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Original Essays | September 15, 2014

Lois Leveen: IMG Forsooth Me Not: Shakespeare, Juliet, Her Nurse, and a Novel



There's this writer, William Shakespeare. Perhaps you've heard of him. He wrote this play, Romeo and Juliet. Maybe you've heard of it as well. It's... Continue »
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    Juliet's Nurse

    Lois Leveen 9781476757445

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Ways of the World, Combined Edition (Volumes 1 & 2): A Global History with Sources

Ways of the World, Combined Edition (Volumes 1 & 2): A Global History with Sources Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources is a docutext combining a brief narrative with written and visual primary source collections, providing the convenience of a text and reader in one volume. Ways of the World is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The brief narrative highlights major developments, giving students and instructors the room to explore the primary sources fully. Students can connect with Strayers distinctive voice and clear, powerful writing. A thoughtful prologue and part-opening essays emphasize the books “big picture” approach, and each chapter narrative ends with “Reflections,” a consideration of history and the human enterprise it explores.

Synopsis:

Ways of the World offers a genuine alternative for world history survey courses. Designed from the beginning as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical developments and is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The accessible voice of a single author, with long experience in the classroom and in the world history movement, delivers to students an insightful new synthesis, thought-provoking questions, and chapter ending sections that invite reflection on the meaning of world history. Available in full color and in combined and split volumes, Ways of the World makes the whole world teachable.

About the Author

Robert W. Strayer (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellors Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

Table of Contents

Preface

Maps

Special Features

Working with Primary Sources

 
Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History

    The History of the Universe

    The History of a Planet

    The History of the Human Species … in a Single Paragraph:

      A Preview

    Why World History?

    Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of

      World History

    Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar

Part One First Things First: Beginnings in History,

  to 500 B.C.E.

The Big Picture Turning Points in Early World History

The Emergence of Humankind  

The Globalization of Humankind  
The Revolution of Farming and Herding  
The Turning Point of Civilization  
A Note on Dates

Landmarks of Early World History, to 500 B.C.E. 

1 First Peoples: Populating the Planet, to 10,000 B.C.E.

Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations 

  Into Eurasia  Into Australia  Into the Americas  Into the Pacific

The Ways We Were 

The First Human Societies  

Economy and the Environment  
The Realm of the Spirit  
Settling Down: “The Great Transition”

Comparing Paleolithic Societies 

  The San of Southern Africa  

  The Chumash of Southern California

Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance?  Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: The Long Road to the Global Presence of Humankind 

Snapshot: The Paleolithic Era in Perspective 

 Documents  Glimpses of Paleolithic Life 

1.1—A Paleolithic Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa,
          The Life and Words of an !Kung Woman, 1969-1976  
1.2—Australian Aboriginal Mythology: Stories from the
          Dreamtime, Twentieth Century

  Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources The Aboriginal Rock Painting of Australia 

  Namondjok, Namarrgon (Lightning Man),

    and Barrginj Nabulwinjbulwinj  
Hunting Scene

  Using the Evidence  

 
2 First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture,
  10,000 B.C.E.-3000 B.C.E. 
The Agricultural Revolution in World History 
Comparing Agricultural Beginnings 

  Common Patterns  Variations

The Globalization of Agriculture 

  Triumph and Resistance  The Culture of Agriculture

Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture 

  Pastoral Societies  Agricultural Village Societies   

  Chiefdoms

Reflections: The Legacies of Agriculture 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Agricultural Breakthroughs 

Snapshot: The History of Maize/Corn

Documents  Agricultural Village Societies 

 2.1—Germanic Peoples of Central Europe: Tacitus, Germania,

            First Century C.E.  
 2.2—Social Organization among the Gikuyu: Jomo Kenyatta,
            Facing Mount Kenya, 1938  
 2.3—Religion in a Caribbean Chiefdom: Bartolomé de las Casas,
           Apologetic History of the Indies, 1566

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  Art and Life in the Early Agrarian Era 

  Çatalhüyük: An Early Map and Landscape Painting  

  Women, Men, and Religion in Çatalhüyük  
  An African Pastoral Community  
  The Mystery of Stonehenge  
  A Sculpture from the Nok Culture

  Using the Evidence 

3 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies,

  3500 B.C.E.-500 B.C.E. 

Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations 

Introducing the First Civilizations 

The Question of Origins An Urban Revolution

The Erosion of Equality 

  Hierarchies of Class Hierarchies of Gender Patriarchy in Practice

The Rise of the State 

Coercion and Consent  

Writing and Accounting 
The Grandeur of Kings

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt 

  Environment and Culture 

  Cities and States 
  Interaction and Exchange

Reflections: “Civilization”: Whats in a Word? 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations 

Snapshot: Key Moments in Mesopotamian History 

Snapshot: Key Moments in Nile Valley Civilizations 

 Documents Life and Afterlife in Mesopotamia and Egypt 

3.1—In Search of Eternal Life: The Epic of Gilgamesh, ca.

          2700 B.C.E.-2500 B.C.E.  
3.2—Law and Justice in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of
          Hammurabi, ca. 1800 B.C.E.  
3.3—The Afterlife of a Pharaoh: A Pyramid Text, 2333 B.C.E.  
3.4—A New Basis for Egyptian Immortality: Book of the Dead,
          ca. 1550 1064 B.C.E.  
3.5—The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca.
           2066-1650 B.C.E.

  Using the Evidence 

 Visual Sources 

Indus Valley Civilization 

Ancient Harappa  

A Seal from the Indus Valley  
Man from Mohenjo Daro  
Dancing Girl

Using the Evidence 

Part Two The Classical Era in World History,

  500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.

The Big Picture After the First Civilizations: What Changed and

  What Didnt

  Continuities in Civilization  

  Changes in Civilization 
  Classical Civilizations 

Landmarks of the Classical Era, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. 

Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization

4 Eurasian Empires, 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 

Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks 

  The Persian Empire  

  The Greeks  
  Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars  
  Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era

Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese 

  Rome: From City-State to Empire  

  China: From Warring States to Empire  
  Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires  
  The Collapse of Empires

Intermittent Empire: The Case of India 

Reflections: Classical Empires and the Twentieth Century 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in Classical Greek History 

Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of the Roman Empire 

Snapshot: Key Moments in Classical Chinese History 

Documents  Political Authority in Classical Civilizations 

4.1—In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles, Funeral Oration,

          431-430 B.C.E.  
4.2—In Praise of the Roman Empire: Aelius Aristides, The Roman
          Oration, 155 C.E.   
4.3—Governing a Chinese Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei,
           Third Century B.C.E.  
4.4—Governing an Indian Empire: Ashoka, The Rock Edicts,
           ca. 268-232 B.C.E.

Using the Evidence 

 Visual Sources 

Qin Shihuangdi and Chinas Eternal Empire 

An Eighteenth-Century Representation of Qin Shihuangdi  

The Terra-Cotta Army of Shihuangdi  
  Terra-Cotta Infantry  
  Terra-Cotta Archer  
A Bronze Horse-Drawn Chariot

 Using the Evidence 

 

5 Eurasian Cultural Traditions, 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 

China and the Search for Order 

  The Legalist Answer  

  The Confucian Answer  
  The Daoist Answer

Cultural Traditions of Classical India  

South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation  

  The Buddhist Challenge  
  Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion

Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East 

  Zoroastrianism  

  Judaism

The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a

 Rational Order 

  The Greek Way of Knowing  

  The Greek Legacy

 Comparing Jesus and the Buddha

  The Lives of the Founders  

  Establishing New Religions  
  Creating Institutions

Reflections: Religion and Historians 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Classical Era 

Snapshot: Reflections on Human Love from Mediterranean

  Civilization 

 Documents  The Good Life in Classical Eurasia 

5.1—Reflections from Confucius: Confucius, The Analects,

          ca. 479-221 B.C.E.  
5.2—Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth
           to Second Century B.C.E.  
5.3—Reflections from Socrates: Plato, Apology, ca. 399 B.C.E.  
5.4—Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70-100 C.E.

  Using the Evidence 226

Visual Sources  Representations of the Buddha 

  Footprints of the Buddha  

  A Classic Indian Buddha  
  A Bodhisattva of Compassion: Kannon of 1,000 Arms  
  The Chinese Maitreya Buddha  
  The Amitabha Buddha

  Using the Evidence 

6 Eurasian Social Hierarchies, 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 

Society and the State in Classical China 

  An Elite of Officials  

  The Landlord Class  
  Peasants  
  Merchants

Class and Caste in India 

  Caste as Varna  

  Caste as Jati  
  The Functions of Caste

Slavery in the Classical Era: The Case of the Roman Empire 

Slavery and Civilization  

The Making of a Slave Society: The Case of Rome  
Resistance and Rebellion

Comparing Patriarchies of the Classical Era 

A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China  

Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta

Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in Classical India  

Snapshot: Comparing Greco-Roman and American Slavery 
Documents  Patriarchy and Womens Voices in the Classical Era 

6.1—A Male View of Chinese Womens Lives: Fu Xuan, How

         Sad It Is to Be a Woman, Third Century C.E.  
6.2—A Chinese Womans Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhau,
         Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.  
6.3—An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters,
         First Century B.C.E.  
6.4—Roman Women in Protest: Livy, History of Rome, Late First
         Century B.C.E. to Early First Century C.E.

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  Pompeii as a Window on the Roman World 

  Terentius Neo and His Wife  

  A Pompeii Banquet  
  Scenes in a Pompeii Tavern  
  A Domestic Shrine  
  Mystery Religions: The Cult of Dionysus

  Using the Evidence

7 Classical Era Variations: Africa and the Americas,

    500 B.C.E.-1200 C.E. 

The African Northeast  

Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization  

Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom

Along the Niger River: Cities without States 

South of the Equator: The World of Bantu Africa 

  Cultural Encounters  Society and Religion

Civilizations of Mesoamerica  

  The Maya: Writing and Warfare  

  Teotihuacán: Americas Greatest City

Civilizations of the Andes 

Chavín: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement   

Moche: A Regional Andean Civilization

North America in the Classical Era: From Chaco to Cahokia 

Pit Houses and Great Houses: The Ancestral Pueblo  

The Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands

Reflections: Deciding Whats Important: Balance in World History 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Continental Population in the Classical Era 

Documents  Axum and the World 

7.1—A Guidebook to the World of Indian Ocean Commerce:

         The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, First Century C.E.  
7.2—The Making of an Axumite Empire: Inscription on a Stone
         Throne, Second or Third Century C.E.  
7.3—The Coming of Christianity to Axum: Rufinus, On the
         Evangelization of Abyssinia, Late Fourth Century C.E.  
7.4—A Byzantine View of an Axumite Monarch: Julian, Report to the
         Byzantine Emperor on Axum, 530-531  
7.5—Axum and the Gold Trade: Cosmas, The Christian Topography,
         Sixth Century C.E.

 Using the Evidence 

 Visual Sources  Art and the Maya Elite 

Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok: A Royal Couple of Yaxchilan  

The Presentation of Captives  
Bloodletting Ritual  
The Ball Game  
An Embracing Couple

  Using the Evidence 

Part Three An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500-1500 

 The Big Picture Defining a Millennium 

  Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old,

    Something Blended  
  The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the
    Postclassical Era

Landmarks in the Era of Accelerating Connections, 500 to 1500 

8 Commerce and Culture, 500-1500

Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia  

  The Growth of the Silk Roads   

  Goods in Transit  
  Cultures in Transit  
  Disease in Transit

Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean 

  Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World  

  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia
    and Srivijaya  
  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa
    and Swahili Civilization

  Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara 

  Commercial Beginnings in West Africa  
  Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa

An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the

 Western Hemisphere 

 Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern 

Second Thoughts 

  Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads 

Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin 

 Documents  Travelers Tales and Observations 

8.1—A Chinese Buddhist in India: Huili, A Biography of the

         Tripitaka Master and Xuanzang, Record of the Western
         Region, Seventh Century C.E.  
8.2—A European Christian in China: Marco Polo, The Travels of
         Marco Polo, 1299  
8.3—An Arab Muslim in West Africa: Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia
         and Africa, 1354

  Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  Art, Religion, and Cultural Exchange in Central Asia 

  Greek Culture, Buddhism, and the Kushans  

  Buddhist Monks on the Silk Road  
  Manichaean Scribes  
  The Mongols in China  
   Islam, Shamanism, and the Turks

  Using the Evidence 

9 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500-1300 

The Reemergence of a Unified China  

  A “Golden Age” of Chinese Achievement  

  Women in the Song Dynasty

 China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order

  in the Making 

  The Tribute System in Theory   

  The Tribute System in Practice  
  Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier

Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan 

  Korea and China  

  Vietnam and China  
  Japan and China

China and the Eurasian World Economy 

  Spillovers: Chinas Impact on Eurasia  

  On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary

China and Buddhism 

  Making Buddhism Chinese  

  Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism

Reflections: Why Do Things Change? 

Second Thoughts 

  Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

   Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Postclassical China 

Documents  The Making of Japanese Civilization 

9.1—Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku, The Seventeen Article

         Constitution, 604  
9.2—Buddhism in Japan: The Zen Tradition: Dogen, Writings on
         Zen Buddhism, Thirteenth Century  
9.3—The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa, The Chronicle
         of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339  
9.4—Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, ca. 1000  
9.5—The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yosimasa, Advice to Young
         Samurai, ca. 1400, and Imagawa Ryoshun,
         The Imagawa Letter, 1412

Using the Evidence 

Images  The Leisure Life of Chinas Elites 

 A Banquet with the Emperor  At Table with the Empress  A Literary

  Gathering  Solitary Reflection  An Elite Night Party

 Using the Evidence 

10 The Worlds of European Christendom: Connected and

      Divided, 500-1300 

Eastern Christendom: Building on the Roman Past 

  The Byzantine State  

  The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence  
  Byzantium and the World  The Conversion of Russia

Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse  

  Political Life in Western Europe, 500-1000  

  Society and the Church, 500-1000  
  Accelerating Change in the West, 1000-1300  
  Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition

The West in Comparative Perspective 

  Catching Up  

  Pluralism in Politics  
  Reason and Faith

Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise

 in the Worlds of Christendom 

Second Thoughts 

  Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in Byzantine History 

Snapshot: Key Moments in the Evolution of Western

 Civilization 

Documents  The Making of Christian Europe . . . and a

 Chinese Counterpoint 

10.1—The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the

           Franks, late sixth century  
10.2—Advice on Dealing with “Pagans”: Pope Gregory, Advice
           to the English Church, 601  
10.3—Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne, Capitulary
           on Saxony, 785

 10.4 and 10.5—The Persistence of Tradition: Willibald, Life of

                           Boniface, ca 760 C.E., and The
                           Leechbook, tenth century 
10.6—The Jesus Sutras in China: The Jesus Sutras, 635-1005

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  Reading Byzantine Icons

 Christ Pantokrator  The Nativity  Ladder of Divine Ascent

 Using the Evidence 

11 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600-1500 

 The Birth of a New Religion 

  The Homeland of Islam 

  The Messenger and the Message  
  The Transformation of Arabia

The Making of an Arab Empire 

  War and Conquest  

  Conversion to Islam  
  Divisions and Controversies  
  Women and Men in Early Islam

Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison 

  The Case of India  

  The Case of Anatolia  
  The Case of West Africa  
  The Case of Spain

The World of Islam as a New Civilization 

  Networks of Faith  

  Networks of Exchange

 Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History 

Second Thoughts 

  Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in the Early History of Islam 

Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship 

Documents  Voices of Islam 

11.1—The Voice of Allah: The Quran, seventh century  

11.2—The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadith, eighth
           and ninth centuries 
11.3—The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, ninth century   
11.4—The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumis Tomb, thirteenth
           century; Rumi, Poem, thirteenth century; and Rumi, “Drowned
           in God,” Mathnawi, thirteenth century

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Cources  Islamic Civilization in Persian Miniature Paintings

 An Arab Camp Scene  City Life in Islamic Persia  The Night Journey

  of Muhammad

 Using the Evidence 

12 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol

     Moment, 1200-1500

Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of

 Pastoral Nomads 

  The World of Pastoral Societies  

  The Xiongnu: An Early Nomadic Empire  
  The Arabs and the Turks  
  The Masai of East Africa

Breakout: The Mongol Empire 

  From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire  

  Explaining the Mongol Moment

Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases 

  China and the Mongols  

  Persia and the Mongols  
  Russia and the Mongols

The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network 

  Toward a World Economy  

  Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale  
  Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm  
  The Plague: A Eurasian Pandemic

Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples 

Second Thoughts 

  Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

   Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies 

Snapshot: Key Moments in Mongol History 

Documents  Perspectives on the Mongols 

12.1—Mongol History from a Mongol Source: The Secret History

           of the Mongols, ca. 1240  
12.2—A Letter from Chinggis Khan: Chinggis Khan, Letter to
           Changchun, 1219  
12.3—A Russian View of the Mongols: The Chronicle of
           Novgorod, 1238  
12.4—Chinese Perceptions of the Mongols: Epitaph for the
           Honorable Menggu, 1274  
12.5—Mongol Women through European Eyes: William of Rubruck,
           Journey to the Land of the Mongols, ca. 1255

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  The Black Death and Religion in Western Europe  

 The Flagellants  

 Burying the Dead  
 A Culture of Death  
 In the Face of Catastrophe—Questioning or Affirming the Faith

 Using the Evidence 

13 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century 

The Shapes of Human Communities 

Paleolithic Persistence  

Agricultural Village Societies   
Herding Peoples

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe 

  Ming Dynasty China    

  European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal    
  European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

 Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World 

  In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires    

  On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas 

  The Aztec Empire  

  The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection 

A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern

  Era, 1500-2000 

 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History 

Second Thoughts 

  Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the 

 Fifteenth Century 

Snapshot: Key Moments in European Maritime Voyaging 

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000-2000  

 Documents  The Aztecs and the Incas through Spanish Eyes 

13.1—Diego Duran on the Aztecs: King Moctezuma I, Laws,

           Ordinances and Regulations, ca. 1450, and Diego Duran,
           Book of the Gods and Rites, 1574-76  
13.2— Pedro de Cieza de Léon on the Incas: Pedro de Cieza de
            Léon, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550

Using the Evidence 

Visual Sourcws  Sacred Places in the World of the Fifteenth Century 

  Visual Source 13.1—The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest at the

                                   Temple of Heaven, Beijing, China

  Visual Source 13.2— Kinkakuji: A Buddhist Temple in Japan

  Visual Source 13.3— The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

  Visual Source 13.4— The Church of St. George, Lalibela, Ethiopia

Using the Evidence 

Part Four The Early Modern World, 1450-1750 

The Big Picture Debating the Character of an Era 

  An Early Modern Era?  A Late Agrarian Era?

Landmarks of the Early Modern Era, 1450-1750  

14 Empires and Encounters, 1450-1750 

European Empires in the Americas 

  The European Advantage  The Great Dying  The

    Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas 

In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas  Colonies of Sugar  

Settler Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire 

  Experiencing the Russian Empire  Russians and Empire

Asian Empires  

  Making China an Empire  

  Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire   
  Muslims, Christians, and the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: Countering Eurocentrism . . . or Reflecting It?  

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in

 Latin America 

Documents  State Building in the Early Modern Era  

14.1—The “Self-Portrait” of a Chinese Emperor: The Emperor

           Kangxi, Reflections, 1671-1722  
14.2—The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs,
           1605-1627  
14.3—An Outsiders View of Suleiman I: Ogier Ghiselin de
           Busbecq, The Turkish Letters, 1555-1562  
14.4 and 14.5—French State-Building and Louis XIV: Louis XIV,
                          Memoirs, 1670, and Jean-Baptiste Colbert,
                          Instructions for Intendants, 1680

Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  The Conquest of Mexico Through Aztec Eyes 

 Disaster Foretold  Moctezuma and Cortés  

 The Massacre of the Nobles  
 The Spanish Retreat from Tenochtitlan  
  Smallpox: Disease and Defeat

 Using the Evidence 

15 Global Commerce, 1450-1750 

Europeans and Asian Commerce 

A Portuguese Empire of Commerce  

Spain and the Philippines  
The East India Companies 
Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce 

The “World Hunt”: Fur in Global Commerce 

Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade 

The Slave Trade in Context  

The Slave Trade in Practice  
Comparing Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in the European Encounter with Asia 

Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers 

Documents  Voices from the Slave Trade 

15.1—The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting

           Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789  
15.2—The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips, A Journal
           of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694  
15.3—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso
           I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526  
15.4—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu,
           Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

  Using the Evidence 

Images  Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World 

 Tea and Porcelain in Europe   A Chocolate Party in Spain  An

  Ottoman Coffeehouse  
  Clothing and Status in Colonial Mexico   
  Procession and Display in the Kingdom of Dahomey

  Using the Evidence 

16 Religion and Science, 1450-1750 

The Globalization of Christianity 

Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation  

Christianity Outward Bound  
Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America   
An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions 

Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World  

China: New Directions in an Old Tradition  
India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science 

  The Question of Origins: Why Europe?  

  Science as Cultural Revolution  
  Science and Enlightenment  
  Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century  
  European Science beyond the West

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the

 Sixteenth Century 

Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the

 Scientific Revolution 

Documents  Cultural Change in the Early Modern World 

16.1—Luthers Protest: Martin Luther, Table Talk,

           early sixteenth century   
16.2—Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch
           of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793-1794  
16.3—Debating Confucianism: Wang Yangming, Conversations,
           early sixteenth century   
16.4—The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab,
           History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803  
16.5—The Poetry of Kabîr: Kabîr, Poetry, ca. late fifteenth century

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  Global Christianity in the Early Modern Era 

 Pieter Seanredam, Interior of a Dutch Reformed Church  

Catholic Baroque: Interior of Pilgrimage Church, Mariazell, Austria  
Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity  
Making Christianity Chinese  
Christian Art at the Mughal Court

 Using the Evidence 

 
Part Five The European Moment In World History, 1750-1914

The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism 

Eurocentric Geography and History  Countering Eurocentrism

Landmarks of the European Moment in World History, 1750-1914 

17 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes, 1750-1914

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions 

The North American Revolution, 1775-1787   

The French Revolution, 1789-1815  
The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804  
Spanish American Revolutions, 1810-1825

Echoes of Revolution 

  The Abolition of Slavery  

  Nations and Nationalism   
  Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Atlantic Revolutions 

Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism 

 Documents  Claiming Rights  

17.1—The French Revolution and the “Rights of Man”: The

           Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789  
17.2—The Rights of Women: Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication
           of the Rights of Woman, 1792  
17.3—Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar, The
           Jamaica Letter, 1815  
17.4—Rights and Slavery: Frederick Douglass, What to the Slave
           Is the Fourth of July?, 1852  
17.5—Rights in the Colonial World: Raden Adjeng Kartini,
           Letter to a Friend, 1899

  Using the Evidence

 Visual Sources  Representing the French Revolution 

 The Early Years of the French Revolution: “The Joyous Accord”  

 A Reversal of Roles: The Three Estates of the Old Regime  
 Revolution and Religion: “Patience, Monsignor, your turn will come.”  
 An English Response to Revolution: “Hell Broke Loose or, the Murder of Louis”  
 Revolution, War, and Resistance: A German View of Napoleon

 Using the Evidence 

18 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750-1914 

Explaining the Industrial Revolution 

  Why Europe?   

  Why Britain?

The First Industrial Society 

  The British Aristocracy  

  The Middle Classes  
  The Laboring Classes  
  Social Protest

Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United

 States and Russia 

The United States: Industrialization without Socialism  

Russia: Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution in Latin America in the Nineteenth Century 

  After Independence in Latin America   

  Facing the World Economy  Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution 

Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide 

Documents  Varieties of European Marxism  

18.1—Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich

           Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848  
18.2—Socialism without Revolution: Eduard Bernstein, Evolutionary
           Socialism, 1899  
18.3—Socialism and Women: Clara Zetkin, The German Socialist
           Womens Movement, 1909  
18.4—Socialism in Song: Eugene Pottier, The Internationale, 1871  
18.5—Lenin and Russian Socialism: V.I. Lenin, What Is To
           Be Done?, 1902

 Using the Evidence 

Visua Sources  Art and the Industrial Revolution 

The Machinery Department of the Crystal Palace  

The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era  
Outside the Factory: Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan  
Inside the Factory: Lewis W. Hine, Child Labor, 1912  
Philip James de Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night  
John Leech, Capital and Labour

Using the Evidence 

19 Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the

 Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800-1914 

The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire 

  New Motives, New Means  New Perceptions of the “Other” 

Reversal of Fortune: Chinas Century of Crisis 

The Crisis Within  

Western Pressures  
The Failure of Conservative Modernization

 The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century 

“The Sick Man of Europe”  

Reform and Its Opponents  
Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power 

The Tokugawa Background  

American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration  
Modernization Japanese Style  
Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835-1836 

Snapshot: Key Moments in the Rise of Japan in the

 Nineteenth Century and Beyond 

Documents  Voices from the Opium War 

19.1—A Chinese Response to Lord Macartney: Emperor Qianlong,

           Message to King George III, 1793  
19.2 and 19.3—Debating the Opium Problem: Xu Naiji, An
                         Argument for Legalization, 1836, and Yuan Yulin,
                         An Argument for Suppression, 1836  
19.4—A Moral Appeal to Queen Victoria: Commissioner Lin Zexu,
           Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839   
19.5—War and Defeat: The Treaty of Nanjing, 1842

 Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  Changing Japanese Perceptions of the West 

  The Black Ships  

  Depicting the Americans  
  Women and Westernization  
  Kobayashi Kiyochikas Critique of Wholesale Westernization   
  Japan, China, and Europe: A Reversal of Roles

 Using the Evidence 

20 Colonial Encounters, 1750-1914 

A Second Wave of European Conquests 

Under European Rule  

  Cooperation and Rebellion  

  Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies 

Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State  

Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market  
Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans   
Women and the Colonial Economy: An African Case Study  
Assessing Colonial Development

 Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the

  Colonial Era  

  Education  Religion  “Race” and “Tribe”

Reflections: Who Makes History? 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire,

 1846-1940 

 Documents  Indian Responses to Empire 

20.1—The Wonders of British Calcutta: Nawab Muhabbat Khan,

           On Calcutta, late eighteenth century  
20.2—Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy, Letter to
           Lord Amherst, 1823  
20.3—The Indian Rebellion: Bahadur Shah, The Azamgarh
           Proclamation, 1857  
20.4—The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai
           Naoroji, Speech to a London Audience, 1871   
20.5—Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian
           Home Rule, 1908

Using the Evidence 

Visual Sources  The Scramble for Africa 

Prelude to the Scramble  

Conquest and Competition  
From the Cape to Cairo  
A French Critique of the Boer War  
The Ethiopian Exception

Using the Evidence

Part Six The Most Recent Century, 1914-2010

The Big Picture The Twentieth Century: A New Period in

 World History? 

  Old and New in the Twentieth Century  Three Regions—

   One World

Landmarks of the Most Recent Century, 1914-2010 

21 The Collapse and Recovery of Europe, 1914-1970s

The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914-1918

 An Accident Waiting to Happen  

 Legacies of the Great War

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression 

 Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan 

  The Fascist Alternative in Europe  

  Hitler and the Nazis   
  Japanese Authoritarianism

A Second World War 

The Road to War in Asia  

The Road to War in Europe  
World War II: The Outcomes of Global Conflict

The Recovery of Europe 

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression 

Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of World War II  

 Documents  Ideologies of the Axis Powers 

21.1—Mussolini on Fascism: Benito Mussolini, The Political and

           Social Doctrine of Fascism, 1933  
21.2—Hitler on Nazism: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle),
           1925-1926  Document
21.3—The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity
           of Japan, 1937

  Using the Evidence 

 Images  Propaganda and Critique in World War I

Women and the War  

Defining the Enemy  
War and the Colonies  
The Battlefield   
The Aftermath of War

Using the Evidence 

 

22 The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917-Present 

Global Communism 

Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism 

Russia: Revolution in a Single Year  

China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle

Building Socialism in Two Countries  

Communist Feminism   

Socialism in the Countryside  
Communism and Industrial Development  
The Search for Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War 

Military Conflict and the Cold War  

Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry  
The United States: Superpower of the West, 1945-1975     
The Communist World, 1950s-1970s

Comparing Paths to the End of Communism 

 China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party  

 The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949-1976 

 Documents  Experiencing Stalinism 

22.1—Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin, The Results of the First

           Five-Year Plan, 1933  
22.2—Living through Collectivization: Maurice Hindus,
           Red Bread, 1931  
22.3—Living through Industrialization: Personal Accounts of
           Industrialization, 1930s  
22.4—Living through the Terror: Personal Accounts of
           the Terror, 1930s

Using the Evidence 

 Visual Sources  Poster Art in Maos China 

Smashing the Old Society  

Building the New Society: The Peoples Commune  
Women, Nature, and Industrialization  
The Cult of Mao  
Propaganda Posters after Mao

Using the Evidence 

23 Independence and Development in the Global South,

 1914-Present 

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence 

The End of Empire in World History   

Explaining African and Asian Independence

Comparing Freedom Struggles 

The Case of India: Ending British Rule  

The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid

 Experiments with Freedom 

  Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations

   and India  
  Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities,
   Varying Outcomes  
  Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey
   and Iran

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Key Moments in South African History 

Snapshot: Economic Development in the Global South by the
 Early Twenty-first Century 
 Documents  Debating Development in Africa 

23.1—The Colonial Legacy for Modern Development: A. Adu

           Boahen, African Perspectives on Development, 1987  
23.2—Development and African Unity: Kwame Nkrumah,
           Africa Must Unite, 1963  
23.3—Development, Socialism, and Self-Reliance: Julius Nyerere,
           The Arusha Declaration, 1967  
23.4—Development and Women: Mildred Malineo Tau, Women:
           Critical to African Development, 1981  
23.5—Development, Elites, and the State: George B. N. Ayittey,
           Africa Betrayed, 1992, and Africa in Chaos, 1998

Using the Evidence 

 Visual Sources  Representing Independence 

 Non-Co-operation Tree and Mahatma Gandhi  

 African National Congress  
 Vietnamese Independence and Victory over the United States  
 Winning a Jewish National State  
 A Palestinian Nation in the Making

 Using the Evidence 

 
24 Accelerating Global Interaction, Since 1945

The Transformation of the World Economy 

Reglobalization  

Growth, Instability, and Inequality  
Globalization and an American Empire

The Globalization of Liberation: Comparing Feminist Movements 

Feminism in the West  

Feminism in the Global South   
International Feminism

Religion and Global Modernity 

Fundamentalism on a Global Scale  

Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the
  World of Islam  
Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism

The Worlds Environment and the Globalization of Environmentalism

  The Global Environment Transformed  

  Green and Global

Final Reflections: Pondering the Uses of History 

Second Thoughts 

Whats the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study

Snapshot: Indicators of Reglobalization 

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2005  

 Documents  Contending for Islam 

24.1—A Secular State for an Islamic Society in Turkey: Mustafa

           Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the
           Republican Party, 1927  
24.2—Egypts Muslim Brotherhood: Hassan al-Banna, Toward
           the Light, 1936  
24.3—The Ideas of the Ayatollah Khomeini: Ayatollah Khomeini,
           Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, 1980  
24.4—A Liberal Viewpoint from an Islamic Woman: Benazir Bhutto,
           Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1985  
24.5—Islam and 9/11: Kabir Helminski: “Islam and
           Human Values,” 2009

Using the Evidence 

 Visual Sources  Experiencing Globalization 

Globalization and Work  

Globalization and Consumerism  
Globalization and Migration  
Globalization and Protest  
Globalization: One World or Many?

Using the Evidence 

Notes

Index

Acknowledgments

About the Author

Product Details

ISBN:
9780312489168
Publisher:
Bedford/St. Martin's
Subject:
World - General
Author:
Strayer, Robert
Author:
Strayer, Robert W.
Subject:
General History
Subject:
World History-General
Edition Description:
Trade Paper
Series Volume:
Volumes 1 and 2
Publication Date:
20100604
Binding:
Paperback
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
1328
Dimensions:
9.13 x 7.38 in

Related Subjects

History and Social Science » Western Civilization » General
History and Social Science » World History » General
Textbooks » General

Ways of the World, Combined Edition (Volumes 1 & 2): A Global History with Sources
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Product details 1328 pages Bedford Books - English 9780312489168 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Ways of the World offers a genuine alternative for world history survey courses. Designed from the beginning as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical developments and is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The accessible voice of a single author, with long experience in the classroom and in the world history movement, delivers to students an insightful new synthesis, thought-provoking questions, and chapter ending sections that invite reflection on the meaning of world history. Available in full color and in combined and split volumes, Ways of the World makes the whole world teachable.
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