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X-Rays, Neutrons and Muons: Photons and Particles for Material Characterization

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X-Rays, Neutrons and Muons: Photons and Particles for Material Characterization Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Spectroscopy is a versatile tool for the characterization of materials, and photons in the visible frequency range of the electromagnetic

spectrum have been used successfully for more than a century now. But other elementary particles such as neutrons, muons and x-ray

photons have been proven to be useful probes as well and are routinely generated in modern cyclotrons and synchrotrons. They offer attractive

alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behavior with its structure. In particular, the combination of these different spectroscopic probes yields rich information on the material samples, thereby allowing for a systematic investigation down to atomic resolutions.

This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century material characterization, and provides the

basis for a detailed understanding of the scattering processes and the knowledge of the relevant microscopic interactions necessary for the

correct interpretation of the experimentally obtained spectroscopic data.

Synopsis:

Aiming elementary particles at surfaces and observing the result in order to glean information on the material is an old discipline: spectroscopy using photons has been performed for more than a century. But recently, a number of much more exotic, subatomic particles such as neutrons, muons or x-rays have been generated in modern cyclotrons and synchrotrons, and due to the steadily growing availability of measurement capacitythey have become attractive as alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behaviour with its structure.

In particular, the combined use of several different types of particles such as x-rays, neutrons and muons yields rich information. This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century materials characterization.

About the Author

Walter E. Fischer (1939-2008) was the former head of the Department of Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons and Muons (NUM) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. He pioneered in establishing the spallation neutron source SINQ at PSI which went into operation in the mid-1990s. Later he foundes a condensed matter theory group to complement the experimental work at the neutron source.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

Some Historical Remarks

The Experimental Methods

The Solid as a Many Body System

Survey over the Spectral Region of a Solid

2. THE PROBES, THEIR ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES

Origin: The Photon, the Electron, the Muon, the Neutron

Properties: Electrons, Muons, Neutrons, Photons

Magnetic Field of the Probing Particles

3. INTERACTION OF THE PROBES WITH THE CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER

The Nuclear Interaction of Neutrons: Interaction with Free Nuclei, Bound Scattering Length, Spin and Isospin Considerations

Interaction of X-Rays with Atomic Constituents: Interaction of a Point Charge with an Electromagnetic Field, Scattering of Light at Atomic Constituents, Photoemission

Magnetic Interaction: Neutrons and Muons as Probes, X-Rays as Probes

Corollar: Neutrons, X-rays, Magnetic Interaction

4. SCATTERING ON (BULK-)SAMPLES

Introduction

The Sample as a Thermodynamic System: Hamiltonian, Partitioning into Subsystems, Interaction of the Probe with the Subsystem

The Scattering Experiment: Differential Cross-Section and the Dynamical Scattering Function, Coherent and Incoherent Scattering, Correlation Functions, Elastic and Inclusive Scattering, Inelastic Scattering

Properties of the Scattering- and Correlation-Function: Mass- and Charge-Densities as Observables, Electronic Currents and Magnetization as Observables

General Form of Spin-Dependent Cross Sections: Introduction, Neutrons, X-rays (non-resonant), Cross-Sections, Spectroscopy

Summary and Conclusions

5. GENERAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Time Development of the Density Operator: Scattering Function and Cross Section, Wangsness-Bloch Equations ? Relaxation Times (an Application for mu-SR)

Generalized Suspectibility: Electromagnetic Field in a Medium, Green?s Function, Retarded Kernel ? Response Function, Fluctuation ? Dissipation, Kramers-Kronig Relations

The Dielectric Response Function and Sum Rules: Sum Rule of Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK), Random Phase Approximation, Optical Sum Rules

Appendix A: Principles of Scattering Theory

Appendix B: Form Factors

Appendix C: Reminder on Statistical Mechanics

Appendix D: The Magnetic Matrix-Elements

Appendix E: The Principle of a mu-SR-Experiment

Appendix F: Reflection Symmetry and Time-Reversal Invariance

Appendix G: Collective Excitations

Product Details

ISBN:
9783527307746
Author:
Fisher, Walter E.
Publisher:
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
Author:
Morf, Rudolf
Author:
Fischer, Walter E.
Subject:
Chemistry - Physical & Theoretical
Subject:
Solid State Physics
Subject:
Chemistry | Physical Chemistry
Copyright:
Publication Date:
20120118
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Language:
English
Pages:
248
Dimensions:
240 x 16 mm

Related Subjects


Science and Mathematics » Chemistry » General
Science and Mathematics » Chemistry » Physical Chemistry
Science and Mathematics » Physics » General

X-Rays, Neutrons and Muons: Photons and Particles for Material Characterization New Trade Paper
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$85.00 In Stock
Product details 248 pages Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH - English 9783527307746 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Aiming elementary particles at surfaces and observing the result in order to glean information on the material is an old discipline: spectroscopy using photons has been performed for more than a century. But recently, a number of much more exotic, subatomic particles such as neutrons, muons or x-rays have been generated in modern cyclotrons and synchrotrons, and due to the steadily growing availability of measurement capacitythey have become attractive as alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behaviour with its structure.

In particular, the combined use of several different types of particles such as x-rays, neutrons and muons yields rich information. This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century materials characterization.

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