sensitive Human Service Work   

Working with Women    

The Women’s Movement and New Social Services    

Understanding New Theories about Women    

How Feminist Theory Influences Our Practice   

A Gender Analysis of Child Welfare    

Working with Gays and Lesbians    

Working with People with Disabilities    

New Definition of Disability Influences Our Practice    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 9

Interviewing    

Characteristics of an Interview    

Purposeful Communication    

Focus and Structure    

Skill and Awareness    

Awareness of Attitudes and Values    

Core Values of the Interviewer    

Interview with Madeline K. Jacobson, Director of a Bully Project   

Structure of an Interview    

Seeking Concreteness   

Immediacy    

Questions That Help People Talk    

Furthering Responses    

Verbal Following Responses    

Other Ways of Responding   

Self-Disclosure    

Authoritarian Leads and Responses    

Recording    

Recording and Privacy   

Summary   

Discussion Questions    

Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 10

Case Management/Counseling    

All Problems Are Serious Yet Ordinary    

Interview with Carmen Mejia, Family Resource Worker, Coordinated  Approach to Partnership in Parenting (CAPP)    

Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for Youthful Offenders    

Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for the Elderly    

Goals of the Case Manager/Counselor    

Releasing or Changing a Negative Emotional State   

Understanding of Self and Situation   

Making Decisions    

Implementing Decisions   

The Process of Case Management/Counseling    

Getting Prepared for the Client and the Problem    

Reading and Evaluating Referral Materials   

Methods of Collecting Additional Data about a Case    

Building Supportive Relationships   

Negotiating and Refining the Working Contract    

Deciding on Problems and Priorities   

Conducting an Assessment Study for an Agency    

Creating the Action Plan    

Implementing the Action Plan    

Evaluating the Work and Deciding on the Next Step    

Crisis Intervention   

Defining a Crisis    

Helping a Person in Crisis    

9/11: The Human Service Response to the World Trade Center Crisis    

The Human Service Response to Hurricane Katrina, the Worst Natural Disaster in U.S. History   

Case Management/Counseling in the Era of Managed Health Care    

Recent Developments in Health Care Delivery    

The Rise of For-Profit Managed Health Care    

Some Problems with the Expansion of the Health Care Industry    

Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)    

Implications for Human Service Workers    

What Can an Individual Human Service Worker Do to Improve Health Care Delivery?    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 11

Facilitating Groups   

Workers as Group Members    

Group Leadership Roles Have Been Increasing    

Example of a Human Service Worker in a Community Residence    

Establishing and Facilitating a Group: Ten Key Questions    

What Positives and Negatives Should the Group Anticipate?    

What Phases or Cycles Is the Group Likely to Go Through?    

Why Is This Group Needed? What Is Its Central Purpose?    

What Activities Will Help This Group Accomplish Its Purpose?    

Who Should Be Included in the Group?    

What Structure Does This Group Need?    

What Kind of Leadership Does This Group Need?    

What Kind of Environment Will This Group Need?    

What Kind of Interaction Will the Members Have with the Leader and with Each Other?    

In What Ways Can We Keep Evaluating How Well the Group Is Doing?    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 12

Program Planning    

Basic Tools of the Planning Process    

Pencil, and Paper, and a Computer    

Computer, Internet, and Planning Software    

Directories, Schedules, and Other Resource Materials    

Calendar/Memo Book and Clock    

Large Sheets of Newsprint, a Chalkboard, and Markers    

Clearly Focused Questions    

Interview with Raquel Rosenblatt, Program Coordinator, Fenway  Project    

Phases and Steps in the Planning Process    

Phase 1: Troubleshooting    

Phase 2: Magnifying    

Phase 3: Microscoping    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

SECTION THREE

Thriving and Surviving in This Field    

 

CHAPTER 13

Organizing and Changing Systems    

Getting to the Source of the Problem: A Parable    

Stopping Problems at Their Source    

What Can One Worker Do?    

Checking on the Mental Health Quotient (MHQ) of a System    

Attitudes toward Systems-Change Interventions    

Interview with Ed Wong: Staff Worker for Citizen Action for the Environment  (CAFTE)    

Dilemmas of the Change Agent    

Very Often, the Worker Must Choose Sides    

Frequently, Workers Must Choose among Competing Values    

Workers Must Overcome Resistance to Change with No Guarantee of Reward    

Workers Lack Models    

Changes Are Generated from the Top Down and from the Bottom Up    

Guarding Change    

The Targets of Change    

Methods of Organizing and Changing Systems    

Educating to Create Change    

Persuading to Create Change    

Pressuring to Create Change    

Choosing Which Method to Use and Who Should Lead the Struggle    

Learning about the History of the Problem and the System    

Locating the Sources of Power and Potential for Change    

Getting to Know the Resources of the Community    

Planning and Implementing a Change Effort    

Reaching Out to the Public    

Decision Making and Participation    

Changing the Rules, Regulations, and Power Arrangements of a System    

Rewards of Social Change Interventions    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    

Web Resources for Further Study    

 

CHAPTER 14

Understanding Legal Issues   

Legal Issues That Can Confront a Worker    

What Is Wrong with What the Worker Did?    

Variations in the Law   

The Law as Resource    

Street-Level Bureaucracy    

Regulations: Bureaucratic Interpretations of Law    

Learning the Regulations    

The Law as Restriction   

Laws Every Worker Needs to Know    

Confidentiality    

Privileged Communication    

Privacy    

Due Process   

Helping Clients Get Their Legal Rights   

Strategies   

Some Current Legal Issues    

Interview with Donald Boucher, Mental Health Worker   

Right to Adequate Treatment   

Right to Treatment in the Least Restrictive Setting    

Right to Refuse Treatment    

The Importance of Written Plans    

Summary   

Discussion Questions   

Web Resources for Further Study   

 

CHAPTER 15

Staying Current and Avoiding Burnout   

Burnout    

Symptoms of Burnout    

Causes of Burnout   

Psychological Conflicts   

Conflicting Social Values    

Interview with Rick Colbath Hess, Director of MassSERVE    

The Bind of the Double Message    

Increased Bureaucratization    

Low Salaries and Decreased Satisfaction    

Insurance and Government Reimbursement    

Time Pressures    

Lack of Resources Outside the Agency    

Lack of Support from the Agency    

Pressures Exerted by Clients    

Stigma, Discrimination, and Status Ranking    

Dealing with Danger    

Hazards of the Work    

Some Less-Than-Ideal Reactions to Stressful Conditions    

Total Capitulation    

Total Noncapitulation    

Niche Finding   

Becoming a Victim Martyr    

Withdrawal    

Mixed Reactions    

Staying Alive–Positive Adjustments    

Combating Stress    

Problem Solving    

Gaining Power through Knowledge    

Getting Support    

Formal and Informal Groups    

Choosing Your Fights    

Creative Ways of Working    

Varying the Work   

Sharing Ideas    

Setting Limits on Self and Others    

Summary    

Discussion Questions    Web Resources for Further Study

Product Details

ISBN:
9780205838851
Author:
Mandell, Betty Reid
Publisher:
Pearson
Author:
Mandell, Betty R.
Author:
Schram, Barbara
Subject:
Services & Welfare
Subject:
Sociology-Children and Family
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Series:
MyHelpingLab Series
Publication Date:
20110701
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Language:
English
Pages:
640
Dimensions:
9 x 7.3 x 1 in 830 gr

Related Subjects


History and Social Science » Sociology » Children and Family
History and Social Science » Sociology » Social Work
History and Social Science » World History » General
Religion » Comparative Religion » General
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Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice, an New Trade Paper
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"Synopsis" by ,

An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice puts the field of human services into a historical context, provides insights into the overall social welfare field, and gives concrete examples of how primary intervention strategies are put into daily practice in human service agencies. It also provides a well-rounded look at the many options offered in the field of human services and discusses the stresses that a human service worker will face in day-to-day work, with practical suggestions for avoiding burnout

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