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Statistics for Social Workers (Mysearchlab Series 15% Off)

by

Statistics for Social Workers (Mysearchlab Series 15% Off) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Now in its eighth edition, this widely used text covers the types of statistical analyses that are most likely to be encountered by social work practitioners and researchers.  It requires no prior knowledge of statistics and only basic mathematical competence.

Table of Contents

Preface

1 Introduction

USE OF STATISTICS

METHODOLOGICAL TERMS   

Data    

Information   

Variables and Constants   

Conceptualization  

Operationalization  

Reliability   

Validity 

  

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Three Forms of Research Hypotheses

Causal and Non-causal Research Hypotheses   

Independent and Dependent Variables

MEASUREMENT LEVELS   

Nominal   

Ordinal   

Interval    

Ratio   

MEASUREMENT LEVELS AND DATA ANALYSIS   

ADDITIONAL MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATIONS   

Discrete and Continuous Variables   

Dichotomous, Binary, and Dummy Variables   

CATEGORIES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSES   

Number of Variables in an Analysis   

Primary Purpose of the Analysis   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

2 Frequency Distributions and Graphs 

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS   

Absolute Frequency Distributions   

Cumulative Frequency Distributions   

Percentage Frequency Distributions   

Cumulative Percentage Frequency Distributions   

GROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS   

USING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS TO ANALYZE DATA  

MISREPRESENTATION OF DATA   

GRAPHS   

Bar Graphs and Line Diagrams   

Pie Charts   

Histograms   

Frequency Polygons   

Stem-and-Leaf Plots   

A COMMON MISTAKE IN DISPLAYING DATA   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

3 Measures of Central Tendency and Variability 

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY   

The Mode   

The Median   

The Mean   

Which Measure of Central Tendency to Use?   

MEASURES OF VARIABILITY   

The Range   

The Interquartile Range   

The Mean Deviation   

Variance   

Standard Deviation   

Reporting Measures of Variability   

OTHER USES FOR CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

4 Normal Distributions  

SKEWNESS   

KURTOSIS   

NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS   

CONVERTING RAW SCORES TO Z SCORES AND PERCENTILES   

Practical Uses of z Scores   

DERIVING RAW SCORES FROM PERCENTILES   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

5  Hypothesis Testing: Basic Principles 

ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS FOR RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN SAMPLES   

Rival Hypotheses   

Research Design Flaws   

Sampling Error   

PROBABILITY AND INFERENCE   

REFUTING SAMPLING ERROR   

Replication   

Statistical Analyses   

STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

p values

Rejection Levels (Alpha)

ERRORS IN DRAWING CONCLUSIONS ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS   

Avoiding Type I Errors   

Avoiding Type II Errors

STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS AND MEANINGFUL FINDINGS   

More about Effect Size

Is the Relationship Valuable?   

Complex Interpretations of Statistically Significant Relationships   

THE PROCESS OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

6 Sampling Distributions, Rejection Regions, and Statistical Test Selection 

SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING ERROR   

SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS AND INFERENCE   

Comparing an Experimental Sample with Its Population   

Comparing a Non-Experimental Sample with Its Population   

SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF MEANS   

Samples Drawn from Normal Distributions   

Samples Drawn from Skewed Distributions   

ESTIMATING PARAMETERS   

Constructing a 95 Percent Confidence Interval   

Constructing a 99 Percent Confidence Interval   

SELECTING A STATISTICAL TEST

The Importance of Selecting the Correct Test

Factors to Consider in Selecting the Correct Test

PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC TESTS

MULTIVARIATE TESTS  

DECIDING WHICH TEST TO USE 

More about Getting Help

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS    

 

7   t Tests and Analysis of Variance 

THE USE OF t TESTS   

Misuse of t  

THE ONE-SAMPLE t TEST   

Determining If a Sample Is Representative   

Seeking Support for a Research Hypothesis

Presentation of Findings   

A Nonparametric Alternative: Chi-Square Goodness of Fit   

THE DEPENDENT t TEST   

Use with Two Connected (or Matched) Samples Measured Once   

Use with One Sample Measured Twice   

A Nonparametric Alternative: Wilcoxon Sign   

THE INDEPENDENT t TEST   

Nonparametric Alternatives: U and K-S   

A Multivariate Alternative: T2   

SIMPLE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (SIMPLE ANOVA)   

Additional Data Analyses   

A Nonparametric Alternative: Kruskal-Wallis   

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS    

 

8 The Chi-square Test of Association Between Variables 

WHEN CHI-SQUARE IS APPROPRIATE

CROSS-TABULATION TABLES

Degrees of Freedom   

Using Chi-Square   

Presentation of Findings   

Interpreting the Results of a Chi-Square Analysis   

Meaningfulness and Sample Size   

Restrictions on the Use of Chi-Square   

An Alternative: Fisher’s Exact Test   

Using Chi-Square in Social Work Practice  

 

CROSS TABULATION WITH THREE OR MORE VARIABLES   

Problems with Sizes of Expected Frequencies   

Effects of Introducing Additional Variables   

SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF THE CHI-SQUARE FORMULA   

McNemar’s Test   

The Median Test   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

9   Correlation Analyses 

USES OF CORRELATION   

SCATTERGRAMS   

PERFECT CORRELATIONS   

NONPERFECT CORRELATIONS   

INTERPRETING LINEAR CORRELATIONS   

Understanding Correlation Coefficients   

Very Strong Correlations   

Remember,Correlation Is Not Causation!   

Using Correlation For Inference   

PEARSON’S r   

Computation and Presentation   

NONPARAMETRIC ALTERNATIVES   

Spearman’s Rho and Kendall’s Tau   

CORRELATION WITH THREE OR MORE VARIABLES   

Partial r   

Multiple R   

Variations of Multiple R   

OTHER MULTIVARIATE TESTS THAT USE CORRELATION   

Factor Analysis   

Cluster Analysis   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

10  Regression Analyses 

PREDICTION AND EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE

PREDICTION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS   

WHAT IS SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION?   

Research Questions in Simple Linear Regression   

Limitations of Simple Linear Regression   

COMPUTATION OF THE REGRESSION EQUATION   

MORE ABOUT THE REGRESSION LINE   

The Least-Squares Criterion   

Interchanging X and Y Variables   

INTERPRETING RESULTS   

Presentation of Y ?   

The Standard Error   

Using Regression in Social Work Practice   

REGRESSION WITH THREE OR MORE VARIABLES   

Options for Entering Variables

OTHER TYPES OF REGRESSION ANALYSES   

Discriminant Analysis   

Logistic Regression   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

 

11Other Ways that Statistical Analyses Contribute to Evidence-Based Practice 

META-ANALYSIS   

ANSWERS SOUGHT IN PROGRAM EVALUATIONS   

NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AND FORMATIVE EVALUATIONS   

OUTCOME EVALUATIONS   

Hypothesis Testing in Outcome Evaluations   

Statistical Analyses of Outcome Evaluation Data   

ANSWERS SOUGHT IN SINGLE-SYSTEM RESEARCH   

Hypothesis Testing in Single-System Research   

Statistical Analyses of Single-System Data   

Using Familiar Statistical Tests   

Two Other Popular Tests   

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS   

STUDY QUESTIONS   

Appendix A    Beginning to Select a Statistical Test   

Glossary   

Index   

Product Details

ISBN:
9780205739875
Author:
Weinbach, Robert W
Publisher:
Pearson
Author:
Cram101 Textbook Reviews
Author:
Weinbach, Robert W.
Author:
Grinnell, Richard M.
Subject:
Public Policy - Social Services & Welfare
Subject:
Statistics
Subject:
Social sciences -- Statistical methods.
Subject:
Probability & Statistics - General
Subject:
Applied
Subject:
Social Work
Subject:
Services & Welfare
Subject:
Mathematics | Probability and Statistics
Subject:
Education-General
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Series:
Mysearchlab Series 15% Off
Publication Date:
July 2009
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
312
Dimensions:
9.1 x 7 x 0.5 in 390 gr

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