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GRE Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology with Testware (Rea): Second Edition

GRE Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology with Testware (Rea): Second Edition Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

If Youre Serious About Your Career, Use the Most Comprehensive GRE Guide on the Market Today!  
 
REAs GRE Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology Test Prep with Practice Tests on CD Gets You into Grad School!   
 
Higher GRE scores mean better options! Scoring well on the GRE Biochemistry Subject Test doesnt just help you get into grad school, it helps move your career forward. So its worth every minute of your valuable time to be knowledgeable, confident, and prepared to do your best. REAs test prep will get you ready for the GRE and on your way to grad school!  
 
Designed for students and professionals looking to advance their careers, this second edition of our popular test prep contains everything you need to succeed. Focused chapter reviews cover all the information tested on the GRE Biochemistry exam. Each targeted review chapter contains all the formulas, definitions, and information you need to master the material and achieve an excellent score. 
 
The book includes two full-length practice tests based on the most recent GRE Biochemistry exam. Each test contains every type of question that can be expected on the GRE so you can “practice for real” and boost your confidence before taking the exam.   
 
Both of the books exams are featured on our TestWare® CD with the most powerful scoring and diagnostic tools available today. Automatic scoring and instant reports help you zero in on the topics and types of questions that give you trouble now, so youll succeed when it counts! Our on-screen detailed explanations of answers help you identify your strengths and weaknesses. We dont just say which answers are right - we also explain why the other answer choices are incorrect - so youll be prepared on test day!  
 
Our exclusive Pro Study Plan helps you maximize your valuable study time while learning effective test-taking strategies and timesaving tips from the pros. As an added bonus, up-to-the-minute GRE test information and updates are available at: www.rea.com/GRE  
 
If youre serious about your career and are ready to take on the GRE Biochemistry Subject Test - get the most comprehensive guide on the market today!     

Synopsis:

EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO SUCCEED ON THE GRE BIOCHEMISTRY TEST!

If youre serious about your career, use the most comprehensive GRE book on the market today. GRE BIOCHEMISTRY TEST HIGHER SCORES MEAN BETTER OPTIONS

Scoring well on the GRE Biochemistry test doesnt just help you get into grad school, it helps move your career forward. So its worth every minute you can spare to be knowledgeable and confident. ORGANIZE YOUR TIME

Our exclusive Pro Study Plan gives you a complete road map from now until test day to help you prepare for the GRE Biochemistry test as efficiently as possible. REFRESH YOUR GRE BIOCHEMISTRY CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

Everything you need to know for the GRE Biochemistry test, presented in concise sections that work easily into a busy schedule. BUILD CONFIDENCE WITH GRE BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICE EXAMS

With 2 full-length GRE Biochemistry exams, youll know exactly how youre doing every step of the way. And with each repetition, youll measure your progress and build confidence. LEARN GRE TEST-TAKING TIPS FROM THE PROS

Weve distilled years of experience into concrete suggestions for answering every type of question youll encounter on the GRE Biochemistry test. By learning the right approaches, youll avoid traps and save time. GET THE WORLDS MOST ADVANCED GRE BIOCHEMISTRY SOFTWARE

REAs GRE Biochemistry TestWare combines a realistic GRE test environment with the most powerful scoring analysis and diagnostic tools available. With every GRE Biochemistry practice test you take, youll gain knowledge and confidence for the real exam. Automatic scoring and instant reports help you zero in on the topics and types of GRE Biochemistry questions that give you trouble now, so youll succeed on the GRE!

About the Author

Thomas E. Smith, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Howard University in Washington, D.C. He is also professor of ophthalmology at Howard University Hospital.

He began his career at Benedict College in S.C., where he received a B.S. in chemistry/biology. In 1959 he received an M.S., and in 1962 a Ph.D., in biochemistry at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and a post-doctoral in 1963 at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo.

Dr. Smiths professional experience spans five decades, from his work as a chemist with the National Heart Institute to his work with the National Science Foundation. Among his many activities, Dr. Smith was on the editorial board of the Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics from 1976-1994, was a leading member of the Association of Medical and Graduate Departments of Biochemistry from 1980-1999. Over the years he has also been active in various roles with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Washington Academy of Sciences, the American Association of Medical Colleges, the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the National Board of Medical Examiners, the National Institutes of Health, and the Committee on Research Infastructure in Minority Institutions, University of the District of Columbia.

Marguerite Wilton Coomes, Ph.D., is associate professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Howard University in Washington, D.C., where she has been since 1983. In 1994, she received the Kaiser-Permanente Award for Teaching from Howard University College of Medicine. In the same year, she received the Howard University Health Science Teaching Award.

A sometime GRE question writer in cell and molecular biology, Dr. Coomes received her Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1980 from The University of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas. She received her M.S. in 1975 and B.S. (summa cum laude) in 1973, both from North Texas State University in Denton, Texas.

Her other credentials include various projects and workshops with the American Association for the Advancement of Science; subcommittees with American Association for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; 10 years as Chief Proctor of the United States Medical Licensure Examination for Howard University College of Medicine; and she has served on the review panel for graduate and postdoctoral awards for the Howard Hughes Foundation and the Ford Foundation. She is also a published author and contributing author of scientific books and papers.

Table of Contents

Contents  
 
Introduction  
About This Book and TestWare® 

About REA's Test Experts 

About the Test 
Format of the GRE Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Test 
Scoring the Test
Score Conversion Chart
Test-Taking Strategies

The Day of the Test  

During the Test 

Pro Study Plan 

 
PART  1 BIOCHEMISTRY 
Introduction

Chemical Bonds and Energy Conservation

Thermodynamics and Energy Conservation  
Potential Energy Curve
Redox States
Water, pH, Acid-Base Reactions, and Buffers
Structure of Water

Acid-Base Reactions

Concept of Acids and Bases in Relationship to pH

Buffers

Biomolecular Structures
Amino Acids and Proteins
Structure of Proteins
Primary Structure

Secondary Structure

a-Helix
ß-Pleated sheets

ß-Turns

Tertiary Structure

Quaternary Structure

Chemical and Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms

Chemical Reaction Mechanisms

First-Order Reactions

Second-Order Reactions

Some Factors That Influence Reaction Rates

Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms

How Does an Enzyme Help Lower the Energy/Heat of Activation of a Reaction

Proximity and Orientation

Covalent Catalysis

Strain and Distortion

Acid-Base Catalysis

Selected List of Coenzymes and Their Roles in Catalysis

Classification of Enzymes by the Types of Reactions They Catalyze

Oxidoreductases

Transferases

Hydrolases

Lyases

Isomerases

Ligases

Enzyme Kinetics

Practical Aspect of Initial Velocity Measurement

Lineweaver-Burk Plots

Diagnostic Value of Lineweaver-Burk Plots: Enzyme Inhibition  

Classification of the Types of Enzyme Inhibitors

Mechanism-Based Inhibitors

Two-Substrate Reactions

Sequential Reactions May Be Either Random or Ordered 
Ping-Pong or Double-Displacement Reactions

Antibodies as Catalysts

Regulation of Enzymatic Activity

Summary of Regulatory Mechanisms

Kinetic Models for Allosteric Regulation
Kinetic Description of Allosteric Interactions: The Concerted Model
Significance of the Hill Coefficient 

Metabolism 

Forms of Conserved Energy in Metabolism

Glycolysis

Reaction That Commits Glucose Metabolism to Glycolysis 

Aldolase Catalyzes the Production of Two 3-Carbon Compounds from Fru 1,6-P2

Triose Phosphate Isomerase

Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Reaction
Phosphoglycerate Kinase Reaction
Phosphoglycerate Mutase Reaction
Enolase Catalyzes the Second “High-Energy” Compound in Glycolysis  
Pyruvate Kinase Generates the Second ATP Molecule in Glycolysis

Summary of Glycolysis

Pyruvate Metabolism: Formation of Acetylcoenzyme A

The Tricarboxyclic Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle)

Regulation of the TCA cycle

Anaplerotic Reactions for the TCA Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Oxidative Phase of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Nonoxidative Phase of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Glucuronic Acid Oxidative Pathway

Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenesis
Summary of Entry Points in the TCA Cycle and Glycolysis That Can Lead to Gluconeogenesis
Glycogen Metabolism
Glycogenesis
Glycogenolysis

Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism

Photosynthesis

Photochemical Consideration of Light Absorption and Energy Generation   

Light Independent Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle

Adaptive Photosynthetic Mechanisms

Nitrogen Metabolism
Nitrogen Fixation
Chemical Reactions of Pyridoxyl Phosphate Relative to Amino Acid Metabolism
Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

Amino Acids Derived from Oxaloacetate/Aspartate

Amino Acids Derived from 3-Phosphoglycerate

Cysteine
Serine
Glycine

Amino Acids Derived from Pyruvate

Amino Acids Derived from a-Ketoglutarate  

Amino Acids Derived from Phosphoenolpyruvate and Erythrose-4-phosphate

Histidine

Degradation of Amino Acids

Methionine

The Urea Cycle

Nucleotide Structure and Metabolism

Synthesis of Purines

Summary of Key Points About Purine Biosynthesis

Degradation of Purines
Synthesis of Pyrimidines
Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides
Regulation of Ribonucleotide Reductase Activity

Thymine Biosynthesis

Degradation of Pyrimidines

Heme Metabolism
Heme and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis
Heme and Chlorophyll Degradation
Lipid Metabolism
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
Elongation of Palmitic Acid
Formation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Nomenclature and Other Positions Where Desaturases Function
Arachiodonic Acid and Signaling/Regulatory Molecules
Cholesterol and Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Acetate
Fatty Acids Are Stored as Triglycerides
Sphingolipids
Fatty Acid Oxidation

Special Cases to Consider for b-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

Methods

Methods for Cell Disruption

Mechanical Methods

Nonmechanical Methods of Cell Disruption

Separation of Cellular Components by Centrifugation

Centrifugal Force Required to Pellet Selected Cellular Components

Purification of Soluble Proteins
Chromatography
Ion Exchange Chromatography
Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Affinity Chromatography

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Isotopes Used to Study Biological Systems

Radioactive Isotopes
Stable Isotopes

Relationship of Solute Concentration to Its Absorbance of Light

Absorbance of Light and the Lambert-Beer Law

Sample Analyses by Electrophoresis
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)

Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

Determination of Molecular Mass Using SDS Denaturing Gels

Western Blot Analysis 

 
 
PART  2 CELL BIOLOGY  
 
Cellular Compartments of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Organization, Dynamics, and Functions
Microscopy

General Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Cell Death

Apoptosis

Necrosis

Cellular Membrane Systems (Structure and Transport)

Prokaryotic Cells, Plasma Membrane, and Cell Wall

Eukaryotic Plasma Membranes and Cell Walls

Membrane Biogenesis

Membrane Transport

Inactive Transport

Active Transport

Exo- and Endocytosis

Nucleus (Envelope and Matrix) and Chromosomes

Prokaryotic Cells—Chromosome
Eukaryotic Cells—Chromosomes and Nucleus

Other Intracellular Structures, Including Mitochondria and Chloroplasts  

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Specialized Structures and Other Characteristics

Cell Dynamics

Cell Surface and Cell Communication

Extracellular Matrix

The Extracellular Matrix of Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue

The Proteins of Connective Tissue

The Extracellular Matrix of Endothelial Tissue

Cell–Cell Interaction
Binding of Cells to the Extracellular Matrix
Communication between Extracellular Matrix and Cytoskeleton 

Cell Adhesion and Junctions: Cell–Cell Communication

Signal Transduction and Receptor Function

Cell Membrane Receptors

Second Messenger Systems

The cAMP Pathway

The Phosphatidylinositol Pathway

G-Protein-Associated Ion Channels
Receptors That Are Enzymes

Steroid and Thyroid Hormones

Excitable Membrane Systems

Cytoskeleton, Motility, and Shape

Actin Filaments

Actin in Muscle Contraction

Microtubules

Intermediate Filaments
Organization of the Cytoskeleton

Cell Surface Structures of Prokaryotes

Protein Synthesis and Processing

Cell Division, Differentiation, and Development
Bacterial Cell Division

Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

Mitosis and Cytokinesis 

Cytokinesis
Growth Factors
Meiosis and Gametogenesis  
Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development

Fertilization

Embryogenesis

Early Mammalian Development

From Gastrula to Fully Developed Organism

Positional Information

Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Interactions
Tissue-Specific Expression
 

PART  3 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY  

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Inheritance  

Punnett Square Diagrams

Transformation, Transduction, and Conjugation   

Recombination and Complementation

Mutational Analysis

Genetic Mapping and Linkage Analysis
Chromatin and Chromosomes

Karyotypes

Translocations, Inversions, Deletions, and Duplications  
Aneuploidy and Polyploidy

Structure

Genomics
Genome Structure
Repeated DNA and Gene Families  
Centromeres and Telomeres

Gene Identification

Transposable Elements
Gene Maintenance
DNA Replication
The Challenges of DNA Replication   

DNA Damage and Repair

DNA Modification

DNA Recombination and Gene Conversion

Branch Migration
Gene Conversion

The Genetic Code

Transcription
Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes

Positive and Negative Control of the Operon     

Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes

Cis- and Trans-Acting Regulatory Elements

Gene Rearrangements and Amplification

Bacteriophages and Animal and Plant Viruses

Genome Replication and Regulation

Virus-Host Interactions

Methodology

Restriction Maps

DNA Cloning in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Other Uses of Restriction Endonucleases

Nucleic Acid Blotting and Hybridization

PCR

Sequencing and Analysis

Protein-Nucleic Acid Interaction

Site-Directed Mutagenesis

Answer to Mapping Problem

 
PART  4  PRACTICE EXAMS  
Practice Exam 1

Detailed Explanations of Answers

Practice Exam 2

Detailed Explanations of Answers

Index

Installing REA's TestWare®

 
 

Product Details

ISBN:
9780738608341
Publisher:
Research & Education Association
Subject:
GRE (Graduate Record Examination)
Author:
Smith, Thomas E.
Author:
Coomes, Marguerite
Author:
Coomes, Marguerite Wilton
Author:
Gre
Subject:
Life Sciences - Biochemistry
Subject:
Life Sciences - Cytology
Subject:
Reference-Test Guides
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Series:
GRE Test Preparation
Publication Date:
20100531
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
368
Dimensions:
11 x 8.5 in 1.55 lb
Age Level:
from 18

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Product details 368 pages Research & Education Association - English 9780738608341 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by ,
EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO SUCCEED ON THE GRE BIOCHEMISTRY TEST!

If youre serious about your career, use the most comprehensive GRE book on the market today. GRE BIOCHEMISTRY TEST HIGHER SCORES MEAN BETTER OPTIONS

Scoring well on the GRE Biochemistry test doesnt just help you get into grad school, it helps move your career forward. So its worth every minute you can spare to be knowledgeable and confident. ORGANIZE YOUR TIME

Our exclusive Pro Study Plan gives you a complete road map from now until test day to help you prepare for the GRE Biochemistry test as efficiently as possible. REFRESH YOUR GRE BIOCHEMISTRY CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

Everything you need to know for the GRE Biochemistry test, presented in concise sections that work easily into a busy schedule. BUILD CONFIDENCE WITH GRE BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICE EXAMS

With 2 full-length GRE Biochemistry exams, youll know exactly how youre doing every step of the way. And with each repetition, youll measure your progress and build confidence. LEARN GRE TEST-TAKING TIPS FROM THE PROS

Weve distilled years of experience into concrete suggestions for answering every type of question youll encounter on the GRE Biochemistry test. By learning the right approaches, youll avoid traps and save time. GET THE WORLDS MOST ADVANCED GRE BIOCHEMISTRY SOFTWARE

REAs GRE Biochemistry TestWare combines a realistic GRE test environment with the most powerful scoring analysis and diagnostic tools available. With every GRE Biochemistry practice test you take, youll gain knowledge and confidence for the real exam. Automatic scoring and instant reports help you zero in on the topics and types of GRE Biochemistry questions that give you trouble now, so youll succeed on the GRE!

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