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Other titles in the IBM Press series:

Multilingual Natural Language Processing Applications: From Theory to Practice

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Multilingual Natural Language Processing Applications: From Theory to Practice Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Multilingual Natural Language Processing Applications is the first comprehensive single-source guide to building robust and accurate multilingual NLP systems. Edited by two leading experts, it integrates cutting-edge advances with practical solutions drawn from extensive field experience.

 

Part I introduces the core concepts and theoretical foundations of modern multilingual natural language processing, presenting today’s best practices for understanding word and document structure, analyzing syntax, modeling language, recognizing entailment, and detecting redundancy.

 

Part II thoroughly addresses the practical considerations associated with building real-world applications, including information extraction, machine translation, information retrieval/search, summarization, question answering, distillation, processing pipelines, and more.

 

This book contains important new contributions from leading researchers at IBM, Google, Microsoft, Thomson Reuters, BBN, CMU, University of Edinburgh, University of Washington, University of North Texas, and others.

 

Coverage includes

Core NLP problems, and today’s best algorithms for attacking them

  • Processing the diverse morphologies present in the world’s languages
  • Uncovering syntactical structure, parsing semantics, using semantic role labeling, and scoring grammaticality
  • Recognizing inferences, subjectivity, and opinion polarity
  • Managing key algorithmic and design tradeoffs in real-world applications
  • Extracting information via mention detection, coreference resolution, and events
  • Building large-scale systems for machine translation, information retrieval, and summarization
  • Answering complex questions through distillation and other advanced techniques
  • Creating dialog systems that leverage advances in speech recognition, synthesis, and dialog management
  • Constructing common infrastructure for multiple multilingual text processing applications

 

This book will be invaluable for all engineers, software developers, researchers, and graduate students who want to process large quantities of text in multiple languages, in any environment: government, corporate, or academic.

Synopsis:

Other books in the field have either omitted important practical considerations when developing NLP software, or have omitted the challenges associated with creating robust multilingual NLP systems. Our book will provide all the necessary background for creating robust multilingual systems, as well as many of the practical issues that only present themselves when building real-world applications.

 

The book will be divided into two parts. The first part will focus primarily on core technologies useful for building robust NLP systems, and the second part will focus on ways of employing those core technologies, delving into the theoretical and practical considerations involved in building real-world applications. Both of the editors have published numerous peer-reviewed conference and journal articles in the field of statistical NLP, contributing to the theoretical and practical knowledge of the field. In addition, both editors have also had many years’ experience building large-scale, multilingual NLP applications.

 

The bulk of the book’s material is written by contributing chapter-writers, who are be among the top researchers in the field, with years of experience in exploring both theoretical and practical issues involved in building multilingual NLP systems.

 

Synopsis:

Global organizations must quickly and cost-effectively analyze, translate, synthesize, and distill massive amount of text in multiple languages. The technology needed to automate this process - multilingual natural language processing (NLP)- is advancing rapidly. This is the first comprehensive, "one-stop-shop" guide to building robust and accurate multilingual NLP systems. Multilingual Natural Language Applications combines all the essential background and realistic, up-to-date guidance practitioners will need to succeed. Containing new contributions from leading researchers at IBM, Google, Stanford, CMU, Columbia, and ISI, it integrates cutting-edge advances with practical solutions drawn from extensive field experience. Part I focuses primarily on multilingual NLP's core technologies, including technologies for understanding the structure of words and documents; analyzing syntax; modeling language; recognizing entailment, and detecting redundancy. Part II delves into the theoretical and practical considerations involved in using these technologies to construct real-world applications. It contains detailed chapters on information extraction, machine translation, information retrieval and search, summarization, question answering, distillation, and processing pipelines.

About the Author

Daniel M. Bikel is a Senior Research Scientist at Google. He graduated with honors from Harvard in 1993 with a degree in Classics (Ancient Greek and Latin). From 1994 to 1997, he worked at BBN on several natural language processing problems, including development of the first high-accuracy stochastic name-finder, for which he holds a patent. He received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the University of Pennsylvania, in 2000 and 2004, respectively, discovering new properties of statistical parsing algorithms. From 2004 through 2010, he was a Research Staff Member at IBM Research, working on wide variety of NLP problems, including parsing, semantic role labeling, information extraction, machine translation and question answering. Dr. Bikel has been a reviewer for the Computational Linguistics journal, and has been on the program committees of the ACL, NAACL, EACL and EMNLP conferences. He has published numerous peer-reviewed papers in the leading NLP conferences and journals, and has built software tools that have seen widespread use in the NLP community. In 2008, he won a Best Paper Award (Outstanding Short Paper) at the ACL-08: HLT conference. Since 2010, Dr. Bikel has been doing NLP and speech processing research at Google.

 

Imed Zitouni is a senior researcher working for IBM since 2004. He received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in computer science with honors from University of Nancy, France in 1996 and 2000, respectively. In 1995, he obtained a MEng degree in computer science from ENSI (Ecole Nationale des Sciences de l'Informatique), a prestigious national computer institute in Tunisia. Before joining IBM, he was a principal scientist at a startup company DIALOCA in 1999-2000. He then joined Bell-Laboratories Lucent-Alcatel between 2000 and 2004 as a research staff member. His research interests include natural language processing, language modeling, spoken dialogue systems, speech recognition, and machine learning. Dr. Zitouni is a member of the IEEE Speech and Language Technical Committee in 2009-2011. He is the Associate editor of the ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing and the Information Officer of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) Special Interest Group on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages. He is a senior member of IEEE, member of ISCA and ACL. He served in the program committee and as a chair in several peer review conferences and journals. He holds several patents in the field and authored more than 75 papers in peer-review conferences and journals.

Table of Contents

Preface         xxi

Acknowledgments         xxv

About the Authors         xxvii

 

Part I: In Theory         1

Chapter 1: Finding the Structure of Words         3

1.1 Words and Their Components   4

1.2 Issues and Challenges   8

1.3 Morphological Models   15

1.4 Summary   22

 

Chapter 2: Finding the Structure of Documents         29

2.1 Introduction   29

2.2 Methods   33

2.3 Complexity of the Approaches   40

2.4 Performances of the Approaches   41

2.5 Features   41

2.6 Processing Stages   48

2.7 Discussion   48

2.8 Summary   49

 

Chapter 3: Syntax         57

3.1 Parsing Natural Language   57

3.2 Treebanks: A Data-Driven Approach to Syntax   59

3.3 Representation of Syntactic Structure   63

3.4 Parsing Algorithms 70

3.5 Models for Ambiguity Resolution in Parsing   80

3.6 Multilingual Issues: What Is a Token?   87

3.7 Summary   92

 

Chapter 4: Semantic Parsing         97

4.1 Introduction   97

4.2 Semantic Interpretation   98

4.3 System Paradigms   101

4.4 Word Sense   102

4.5 Predicate-Argument Structure 118

4.6 Meaning Representation   147

4.7 Summary   152

 

Chapter 5: Language Modeling          169

5.1 Introduction   169

5.2 n-Gram Models   170

5.3 Language Model Evaluation   170

5.4 Parameter Estimation   171

5.5 Language Model Adaptation   176

5.6 Types of Language Models   178

5.7 Language-Specific Modeling Problems  188

5.8 Multilingual and Crosslingual Language Modeling   195

5.9 Summary   198

 

Chapter 6: Recognizing Textual Entailment         209

6.1 Introduction   209

6.2 The Recognizing Textual Entailment Task   210

6.3 A Framework for Recognizing Textual Entailment   219

6.4 Case Studies   238

6.5 Taking RTE Further   248

6.6 Useful Resources   252

6.7 Summary   253

 

Chapter 7: Multilingual Sentiment and Subjectivity Analysis         259

7.1 Introduction   259

7.2 Definitions   260

7.3 Sentiment and Subjectivity Analysis on English   262

7.4 Word- and Phrase-Level Annotations   264

7.5 Sentence-Level Annotations   270

7.6 Document-Level Annotations   272

7.7 What Works, What Doesn’t   274

7.8 Summary   277

 

Part II: In Practice         283

Chapter 8: Entity Detection and Tracking         285

8.1 Introduction   285

8.2 Mention Detection   287

8.3 Coreference Resolution   296

8.4 Summary   303

 

Chapter 9: Relations and Events         309

9.1 Introduction   309

9.2 Relations and Events   310

9.3 Types of Relations   311

9.4 Relation Extraction as Classification   312

9.5 Other Approaches to Relation Extraction   317

9.6 Events   320

9.7 Event Extraction Approaches   320

9.8 Moving Beyond the Sentence   323

9.9 Event Matching   323

9.10 Future Directions for Event Extraction   326

9.11 Summary   326

 

Chapter 10: Machine Translation         331

10.1 Machine Translation Today   331

10.2 Machine Translation Evaluation   332

10.3 Word Alignment   337

10.4 Phrase-Based Models   343

10.5 Tree-Based Models   350

10.6 Linguistic Challenges   354

10.7 Tools and Data Resources   356

10.8 Future Directions   358

10.9 Summary   359

 

Chapter 11: Multilingual Information Retrieval         365

11.1 Introduction   366

11.2 Document Preprocessing   366

11.3 Monolingual Information Retrieval   372

11.4 CLIR   378

11.5 MLIR   382

11.6 Evaluation in Information Retrieval   386

11.7 Tools, Software, and Resources   391

11.8 Summary   393

 

Chapter 12: Multilingual Automatic Summarization         397

12.1 Introduction   397

12.2 Approaches to Summarization   399

12.3 Evaluation   412

12.4 How to Build a Summarizer   420

12.5 Competitions and Datasets   424

12.6 Summary   426

 

Chapter 13: Question Answering         433

13.1 Introduction and History   433

13.2 Architectures   435

13.3 Source Acquisition and Preprocessing   437

13.4 Question Analysis   440

13.5 Search and Candidate Extraction   443

13.6 Answer Scoring   450

13.7 Crosslingual Question Answering   454

13.8 A Case Study   455

13.9 Evaluation   460

13.10 Current and Future Challenges   464

13.11 Summary and Further Reading   465

 

Chapter 14: Distillation         475

14.1 Introduction   475

14.2 An Example   476

14.3 Relevance and Redundancy   477

14.4 The Rosetta Consortium Distillation System   479

14.5 Other Distillation Approaches   488

14.6 Evaluation and Metrics   491

14.7 Summary   495

 

Chapter 15: Spoken Dialog Systems         499

15.1 Introduction   499

15.2 Spoken Dialog Systems   499

15.3 Forms of Dialog   509

15.4 Natural Language Call Routing   510

15.5 Three Generations of Dialog Applications   510

15.6 Continuous Improvement Cycle   512

15.7 Transcription and Annotation of Utterances   513

15.8 Localization of Spoken Dialog Systems   513

15.9 Summary   520

 

Chapter 16: Combining Natural Language Processing Engines         523

16.1 Introduction   523

16.2 Desired Attributes of Architectures for Aggregating Speech and NLP Engines   524

16.3 Architectures for Aggregation   527

16.4 Case Studies   531

16.5 Lessons Learned   540

16.6 Summary   542

16.7 Sample UIMA Code   542

 

Index         551

Product Details

ISBN:
9780137151448
Author:
Zitouni, Imed
Publisher:
IBM Press
Author:
Bikel, Daniel
Subject:
Software Engineering - Programming and Languages
Subject:
Natural Language Processing
Copyright:
Series:
IBM Press
Publication Date:
20120511
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Language:
English
Pages:
640
Dimensions:
9.5 x 7.375 x 1.453 in 1111 gr

Related Subjects

Business » Management
Computers and Internet » Artificial Intelligence » Natural Language
Computers and Internet » Computers Reference » General
Computers and Internet » Software Engineering » Programming and Languages
Engineering » Communications » Telephony

Multilingual Natural Language Processing Applications: From Theory to Practice New Hardcover
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Product details 640 pages IBM Press - English 9780137151448 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Other books in the field have either omitted important practical considerations when developing NLP software, or have omitted the challenges associated with creating robust multilingual NLP systems. Our book will provide all the necessary background for creating robust multilingual systems, as well as many of the practical issues that only present themselves when building real-world applications.

 

The book will be divided into two parts. The first part will focus primarily on core technologies useful for building robust NLP systems, and the second part will focus on ways of employing those core technologies, delving into the theoretical and practical considerations involved in building real-world applications. Both of the editors have published numerous peer-reviewed conference and journal articles in the field of statistical NLP, contributing to the theoretical and practical knowledge of the field. In addition, both editors have also had many years’ experience building large-scale, multilingual NLP applications.

 

The bulk of the book’s material is written by contributing chapter-writers, who are be among the top researchers in the field, with years of experience in exploring both theoretical and practical issues involved in building multilingual NLP systems.

 

"Synopsis" by , Global organizations must quickly and cost-effectively analyze, translate, synthesize, and distill massive amount of text in multiple languages. The technology needed to automate this process - multilingual natural language processing (NLP)- is advancing rapidly. This is the first comprehensive, "one-stop-shop" guide to building robust and accurate multilingual NLP systems. Multilingual Natural Language Applications combines all the essential background and realistic, up-to-date guidance practitioners will need to succeed. Containing new contributions from leading researchers at IBM, Google, Stanford, CMU, Columbia, and ISI, it integrates cutting-edge advances with practical solutions drawn from extensive field experience. Part I focuses primarily on multilingual NLP's core technologies, including technologies for understanding the structure of words and documents; analyzing syntax; modeling language; recognizing entailment, and detecting redundancy. Part II delves into the theoretical and practical considerations involved in using these technologies to construct real-world applications. It contains detailed chapters on information extraction, machine translation, information retrieval and search, summarization, question answering, distillation, and processing pipelines.
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