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Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries

by

Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Separation and purification processes play a critical role in biorefineries and their optimal selection, design and operation to maximise product yields and improve overall process efficiency. Separations and purifications are necessary for upstream processes as well as in maximising and improving product recovery in downstream processes. These processes account for a significant fraction of the total capital and operating costs and also are highly energy intensive. Consequently, a better understanding of separation and purification processes, current and possible alternative and novel advanced methods is essential for achieving the overall techno-economic feasibility and commercial success of sustainable biorefineries.

This book presents a comprehensive overview focused specifically on the present state, future challenges and opportunities for separation and purification methods and technologies in biorefineries.

Topics covered include:

Equilibrium Separations: Distillation, liquid-liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.
Affinity-Based Separations: Adsorption, ion exchange, and simulated moving bed technologies.
Membrane Based Separations:
Microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane pervaporation, and membrane distillation.
Solid-liquid Separations: Conventional filtration and solid-liquid extraction.
Hybrid/Integrated Reaction-Separation Systems: Membrane bioreactors, extractive fermentation, reactive distillation and reactive absorption.

For each of these processes, the fundamental principles and design aspects are presented, followed by a detailed discussion and specific examples of applications in biorefineries. Each chapter also considers the market needs, industrial challenges, future opportunities, and economic importance of the separation and purification methods. The book concludes with a series of detailed case studies including cellulosic bioethanol production, extraction of algae oil from microalgae, and production of biopolymers.

Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries is an essential resource for scientists and engineers, as well as researchers and academics working in the broader conventional and emerging bio-based products industry, including biomaterials, biochemicals, biofuels and bioenergy.

Synopsis:

This book presents a comprehensive discussion of separation and purification technologies for use in current and future biorefineries. Topics covered include:

Part 1 - Introduction and overview of biomass conversion processes.

Part 2 - Equilibrium based separation processes including distillation, liquid-liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

Part 3 - Affinity-based separation technologies including adsorption, ion exchange, simulated moving bed technology and chromatography, and the intensification of these processes.

Part 4 - Membrane separation such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane pervaporation, membrane distillation, and comparisons of membrane separation technologies.

Part 5 - Solid-liquid separations including conventional filtration and solid-liquid extraction.

Part 6 - Hybrid reaction-separation systems for process intensification such as membrane bioreactors, extractive fermentation, reactive distillation, and reactive absorption.

Part 7 - Case studies of separation and purification technologies in biorefineries

For each of the above processes, the fundamental principles and design are briefly discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of applications in the biorefinery, including numerous examples and an outlook for the future. Each chapter also considers the market and industry needs, the industrial challenges, and the economic importance of each technology.

Compared to conventional books on separation and purification, this book is unique in its focus on the biorefinery. The book reflects current and future separation approaches and technologies, both fundamental and advanced, and a number of novel separation methods are also included.

About the Author

Editors:

Shri Ramaswamy
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

Hua-Jiang Huang
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

Bandaru V. Ramarao
Department of Paper & Bioprocess Engineering, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, USA

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xix

Preface xxiii

PART I INTRODUCTION 1

1 Overview of Biomass Conversion Processes and Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries 3

Hua-Jiang Huang and Shri Ramaswamy

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Biochemical conversion biorefineries 4

1.3 Thermo-chemical and other chemical conversion biorefineries 8

1.3.1 Thermo-chemical conversion biorefineries 8

1.3.1.1 Example: Biomass to gasoline process 10

1.3.2 Other chemical conversion biorefineries 11

1.3.2.1 Levulinic acid 11

1.3.2.2 Glycerol 12

1.3.2.3 Sorbitol 12

1.3.2.4 Xylitol/Arabinitol 12

1.3.2.5 Example: Conversion of oil-containing biomass for biodiesel 12

1.4 Integrated lignocellulose biorefineries 14

1.5 Separation and purification processes 15

1.5.1 Equilibrium-based separation processes 15

1.5.1.1 Absorption 15

1.5.1.2 Distillation 16

1.5.1.3 Liquid-liquid extraction 16

1.5.1.4 Supercritical fluid extraction 17

1.5.2 Affinity-based separation 18

1.5.2.1 Simulated moving-bed chromatography 19

1.5.3 Membrane separation 20

1.5.4 Solid–liquid separation 23

1.5.4.1 Conventional filtration 23

1.5.4.2 Solid–liquid extraction 23

1.5.4.3 Precipitation and crystallization 24

1.5.5 Reaction-separation systems for process intensification 24

1.5.5.1 Reaction–membrane separation systems 25

1.5.5.2 Extractive fermentation (Reaction–LLE systems) 25

1.5.5.3 Reactive distillation 27

1.5.5.4 Reactive absorption 27

1.6 Summary 27

References 28

PART II EQUILIBRIUM-BASED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 37

2 Distillation 39

Zhigang Lei and Biaohua Chen

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Ordinary distillation 40

2.2.1 Thermodynamic fundamental 40

2.2.2 Distillation equipment 41

2.2.3 Application in biorefineries 43

2.3 Azeotropic distillation 45

2.3.1 Introduction 45

2.3.2 Example in biorefineries 46

2.3.3 Industrial challenges 47

2.4 Extractive distillation 48

2.4.1 Introduction 48

2.4.2 Extractive distillation with liquid solvents 50

2.4.3 Extractive distillation with solid salts 50

2.4.4 Extractive distillation with the mixture of liquid solvent and solid salt 51

2.4.5 Extractive distillation with ionic liquids 52

2.4.6 Examples in biorefineries 54

2.5 Molecular distillation 54

2.5.1 Introduction 54

2.5.2 Examples in biorefineries 55

2.5.3 Mathematical models 55

2.6 Comparisons of different distillation processes 55

2.7 Conclusions and future trends 58

Acknowledgement 58

References 58

3 Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) 61

Jianguo Zhang and Bo Hu

3.1 Introduction to LLE: Literature review and recent developments 61

3.2 Fundamental principles of LLE 62

3.3 Categories of LLE design 65

3.4 Equipment for the LLE process 67

3.4.1 Criteria 67

3.4.2 Types of extractors 68

3.4.3 Issues with current extractors 70

3.5 Applications in biorefineries 70

3.5.1 Ethanol 70

3.5.2 Biodiesel 72

3.5.3 Carboxylic acids 73

3.5.4 Other biorefinery processes 73

3.6 The future development of LLE for the biorefinery setting 74

References 75

4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 79

Casimiro Mantell, Lourdes Casas, Miguel Rodriguez and Enrique Martinez de la Ossa

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Principles of supercritical fluids 81

4.3 Market and industrial needs 83

4.4 Design and modeling of the process 84

4.4.1 Film theory 88

4.4.2 Penetration theory 88

4.5 Specific examples in biorefineries 89

4.5.1 Sugar/starch as a raw material 90

4.5.2 Supercritical extraction of vegetable oil 90

4.5.3 Supercritical extraction of lignocellulose biomass 91

4.5.4 Supercritical extraction of microalgae 92

4.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 93

4.7 Conclusions and future trends 96

References 96

PART III AFFINITY-BASED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 101

5 Adsorption 103

Saravanan Venkatesan

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Essential principles of adsorption 104

5.2.1 Adsorption isotherms 105

5.2.1.1 Freundlich isotherm 105

5.2.1.2 Langmuir isotherm 105

5.2.1.3 BET isotherm 107

5.2.1.4 Ideal adsorbed solution (IAS) theory 107

5.2.2 Types of adsorption isotherm 108

5.2.3 Adsorption hysteresis 109

5.2.4 Heat of adsorption 110

5.3 Adsorbent selection criteria 110

5.4 Commercial and new adsorbents and their properties 111

5.4.1 Activated carbon 112

5.4.2 Silica gel 113

5.4.3 Zeolites and molecular sieves 113

5.4.4 Activated alumina 114

5.4.5 Polymeric resins 114

5.4.6 Bio-based adsorbents 115

5.4.7 Metal organic frameworks (MOF) 116

5.5 Adsorption separation processes 116

5.5.1 Adsorbate concentration 116

5.5.2 Modes of adsorber operation 116

5.5.3 Adsorbent regeneration methods 117

5.5.3.1 Selection of regeneration method 117

5.5.3.2 Temperature swing adsorption (TSA) 117

5.5.3.3 Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) 120

5.6 Adsorber modeling 123

5.7 Application of adsorption in biorefineries 124

5.7.1 Examples of adsorption systems for removal of fermentation inhibitors from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate 125

5.7.2 Examples of adsorption systems for recovery of biofuels from dilute aqueous fermentation broth 129

5.7.2.1 In situ recovery of 1-butanol 129

5.7.2.2 Recovery of other prospective biofuel compounds 132

5.7.2.3 Ethanol dehydration 133

5.7.2.4 Biodiesel purification 135

5.8 A case study: Recovery of 1-butanol from ABE fermentation broth using TSA 136

5.8.1 Introduction 136

5.8.2 Adsorbent in extrudate form 136

5.8.3 Adsorption kinetics 136

5.8.4 Adsorption of 1-butanol by CBV28014 extrudates in a packed-bed column 136

5.8.5 Desorption 138

5.8.6 Equilibrium isotherms 139

5.8.7 Simulation of breakthrough curves 140

5.8.8 Summary from case study 140

5.9 Research needs and prospects 142

5.10 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgement 143

References 143

6 Ion Exchange 149

M. Berrios, J. A. Siles, M. A. Martin and A. Martin

6.1 Introduction 149

6.1.1 Ion exchangers: Operational conditions—sorbent selection 150

6.2 Essential principles 151

6.2.1 Properties of ion exchangers 151

6.3 Ion-exchange market and industrial needs 153

6.4 Commercial ion-exchange resins 154

6.4.1 Strong acid cation resins 154

6.4.2 Weak acid cation resins 154

6.4.3 Strong base anion resins 155

6.4.4 Weak base anion resins 155

6.5 Specific examples in biorefineries 156

6.5.1 Water softening 156

6.5.2 Total removal of electrolytes from water 157

Contents ix

6.5.3 Removal of nitrates in water 157

6.5.4 Applications in the food industry 157

6.5.5 Applications in chromatography 158

6.5.6 Special applications in water treatment 159

6.5.7 Metal recovery 159

6.5.8 Separation of isotopes or ions 160

6.5.9 Applications of zeolites in ion-exchange processes 160

6.5.10 Applications of ion exchange in catalytic processes 161

6.5.11 Recent applications of ion exchange in lignocellulosic bioefineries 162

6.5.12 Recent applications of ion exchange in biodiesel bioefineries 162

6.6 Conclusions and future trends 164

References 164

7 Simulated Moving-Bed Technology for Biorefinery Applications 167

Chim Yong Chin and Nien-Hwa Linda Wang

7.1 Introduction 167

7.1.1 Principles of separations in batch chromatography and SMB 167

7.1.2 The advantages of SMB 169

7.1.3 A brief history of SMB and its applications 169

7.1.4 Barriers to SMB applications 171

7.2 Essential SMB design principles and tools 171

7.2.1 Knowledge-driven design 172

7.2.2 Design and optimization for multicomponent separation 173

7.2.2.1 Standing-wave analysis (SWA) 173

7.2.2.2 Splitting strategies for multicomponent SMB systems 178

7.2.2.3 Comprehensive optimization with standing-wave (COSW) 178

7.2.2.4 Other design methodologies 181

7.2.3 SMB chromatographic simulation 181

7.2.4 SMB equipment 184

7.2.5 Advanced SMB operations 188

7.2.5.1 Simulated moving-bed reactors 190

7.2.6 SMB commercial manufacturers 190

7.3 Simulated moving-bed technology in biorefineries 191

7.3.1 SMB separation of sugar hydrolysate and concentrated sulfuric acid 192

7.3.2 Five-zone SMB for sugar isolation from dilute-acid hydrolysate 193

7.3.3 Simulated moving-bed purification of lactic acid in fermentation broth 195

7.3.4 SMB purification of glycerol by-product from biodiesel processing 196

7.4 Conclusions and future trends 197

References 197

PART IV MEMBRANE SEPARATION 203

8 Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration and Diafiltration 205

Ann-Sofi Jonsson

8.1 Introduction 205

8.1.1 Applications 206

8.1.2 Applications of ultrafiltration 206

8.2 Membrane plant design 207

8.2.1 Single-stage membrane plants 208

8.2.2 Multistage membrane plants 208

8.2.3 Membranes 209

8.2.4 Membrane modules 209

8.2.5 Design and operation of membrane plants 210

8.3 Economic considerations 210

8.3.1 Capital cost 211

8.3.2 Operating costs 211

8.4 Process design 213

8.4.1 Flux during concentration 213

8.4.2 Retention 213

8.4.3 Recovery and purity 214

8.5 Operating parameters 216

8.5.1 Pressure 217

8.5.2 Cross-flow velocity 218

8.5.3 Temperature 219

8.5.4 Concentration 220

8.5.5 Influence of concentration polarization and critical flux on retention 220

8.6 Diafiltration 222

8.7 Fouling and cleaning 224

8.7.1 Fouling 224

8.7.2 Pretreatment 225

8.7.3 Cleaning 225

8.8 Conclusions and future trends 226

References 226

9 Nanofiltration 233

Mika Manttari, Bart Van der Bruggen and Marianne Nystrom

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 Nanofiltration market and industrial needs 235

9.3 Fundamental principles 236

9.3.1 Pressure and flux 236

9.3.2 Retention and fractionation 236

9.3.3 Influence of filtration parameters 237

9.4 Design and simulation 238

9.4.1 Water permeation 238

9.4.2 Solute retention 238

9.4.2.1 Retention of organic components 239

9.4.2.2 Retention of inorganic components 240

9.5 Membrane materials and properties 241

9.5.1 Structure of NF membranes 242

9.5.2 Hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics 242

9.5.3 Charge characteristics 242

9.6 Commercial nanofiltration membranes 245

9.7 Nanofiltration examples in biorefineries 246

9.7.1 Recovery and purification of monomeric acids 246

9.7.1.1 Separation of lactic acid and amino acids in fermentation plants 247

9.7.1.2 Separation of lactic acid from cheese whey fermentation broth 247

9.7.2 Biorefineries connected to pulping processes 247

9.7.2.1 Valorization of black liquor compounds 248

9.7.2.2 Purification of pre-extraction liquors and hydrolysates 250

9.7.2.3 Examples of monosaccharides purification 251

9.7.2.4 Nanofiltration to treat sulfite pulp mill liquors 252

9.7.3 Miscellaneous studies on extraction of natural raw materials 253

9.7.4 Industrial examples of NF in biorefinery 254

9.7.4.1 Recovery and purification of sodium hydroxide in viscose production 254

9.7.4.2 Xylose recovery and purification into permeate 254

9.7.4.3 Purification of dextrose syrup 255

9.8 Conclusions and challenges 256

References 256

10 Membrane Pervaporation 259

Yan Wang, Natalia Widjojo, Panu Sukitpaneenit and Tai-Shung Chung

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 Membrane pervaporation market and industrial needs 260

10.3 Fundamental principles 261

10.3.1 Transport mechanisms 261

10.3.2 Evaluation of pervaporation membrane performance 264

10.4 Design principles of the pervaporation membrane 265

10.4.1 Membrane materials and selection 266

10.4.1.1 Polymeric pervaporation membranes for bioalcohol dehydration 267

10.4.1.2 Pervaporation membranes for biofuel recovery 271

10.4.2 Membrane morphology 281

10.4.3 Commercial pervaporation membranes 283

10.5 Pervaporation in the current integrated biorefinery system 283

10.6 Conclusions and future trends 288

Acknowledgements 289

References 289

11 Membrane Distillation 301

M. A. Izquierdo-Gil

11.1 Introduction 301

11.1.1 Direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) 302

11.1.2 Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) 303

11.1.3 Sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) 303

11.1.4 Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) 304

11.2 Membrane distillation market and industrial needs 304

11.2.1 Pure water production 305

11.2.2 Waste water treatment 306

11.2.3 Concentration of agro-food solutions 306

11.2.4 Concentration of organic and biological solutions 307

11.3 Basic principles of membrane distillation 308

11.3.1 Mass transfer 308

11.3.2 Concentration polarization phenomena 311

11.3.3 Heat transport 311

11.3.4 Liquid entry pressure 312

11.4 Design and simulation 313

11.5 Examples in biorefineries 315

11.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 317

11.7 Comparisons with other membrane-separation technologies 319

11.8 Conclusions and future trends 321

References 322

PART V SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATIONS 327

12 Filtration-Based Separations in the Biorefinery 329

Bhavin V. Bhayani and Bandaru V. Ramarao

12.1 Introduction 329

12.2 Biorefinery 330

12.2.1 Pretreatment 330

12.2.2 Hydrolyzate separations 332

12.2.3 Downstream fermentation and separations 335

12.3 Solid–liquid separations in the biorefinery 335

12.4 Introduction to cake filtration 336

12.5 Basics of cake filtration 336

12.5.1 Application in biorefineries 339

12.5.2 Specific points of interest 340

12.6 Designing a dead-end filtration 340

12.6.1 Determination of specific resistance 340

12.6.2 Membrane fouling 340

12.6.3 The effect of pressure on specific resistance—cake compressibility 342

12.6.4 Relating cake compressibility to cake particles morphology 342

12.6.5 Effects of particles surface properties and the medium liquid 344

12.6.6 Fouling in filtration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates 345

12.7 Model development 346

12.7.1 Requirements of a model 348

12.8 Conclusions 348

References 348

13 Solid–Liquid Extraction in Biorefinery 351

Zurina Zainal Abidin, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Hamdan Mohamed Yusoff and Mohd Yusof Harun

13.1 Introduction 351

13.2 Principles of solid–liquid extraction 352

13.2.1 Extraction mode 353

13.2.1.1 Single-stage, batch 354

13.2.1.2 Multistage crosscurrent flow 354

13.2.1.3 Multistage countercurrent flow 354

13.2.2 Solid–liquid extraction techniques 355

13.2.2.1 Solvent extraction 355

13.2.2.2 High-pressure extraction 355

13.2.2.3 Ultrasonic-assisted extraction 355

13.2.2.4 Microwave-assisted extraction 355

13.2.2.5 Heat reflux extraction 355

13.3 State of the art technology 356

13.4 Design and modeling of SLE process 357

13.4.1 Pretreatment of raw materials 357

13.4.2 Solid–liquid extraction 359

13.4.3 Equipment and operational setup 360

13.4.4 Process modeling 361

13.4.5 Scaling up 363

13.5 Industrial extractors 363

13.5.1 Batch extractors 364

13.5.2 Continuous extractors 366

13.5.3 Extraction of specialty chemicals 368

13.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 368

13.7 Conclusions 371

References 371

PART VI HYBRID/INTEGRATED REACTION-SEPARATION SYSTEMS—PROCESS INTENSIFICATION 375

14 Membrane Bioreactors for Biofuel Production 377

Sara M. Badenes, Frederico Castelo Ferreira and Joaquim M. S. Cabral

14.1 Introduction 377

14.1.1 Opportunities for membrane bioreactor in biofuel production 378

14.1.2 The market and industry needs 379

14.2 Basic principles 381

14.2.1 Biofuels: Production principles and biological systems 381

14.2.2 Transport in membrane systems 386

14.2.3 Membrane modules and reactor operations 389

14.2.4 Membrane bioreactor 390

14.3 Examples of membrane bioreactors for biofuel production 390

14.3.1 Bioethanol production 390

14.3.1.1 Overview 390

14.3.1.2 Membrane bioreactors for cell retention and ethanol removal 392

14.3.1.3 Upstream saccharification stage: Retention of hydrolytic enzymes and sugar permeation 395

14.3.1.4 Downstream ethanol purification stage: Pervaporation 396

14.3.2 Biodiesel production 397

14.3.2.1 Overview 397

14.3.2.2 Membrane bioreactor for biodiesel production 398

14.3.3 Biogas production 399

14.3.3.1 Overview 399

14.3.3.2 Membrane bioreactor for biogas production 400

14.4 Conclusions and future trends 403

References 404

15 Extraction-Fermentation Hybrid (Extractive Fermentation) 409

Shang-Tian Yang and Congcong Lu

15.1 Introduction 409

15.2 The market and industrial needs 410

15.3 Basic principles of extractive fermentation 412

15.4 Separation technologies for integrated fermentation product recovery 413

15.4.1 Gas stripping 413

15.4.2 Pervaporation 416

15.4.3 Liquid–liquid extraction 419

15.4.4 Adsorption 422

15.4.5 Electrodialysis 424

15.5 Examples in biorefineries 426

15.5.1 Extractive ABE fermentation for enhanced butanol production 426

15.5.2 Extractive fermentation for organic acids production 428

15.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 428

15.7 Conclusions and future trends 431

References 431

16 Reactive Distillation for the Biorefinery 439

Aspi K. Kolah, Carl T. Lira and Dennis J. Miller

16.1 Introduction 439

16.1.1 Reactive distillation process principles 439

16.1.2 Motives for application of reactive distillation 440

16.1.2.1 Reaction properties 440

16.1.2.2 Separation properties 440

16.1.3 Limitations and disadvantages of reactive distillation 440

16.1.4 Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactive distillation 441

16.2 Column internals for reactive distillation 441

16.2.1 Random or dumped catalyst packings 442

16.2.2 Catalytic distillation trays 442

16.2.3 Catalyst bales 443

16.2.4 Structured packings 443

16.2.5 Internally finned monoliths 446

16.3 Simulation of reactive distillation systems 446

16.3.1 Phase equilibria 446

16.3.2 Characterization of reaction kinetics 447

16.3.3 Calculation of residue curve maps 448

16.3.4 Simulation and design of reactive distillation systems 450

16.3.4.1 Equilibrium stage model 450

16.3.4.2 Rate-based model 450

16.3.4.3 Design of reactive distillation systems 451

16.4 Reactive distillation for the biorefinery 451

16.4.1 Esterification of carboxylic acids and transesterification of esters 451

16.4.1.1 Biodiesel production 452

16.4.1.2 Esterification of long-chain fatty acids 453

16.4.1.3 Lactate esterification 453

16.4.1.4 Short-chain organic acid esterification 454

16.4.1.5 Reactive distillation for glycerol esterification 455

16.4.2 Etherification 456

16.4.3 Acetal formation 457

16.4.4 Reactive distillation for thermochemical conversion pathways 457

16.5 Recently commercialized reactive distillation processes for the biorefinery 458

16.6 Conclusions 458

References 459

17 Reactive Absorption 467

Anton A. Kiss and Costin Sorin Bildea

17.1 Introduction 467

17.2 Market and industrial needs 468

17.3 Basic principles of reactive absorption 468

17.4 Modelling, design and simulation 469

17.5 Case study: Biodiesel production by catalytic reactive absorption 470

17.5.1 Problem statement 471

17.5.2 Heat-integrated process design 471

17.5.3 Property model and kinetics 473

17.5.4 Steady-state simulation results 474

17.5.5 Sensitivity analysis 476

17.5.6 Dynamics and plantwide control 478

17.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 482

17.7 Conclusions and future trends 482

References 482

PART VII CASE STUDIES OF SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOREFINERIES 485

18 Cellulosic Bioethanol Production 487

Mats Galbe, Ola Wallberg and Guido Zacchi

18.1 Introduction: The market and industrial needs 487

18.2 Separation procedures and their integration within a bioethanol plant 488

18.2.1 Process configurations 488

18.3 Importance and challenges of separation processes 490

18.3.1 Distillation 490

18.3.2 Dehydration of ethanol 493

18.3.2.1 Adsorption on zeolites 493

18.3.2.2 Pervaporation and vapor permeation 494

18.3.3 Evaporation 495

18.3.4 Liquid–solid separation 496

18.3.4.1 Filtration of solid residue (lignin) 496

18.3.4.2 Recovery of yeast 496

18.3.5 Drying of solids 497

18.3.5.1 Air dryer heated to low temperature by waste heat 497

18.3.5.2 Air dryer heated by back-pressure steam 498

18.3.5.3 Superheated steam dryer heated by high pressure steam 498

18.3.6 Upgrading of biogas 498

18.4 Pilot and demonstration scale 498

18.5 Conclusions and future trends 500

References 500

19 Dehydration of Ethanol using Pressure Swing Adsorption 503

Marian Simo

19.1 Introduction 503

19.2 Ethanol dehydration process using pressure swing adsorption 504

19.2.1 Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics 504

19.2.2 Principle of pressure swing adsorption 506

19.2.3 Ethanol PSA process cycle 506

19.2.3.1 Two-bed ethanol PSA cycle steps 506

19.2.4 Process performance and energy needs 507

19.3 Future trends and industrial challenges 510

19.4 Conclusions 511

References 511

20 Separation and Purification of Lignocellulose Hydrolyzates 513

G. Peter van Walsum

20.1 Introduction 513

20.1.1 Sugar platform 513

20.1.2 Biomass hydrolysis 513

20.1.3 Biomass pretreatment 514

20.1.4 Wood degradation products and potential biological inhibitors 515

20.1.5 Detoxification of wood hydrolysates 516

20.2 The market and industrial needs 516

20.2.1 Microbial inhibition by biomass degradation products 516

20.2.2 Enzyme inhibition by biomass degradation products 517

20.3 Operation variables and conditions 517

20.3.1 Effects of pretreatment conditions on enzymes and microbial cultures 517

20.3.2 Quantification of microbial inhibitors in pretreatment hydrolysates 518

20.3.3 Separations challenges posed by biomass degradation products 518

20.4 The hydrolyzates detoxification and separation processes 519

20.4.1 Evaporation, flashing 519

20.4.2 High pH treatment 519

20.4.2.1 Cation effects in overliming 519

20.4.2.2 pH and temperature effects 520

20.4.2.3 Different fermentative organisms 521

20.4.3 Adsorption 521

20.4.4 Liquid–liquid extraction 522

20.4.5 Ion exchange 522

20.4.6 Polymer-induced flocculation 523

20.4.7 Dialysis 523

20.4.8 Microbial detoxification 523

20.4.9 Enzyme detoxification 524

20.4.10 Microbial accommodation of inhibitors 524

20.5 Separation performances and results 524

20.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 525

20.6.1 Cost of slow enzymes 525

20.6.2 Cost of slow fermentations 525

20.6.3 Benefits of co-products 526

20.6.4 Material consumption 526

20.6.5 Complexity: Capital and operating cost 527

20.6.6 Waste reduction 527

20.7 Conclusions 527

References 527

21 Case Studies of Separation in Biorefineries—Extraction of Algae Oil from Microalgae 533

Michael Cooney

21.1 Introduction 533

21.2 The market and industrial needs 534

21.2.1 Feedstock markets 534

21.2.2 Biodiesel markets 536

21.2.3 Algae products 537

21.2.4 Industrial needs 537

21.3 The algae oil extraction process 539

21.3.1 Harvesting/isolation 539

21.3.2 Drying 539

21.3.3 Cell wall lyses/disruption 539

21.4 Extraction 540

21.4.1 Organic-solvent based 540

21.4.2 Aqueous based 541

21.4.3 Combined aqueous and organic phases 543

21.4.4 Supercritical fluids 544

21.4.5 Solventless extraction 545

21.4.6 Emerging technologies 545

21.4.7 Refining lipids 546

21.5 Separation performance and results 546

21.6 Economic importance and industrial challenges 548

21.7 Conclusions and future trends 549

References 550

22 Separation Processes in Biopolymer Production 555

Sanjay P. Kamble, Prashant P. Barve, Imran Rahman and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

22.1 Introduction 555

22.2 The market and industrial needs 556

22.3 Lactic acid recovery processes 559

22.3.1 Electrodialysis 559

22.3.2 Adsorption 559

22.3.3 Reactive extraction 560

22.3.4 Reverse osmosis 560

22.3.5 Reactive distillation 561

22.4 Separation performance and results of autocatalytic counter current reactive distillation of lactic acid with methanol and hydrolysis of methyl lactate into highly pure lactic acid using 3-CSTRs in series 561

22.5 Economic importance and industrial challenges 564

22.6 Conclusions and future trends 565

Acknowledgements 566

References 566

Index 569

Product Details

ISBN:
9780470977965
Author:
Ramaswamy, Shri
Publisher:
John Wiley & Sons
Author:
Huang, Huajiang
Author:
Ramarao, Bandrau
Subject:
Chemistry - General
Subject:
Chemical Engineering Separations
Subject:
p
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separations
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
to biofuels, energy, bioproducts, Huajiang Huang, energy engineering, B. V. Ramarao, chemical engineering, transport processes, separations technologies, environmental engineering.
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
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Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
n, diafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane pervaporation, membrane distillation, solid-liquid separations, conventional filtration, solid-liquid extraction, hybrid reaction-separation systems, process intensification, membrane bioreactors, extractive ferm
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
ds, petroleum refinery, bioresources, biomass, renewable fuels, sustainable fuels, sustainable chemical, sustainable materials, hemicelluloses,  ethanol product separation, ethanol product dehydration, Shri Ramaswamy, cellulosic biomass to biofuels,
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
ds, petroleum refinery, bioresources, biomass, renewable fuels, sustainable fuels, sustainable chemical, sustainable materials, hemicelluloses,  ethanol product separation, ethanol product dehydration, Shri Ramaswamy, cellulosic biomass to biofuels,
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
ds, petroleum refinery, bioresources, biomass, renewable fuels, sustainable fuels, sustainable chemical, sustainable materials, hemicelluloses,  ethanol product separation, ethanol product dehydration, Shri Ramaswamy, cellulosic biomass to biofuels,
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
ds, petroleum refinery, bioresources, biomass, renewable fuels, sustainable fuels, sustainable chemical, sustainable materials, hemicelluloses,  ethanol product separation, ethanol product dehydration, Shri Ramaswamy, cellulosic biomass to biofuels,
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
bioproducts, Huajiang Huang, energy engineering, B. V. Ramarao, chemical engineering, transport processes, separations technologies, environmental engineering
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Subject:
Separation science, purification technology, biorefineries, biomass conversion processes, equilibrium based separation processes, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, affinity-based separation technologies, adsorption, i
Copyright:
Edition Description:
WOL online Book (not BRO)
Publication Date:
20130319
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Language:
English
Pages:
608
Dimensions:
246 x 189 mm

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Separation and Purification Technologies in Biorefineries New Hardcover
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$217.75 Backorder
Product details 608 pages John Wiley & Sons - English 9780470977965 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , This book presents a comprehensive discussion of separation and purification technologies for use in current and future biorefineries. Topics covered include:

Part 1 - Introduction and overview of biomass conversion processes.

Part 2 - Equilibrium based separation processes including distillation, liquid-liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

Part 3 - Affinity-based separation technologies including adsorption, ion exchange, simulated moving bed technology and chromatography, and the intensification of these processes.

Part 4 - Membrane separation such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane pervaporation, membrane distillation, and comparisons of membrane separation technologies.

Part 5 - Solid-liquid separations including conventional filtration and solid-liquid extraction.

Part 6 - Hybrid reaction-separation systems for process intensification such as membrane bioreactors, extractive fermentation, reactive distillation, and reactive absorption.

Part 7 - Case studies of separation and purification technologies in biorefineries

For each of the above processes, the fundamental principles and design are briefly discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of applications in the biorefinery, including numerous examples and an outlook for the future. Each chapter also considers the market and industry needs, the industrial challenges, and the economic importance of each technology.

Compared to conventional books on separation and purification, this book is unique in its focus on the biorefinery. The book reflects current and future separation approaches and technologies, both fundamental and advanced, and a number of novel separation methods are also included.

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