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Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (John Harvard Library, Belknap Press)

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Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (John Harvard Library, Belknap Press) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was the first book to attack the American myth of the superabundance and the inexhaustibility of the earth. It was, as Lewis Mumford said, "the fountainhead of the conservation movement," and few books since have had such an influence on the way men view and use land. "It is worth reading after a hundred years," Mr. Lowenthal points out, "not only because it taught important lessons in its day, but also because it still teaches them so well...Historical insight and contemporary passion make Man and Nature an enduring classic."

Synopsis:

George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was the first book to attack the American myth of the superabundance and the inexhaustibility of the earth. It was, as Lewis Mumford said, "the fountainhead of the conservation movement," and few books since have had such an influence on the way men view and use land.

Table of Contents

Introduction by David Lowenthal

A Note on the Text

MAN AND NATURE

Preface

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTORY

Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire
Physical Decay of that Territory and of other parts of the Old World
Causes of the Decay
New School of Geographers
Reaction of Man upon Nature
Observation of Nature
Comical and Geological
Influences Geographical
Influence of Man
Uncertainty of our Meteorological Knowledge
Mechanical Effects produced by Man on the surface of the Earth
Importance and Possibility of Physical Restoration
Stability of Nature
Restoration of Disturbed Harmonies
Destructiveness of Man
Human and Brute Action Compared
Physical Improvement
Arrest of Physical Decay of New Countries
Forms and Formations most liable to Physical Degradation
Physical Decay of New Countries
Corrupt Influence of Private Corporations
, Note.

CHAPTER II: TRANSFER, MODIFICATION, AND EXTIRPATION OF VEGETABLE AND OF ANIMAL SPECIES

Modern Geography embraces Organic Life
Transfer of Vegetable Life
Foreign Plants grown in the United States
American Plants grown in Europe
Modes of Introduction of Foreign Plants
Vegetables, how affected by transfer to Foreign Soils
Extirpation of Vegetables
Origin of Domestic Plants
Organic Life as a Geological and Geographical Agency
Number of Quadrupeds in the United States
Origin and Transfer of Domestic Quadrupeds
Extirpation of Quadrupeds
Numbers of Birds in the United States
Birds as Sowers and Consumers of Seeds, and as Destroyers of Insects

Diminution and Extirpation of Birds
Introduction of Birds
Utility of Insects and Worms
Introduction of Insects
Destruction of Insects
Reptiles
Destruction of Fish
Introduction and Breeding of Fish
Extirpation of Aquatic Animals
Minute Organisms


CHAPTER III: THE WOODS


The Habitable Earth originally Wooded
The Forest does not furnish Food for Man
First Removal of the Woods
Effects of Fire on Forest Soil
Effects of the Destruction of the Forest
Electrical Influence of Trees
Chemical Influence of the Forest
Influence of the Forest, considered as Inorganic Matter, on Temperature: a, Absorbing and Emitting Surface; b, Trees as Conductors of Heat; c, Trees in Summer and in Winter; d, Dead Products of Trees; e, Trees as a Shelter to Grounds to the leeward of them; f, Trees as a Protection against Malaria
The Forest, as Inorganic Matter, tends to mitigate extremes.
Trees as Organisms: Specific Heat
Total Influence of the Forest on Temperature
Influence of Forests on the Humidity of the Air and the Earth: a, as Inorganic Matter; b, as Organic-Wood Mosses and Fungi-Flow of Sap-Absorption and Exhalation of Moisture by Trees
Balance of Conflicting Influences
Influence of the Forest on Temperature and Precipitation
Influence of the Forest on the Humidity of the Soil
Its Influence on the Flow of Springs
The Forest in Winter General Consequences of the Destruction of the Forest Condition of the Forest, and its Literature in different Countries
The Influence of the Forest on Inundations
Destructive Action of Torrents
Transporting Power of Rivers
The Po and its Deposits
Mountain Slides
Protection against the Fall of Rocks and Avalanches by Trees
Principal Causes of the Destruction of the Forest
American Forest Trees
Special Causes of the Destruction of European Woods
Royal Forests and Game Laws
Small Forest Plants, and Vitality of Seeds
Utility of the Forest
The Forests of Europe
Forests of the United States and Canada
The Economy of the Forest
European and American Trees Compared
Sylviculture
Instability of American Life


CHAPTER IV: THE WATERS

Land artificially won from the Waters: a, Exclusion of the Sea by Diking; b, Draining of Lakes and Marshes; c, Geographical Influence of such Operations
Lowering of Lakes
Mountain Lakes
Climatic Effects of Draining Lakes and Marshes
Geographical and Climatic Effects of Aqueducts, Reservoirs, and Canals
Surface and Underdraining, and their Climatic and Geographical Effects
Irrigation and its Climatic and Geographical Effects

Inundations and Torrents: a, River Embankments; b, Floods of the Ardèche; c, Crushing Force of Torrents; d, Inundations of 1856 in France; e, Remedies against Inundations--Consequences if the Nile had been confined by Lateral Dikes
Deposits of the Tuscan Rivers
Improvements in the Val di Chiana Improvements in the Tuscan Maremma
Obstruction of River Mouths
Subterranean Waters
Artesian Wells
Artificial Springs
Economizing Precipitation


CHAPTER V: THE SANDS

Origin of Sand
Sand now carried down to the Sea
The Sands of Egypt and the adjacent Desert
The Suez Canal
The Sands of Egypt
Coast Dunes and Sand Plains
Sand Banks
Dunes on Coast of America
Dunes of Western Europe
Formation of Dunes
Character of Dune Sand
Interior Structure of Dunes
Form of Dunes
Geological Importance of Dunes
Inland Dunes
Age, Character, and Permanence of Dunes
Use of Dunes as Barrier against the Sea
Encroachments of the Sea
The Liimfjord
Coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Holland, and France
Drifting of Dune Sands
Dunes of Gascony
Dunes of Denmark
Dunes of Prussia
Control of Dunes by Man
Artificial Formation of Dunes
Protection of Dunes
Trees suitable for Dune Plantations
Extent of Dunes in Europe
Dune Vineyards of Cap Breton
Removal of Dunes
Inland Sand Plains
The Landes of Gascony
The Belgian Campine
Sands and Steppes of Eastern Europe
Advantages of Reclaiming the Sands
Government Works of Improvement


CHAPTER VI: PROJECTED OR POSSIBLE GEOGRAPHICAL CHANGES BY MAN

Cutting of Marine Isthmuses
The Suez Canal
Canal across Isthmus of Darien
Canals to the Dead Sea
Maritime Canals in Greece
Canal of Saves
Cape Cod
Canal Diversion of the Nile
Changes in the Caspian
Improvements in North American Hydrography
Diversion of the Rhine
Draining of the Zuidersee
Waters of the Karst
Subterranean Waters of Greece
Soil below Rock
Covering Rock with Earth
Wadies of Arabia Petraea
Incidental Effects of Human Action
Resistance to great Natural Forces
Effects of Mining
Espy's Theories
River Sediment
Nothing small in Nature

Index

Product Details

ISBN:
9780674544529
Editor:
Lowenthal, David
Author:
Lowenthal, David
Author:
Marsh, George
Author:
Marsh, George Perkins
Publisher:
Belknap Press
Location:
Cambridge, Mass. :
Subject:
General
Subject:
General science
Subject:
Nature
Subject:
Physical geography
Subject:
Human Geography
Subject:
Environmental Science
Subject:
TRAVEL / General
Subject:
History - United States/20th Century
Subject:
Nature - Environmental Conservation & Protection
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Paperback
Series:
John Harvard Library, Belknap Press
Series Volume:
8
Publication Date:
December 1965
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
General/trade
Language:
English
Illustrations:
none
Pages:
504
Dimensions:
9 x 6 in 22 oz

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Related Subjects

History and Social Science » World History » General
Reference » Science Reference » General
Science and Mathematics » Environmental Studies » General
Science and Mathematics » Nature Studies » General
Travel » General

Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (John Harvard Library, Belknap Press) New Trade Paper
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Product details 504 pages Belknap Press - English 9780674544529 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was the first book to attack the American myth of the superabundance and the inexhaustibility of the earth. It was, as Lewis Mumford said, "the fountainhead of the conservation movement," and few books since have had such an influence on the way men view and use land.
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