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Q&A | February 27, 2014

Rene Denfeld: IMG Powell’s Q&A: Rene Denfeld



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Organic Chemistry (6TH 11 - Old Edition)

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Organic Chemistry (6TH 11 - Old Edition) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

In this innovative text, Bruice balances coverage of traditional topics with bioorganic chemistry to show how organic chemistry is related to biological systems and to our daily lives. Functional groups are organized around mechanistic similarities, emphasizing what functional groups do rather than how they are made. Tying together the reactivity of a functional group and the synthesis of compounds resulting from its reactivity prevents students from needing to memorize lists of unrelated reactions. The Sixth Edition has been revised and streamlined throughout to enhance clarity and accessibility, and adds a wealth of new problems and problem-solving strategies.

Synopsis:

This package contains:

0132334712: Organic Molecular Model Kit

0321663136: Organic Chemistry

0032177437X: Organic Chemistry Study Guide and Solutions Manual, Books a la Carte Edition

About the Author

Paula Yurkanis Bruice was raised primarily in Massachusetts, Germany, and Switzerland and was graduated from the Girls' Latin School in Boston. She received an A.B. from Mount Holyoke College and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Virginia. She received an NIH postdoctoral fellowship for study in biochemistry at the University of Virginia Medical School, and she held a postdoctoral appointment in the Department of Pharmacology at Yale Medical School.

 

She is a member of the faculty at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where she has received the Associated Students Teacher of the Year Award, the Academic Senate Distinguished Teaching Award, and two Mortar Board Professor of the Year Awards. Her research interests concern the mechanism and catalysis of organic reactions, particularly those of biological significance. Paula has a daughter and a son who are physicians and a son who is a lawyer. Her main hobbies are reading mystery/suspense novels and her pets (three dogs, two cats, and a parrot).

Table of Contents

I    AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY

1    Electronic Structure and Bonding • Acids and Bases

1.1    The Structure of an Atom

1.2    How Electrons in an Atom are Distributed

1.3    Ionic and Covalent Bonds

1.4    How the Structure of a Compound is Represented

1.5    Atomic Orbitals

1.6    An Introduction to Molecular Orbital Theory

1.7    How Single Bonds Are Formed in Organic Compounds

1.8    How a Double Bond is Formed: The Bonds in Ethene

1.9    How a Triple Bond is Formed: The Bonds in Ethyne

1.10    Bonding in the Methyl Cation, the Methyl Radical, and the Methyl Anion

1.11    The Bonds in Water

1.12    The Bonds in Ammonia and in the Ammonium Ion

1.13    The Bond in a Hydrogen Halide

1.14    Summary: Hybridization, Bond Lengths, Bond Strengths, and Bond Angles

1.15    The Dipole Moments of Molecules

1.16    An Introduction to Acids and Bases

1.17    pka and pH

1.18    Organic Acids and Bases

1.19    How to Predict the Outcome of an Acid-Base Reaction

1.20    How to Determine the Position of Equilibrium

1.21    How the Structure of an Acid Affects its pka Value

1.22    How Substituents Affect the Strength of an Acid

1.23    An Introduction to Delocalized Electrons

1.24    A Summary of the Factors that Determine Acid Strength

1.25    How pH Affects the Structure of an Organic Compound

1.26    Buffer Solutions

1.27    Lewis Acids and Bases

2    An Introduction to Organic Compounds: Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Representation of Structure

2.1    How Alkyl Substituents Are Named

2.2    The Nomenclature of Alkanes

2.3    The Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes • Skeletal Structures

2.4    The Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides

2.5    The Nomenclature of Ethers

2.6    The Nomenclature of Alcohols

2.7    The Nomenclature of Amines

2.8    The Structures of Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines

2.9    The Physical Properties of Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines

2.10    Rotation Occurs About Carbon-Carbon Single Bonds

2.11    Some Cycloalkanes Have Angle Strain

2.12    Conformers of Cyclohexane

2.13    Conformers of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes

2.14    Conformers of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes

2.15    Fused Cyclohexane Rings

II    ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION REACTIONS, STEREOCHEMISTRY, AND ELECTRON DELOCALIZATION

3    Alkenes: Structure, Nomenclature, and an Introduction to Reactivity • Thermodynamics and Kinetics

3.1    Molecular Formulas and the Degree of Unsaturation

3.2    The Nomenclature of Alkenes

3.3    The Structures of Alkenes

3.4    Alkenes Can Have Cis and Trans Isomers

3.5    Naming Alkenes Using the E,Z System

3.6    How Alkenes React • Curved Arrows Show the Flow of Electrons

3.7    Thermodynamics and Kinetics

3.8    The Rate of a Reaction and the Rate Constant for a Reaction

3.9    A Reaction Coordinate Diagram Describes the Energy Changes That Take Place During a Reaction

4    The Reactions of Alkenes

4.1    The Addition of a Hydrogen Halide to an Alkene

4.2    Carbocation Stability Depends on the Number of Alkyl Groups Attached to the Positively Charged Carbon

4.3    What Does the Structure of the Transition State Look Like?

4.4    Electrophilic Addition Reactions Are Regioselective

4.5    The Addition of Water to an Alkene

4.6    The Addition of an Alcohol to an Alkene

4.7    A Carbocation Will Rearrange If It Can Form a More Stable Carbocation

4.8    The Addition of a Halogen to an Alkene

4.9    Oxymercuration-Reduction and Alkoxymercuration-Reduction Are Other Ways to Add Water or an Alcohol to an Alkene

4.10    The Addition of a Peroxyacid to an Alkene

4.11    The Addition of Borane to an Alkene: Hydroboration-Oxidation

4.12    The Addition of Hydrogen to an Alkene

4.13    The Relative Stabilities of Alkenes

4.14    Reactions and Synthesis

5    Stereochemistry: The Arrangement of Atoms in Space; The Stereochemistry of Addition Reactions

5.1    Cis-Trans Isomers Result from Restricted Rotation

5.2    A Chiral Object Has a Nonsuperimposable Mirror Image

5.3    An Asymmetric Center Is a Cause of Chirality in a Molecule

5.4    Isomers with One Asymmetric Center

5.5    Asymmetric Centers and Stereocenters

5.6    How to Draw Enantiomers

5.7    Naming Enantiomers by the R,S System

5.8    Chiral Compounds Are Optically Active

5.9    How Specific Rotation is Measured

5.10    Enantiomeric Excess

5.11    Isomers with More than One Asymmetric Center

5.12    Meso Compounds Have Asymmetric Centers but Are Optically Inactive

5.13    How to Name Isomers with More than One Asymmetric Center

5.14    Reactions of Compounds that Contain an Asymmetric Center

5.15    Using Reactions that Do Not Break Bonds to an Asymmetric Center to Determine Relative Configurations

5.16    How Enantiomers Can Be Separated

5.17    Nitrogen and Phosphorus Atoms Can Be Asymmetric Centers

5.18    Stereochemistry of Reactions: Regioselective, Stereoselective, and Stereospecific Reactions

5.19    The Stereochemistry of Electrophilic addition Reactions of Alkenes

5.20    The Stereochemistry of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

5.21    Enantiomers Can Be Distinguished by Biological Molecules

6    The Reactions of Alkynes: An Introduction to Multistep Synthesis

6.1    The Nomenclature of Alkynes

6.2    How to Name a Compound That Has More than One Functional Group

6.3    The Physical Properties of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

6.4    The Structure of Alkynes

6.5    How Alkynes React

6.6    The Addition of Hydrogen Halides and Addition of Halogens to an Alkyne

6.7    The Addition of Water to an Alkyne

6.8    The Addition of Borane to an Alkyne: Hydroboration-Oxidation

6.9    The Addition if Hydrogen to an Alkyne

6.10    A Hydrogen Bonded to an sp Carbon is “Acidic”

6.11    Synthesis Using Acetylide Ions

6.12    Designing a Synthesis I: An Introduction to Multistep Synthesis

7    Delocalized Electrons and Their Effect on Stability, Reactivity, and pKa • More About Molecular Orbital Theory

7.1    Delocalized Electrons Explain Benzene’s Structure

7.2    The Bonding in Benzene

7.3    Resonance Contributors and the Resonance Hybrid

7.4    How to Draw Resonance Contributors

7.5    The Predicted Stabilities of Resonance Contributors

7.6    Delocalized Energy Is the Additional Stability Delocalized Electrons Give to a Compound

7.7    Examples That Show How Delocalized Electrons Affect Stability

7.8    A Molecular Orbital Description of Stability

7.9    How Delocalized Electrons Affect pKa Values

7.10    Delocalized Electrons Can Affect the Product of a Reaction

7.11    Thermodynamic Versus Kinetic Control of Reactions

7.12    The Diels-Adler Reaction Is a 1,4-Addition Reaction

III    SUBSTITUTION AND ELIMINATION REACTIONS

8    Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides

8.1    The Mechanism For an SN2 Reaction    

8.2    Factors That Affect SN2 Reactions

8.3    The Reversibility of an SN2 Reaction Depends on the Basicities of the Leaving Groups in the Forward and Reverse Directions

8.4    The Mechanism for an SN1 Reaction

8.5    Factors That Affect SN1 Reactions

8.6    More About the Stereochemistry of SN2 and SN1Reactions

8.7    Benzylic Halides, Allylic Halides, Vinylic Halides, and Aryl Halides

8.8    Competition Between SN2 and SN1Reactions

8.9    The Role of the Solvent in SN2 and SN1 Reactions

8.10    Intermolecular Versus Intramolecular Reactions

8.11    Biological Methylating Reagents Have Good Leaving Groups

9    Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides • Competition between Substitution and Elimination

9.1    The E2 Reaction

9.2    An E2 Reaction is Regioselective

9.3    The E1 Reaction

9.4    Competition between E2 and E1 Reactions

9.5    E2 and E1 Reactions are Stereoselective

9.6    Elimination from Substituted Cyclohexanes

9.7    A Kinetic Isotope Effect Can Help Determine a Mechanism

9.8    Competition between Substitution and Elimination

9.9    Substitution and Elimination Reactions in Synthesis

9.10    Designing a Synthesis II: Approaching the Problem

10    Reactions of Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amine, and Sulfur- Containing Compounds

10.1    Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Alcohols: Forming Alkyl Halides

10.2    Other Methods Used to Convert Alcohols into Alkyl Halides

10.3    Converting an Alcohol to a Sulfonate Ester

10.4    Elimination Reactions of Alcohols: Dehydration

10.5    Oxidation of Alcohols

10.6    Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Ethers

10.7    Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Epoxides

10.8    Amines Do Not Undergo Substitution or Elimination Reactions

10.9    Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides Undergo Elimination Reactions

10.10    Phase-Transfer Catalysts

10.11    Thiols, Sulfides, and Sulfonium Salts

11    Organometallic Compounds

11.1    Organolithium and Organomagnesium Compounds

11.2    The Reaction Organolithium Compounds and Grighard Reagents with Electrophiles

11.3    Transmetallation

11.4    Coupling Reactions

11.5    Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions

11.6    Alkene Metathesis

12    Radicals • Reactions of Alkanes

12.1    Alkanes Are Unreactive Compounds

12.2    Chlorination and Bromination of Alkanes

12.3    Radical Stability Depends on the Number of Alkyl Groups Attached to the Carbon with the Unpaired Electron

12.4    The Distribution of Products Depends on Probability and Reactivity

12.5    The Reactivity-Selectivity Principle

12.6    Formation of Explosive Peroxides

12.7    The Addition of Radicals to an Alkene

12.8    The Stereochemistry of Radical Substitution and Addition Reactions

12.9    Radical Substitution of Benzylic and Allylic Hydrogens

12.10    Designing a Synthesis III: More Practice with Multistep Synthesis

12.11    Radical Reactions Occur in Biological Systems

12.12    Radicals and Stratospheric Ozone

IV    IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

13    Mass Spectrometry, Infrared Spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy

13.1    Mass Spectrometry

13.2    The Mass Spectrum • Fragmentation

13.3    Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry

13.4    High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Can Reveal Molecular Formulas

13.5    Fragmentation Patterns of Functional Groups

13.6    Other Ionization Methods

13.7    Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

13.8    Infrared Spectroscopy

13.9    Characteristic Infrared Absorption Bands

13.10    The Intensity of Absorption Bands

13.11    The Position of Absorption Bands

13.12    The Position of an Absorption Band is Affected by Electron Delocalization, Election Donation and Withdrawal, and Hydrogen Bonding

13.13    The Shape of Absorption Bands

13.14    The Absence of Absorption Bands

13.15    Some Vibrations Are Infrared Inactive

13.16    How to Interpret An Infrared Spectrum

13.17    Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy

13.18    The Beer-Lambert Law

13.19    The Effect of Conjugation on λmax

13.20    The Visible Spectrum and Color

13.21    Some Uses of UV/Vis Spectroscopy

14    NMR Spectroscopy

14.1    An Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy

14.2    Fourier Transform NMR

14.3    Shielding Causes Different Hydrogens to Show Signals at Different Frequencies

14.4    The Number of Signals in an 1H NMR Spectrum

14.5    The Chemical Shift Tells How Far the Signal Is from the Reference Signal

14.6    The Relative Positions of 1H NMR Signals

14.7    Characteristic Values of Chemical Shifts

14.8    Dismagnetic Anisotropy

14.9    The Integration of NMR Signals Reveals the Relative Number of Protons Causing the Signal

14.10    The Splitting of the Signals is Described by the N + 1 Rule

14.11    More Examples of 1H NMR Spectra

14.12    Coupling Constants Identify Coupled Protons

14.13    Splitting Diagrams Explain the Multiplicity of a Signal

14.14    Diastereotopic Hydrogens Are Not Chemically Equivalent

14.15    The Time Dependence of NMR Spectroscopy

14.16    Protons Bonded to Oxygen and Nitrogen

14.17    The Use of Deuterium in 1H NMR Spectroscopy

14.18    The Resolution of 1H NMR Spectra

14.19    13C NMR Spectroscopy

14.20    DEPT 13C NMR Spectra

14.21    Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy

14.22    NMR Used in Medicine is Called Magnetic Resonance Imaging

14.23    X-Ray Crystallography

V. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

15    Aromaticity • Reactions of Benzene

15.1    Aromatic Compounds Are Unusually Stable

15.2    The Two Criteria for Aromaticity

15.3    Applying the Criteria for Aromaticity

15.4    Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds

15.5    Some Chemical Consequences of Aromaticity

15.6    Antiaromaticity

15.7    A Molecular Orbital Description of Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity

15.8    The Nomenclature of Monosubstituted Benzenes

15.9    How Benzene Reacts

15.10    The General Mechanism for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

15.11    The Halogenation of Benzene

15.12    The Nitration of Benzene

15.13    The Sulfonation of Benzene

15.14    The Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Benzene

15.15    The Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Benzene

15.16    The Alkylation of Benzene by Acylation-Reduction

15.17    Using Coupling Reactions to Alkylate Benzene

15.18    It Is Important to Have More Than One Way to Carry Out a Reaction

15.19    Polycyclic Benzold Hydrocarbons

15.20    Arene Oxides

16    Reactions of Substituted Benzenes

16.1    How Some Substituents on a Benzene Ring Can Be Chemically Changed

16.2    The Nomenclature of Disubstituted and Polysubstituted Benzenes

16.3    The Effect of Substituents on Reactivity

16.4    The Effect of Substituents on Orientation

16.5    The Effect of Substituents on pKa

16.6    The Ortho-Para Ratio

16.7    Additional Considerations Regarding Substituent Effects

16.8    Designing a Synthesis IV: Synthesis of Monosubstituted and Disubstituted Benzenes

16.9    The Synthesis of Trisubstituted Benzenes

16.10    The Synthesis of Substituted Benzenes Using Arenediazonium Salts

16.11    The Arenediazonium Ion as an Electrophile

16.12    The Mechanism for the Reaction of Amines with Nitrous Acid

16.13    Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution: An Addition-Elimination Mechanism

16.14    Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution: An Elimination-Addition Mechanism That Forms a Benzene

VI.    CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

17    Carbonyl Compounds I: Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Derivatives

17.1    The Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

17.2    The Structures of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Derivatives

17.3    The Physical Properties of Carbonyl Compounds

17.4    Naturally Occurring Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

17.5    How Class I Carbonyl Compounds React

17.6    Relative Reactivities of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

17.7    General Mechanism for Nucleophilic Addition-Elimination Reactions

17.8    Reactions of Acyl Halides

17.9    Reactions of Acid Anhydrides

17.10    Reactions of Esters

17.11    Acid-Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis and Transesterification

17.12    Hydroxide-Ion-Promoted Ester Hydrolysis

17.13    How the Mechanism for Nucleophilic Addition-Elimination was Confirmed

17.14    Soaps, Detergents, and Micelles

17.15    Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

17.16    Reactions of Amides

17.17    The Hydrolysis of Amides Is Catalyzed by Acids

17.18    The Hydrolysis of an Imide: A Way to Synthesize Primary Amines

17.19    The Hydrolysis of Nitriles

17.20    Designing a Synthesis V: The Synthesis of Cyclic Compounds

17.21    How Chemists Activate Carboxylic Acids

17.22    How Cells Activate Carboxylic Acids

17.23    Dicarboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

18    Carbonyl Compounds II: Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones • More Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives • Reactions of α, β- Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

18.1    The Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

18.2    The Relative Reactivities of Carbonyl Compounds

18.3    How Aldehydes and Ketones React

18.4    The Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Gringard Reagents

18.5    The Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Acetylide Ions

18.6    The Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Hydride Ion

18.7    The Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Hydrogen Cyanide

18.8    The Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Amines and Amine Derivatives

18.9    The Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Water    

18.10    Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Alcohols

18.11    Protecting Groups

18.12    Addition of Sulfur Nucleophiles

18.13    The Wittig Reaction Forms an Alkene

18.14    Stereochemistry of Nucleophilic Addition Reactions: Re and Si Faces

18.15    Designing a Synthesis VI: Disconnections, Synthons, and Synthetic Equivalents

18.16    Nucleophilic Addition to α, β- Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones

18.17    Nucleophilic Addition to α, β- Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

18.18    Enzyme-Catalyzed Additions to α, β- Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

19    Carbonyl Compounds III: Reactions at the α- Carbon

19.1    The Acidity of an α- Hydrogen

19.2    Keto-Enol Tautomers

19.3    Keto-Enol Interconversion

19.4    How Enolate Ions and Enols

19.5    Halogenation of the α- Carbon and Aldehydes and Ketones

19.6    Halogenation of the α- Carbon of Carboxylic Acids: The Hell-Volhard-Zelinski Reaction

19.7    α- Halogenated Carbonyl Compounds Are Useful in Synthesis

19.8    Using LDA to Form an Enolate Ion

19.9    Alkylating the α-Carbon of Carbonyl Compounds

19.10    Alkylation and Acylation of the α-Carbon Using an Enamine Intermediate

19.11    Alkylation of the β-Carbon: The Michael Reaction

19.12    An Aldol Addition Forms β-Hydroxaldehydes or β-Hydroxyketones

19.13    Dehydration of Aldol Addition Products Form α, β-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones

19.14    The Crossed Aldol Addition

19.15    A Claisen Condensation Forms a β-Keto Ester

19.16    Other Crossen Condensations

19.17    Intramolecular Condensation and Addition Reactions

19.18    The Robinson Annulation

19.19    Carboxylic Acids with a Carbonyl Group at the 3-Position can be Decarboxylated

19.20    The Malonic Ester Synthesis: A Way to Synthesize a Carboxylic Acid

19.21    The Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis: A Way to Synthesize a Methyl Ketone

19.22    Designing a Synthesis VII: Making New Carbon-Carbon Bonds

19.23    Reactions at the α-Carbon in Biological Systems

VII    MORE ABOUT OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS AND AMINES

20    More About Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

20.1    Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Organic Compounds: An Overview

20.2    Reduction Reactions

20.3    Chemoselective Reactions

20.4    Oxidation of Alcohols

20.5    Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones

20.6    Designing a Synthesis VIII: Controlling Stereochemistry

20.7    Oxidation of Alkenes to 1,2 Diols

20.8    Oxidative Cleavage of 1,2 Diols

20.9    Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes

20.10    Designing a Synthesis IX: Functional Group Interconversion

21    More About Amines • Heterocylic Compounds

21.1    More about Amine Nomenclature

21.2    More About the Acid-Base Properties of Amines

21.3    Amines React as Bases and as Nucleophiles

21.4    Synthesis of Amines

21.5    Aromatic Five-Membered-Ring Heterocycles

21.6    Aromatic Six-Membered-Ring Heterocycles

21.7    Amine Heterocycles Have Important Roles in Nature

VIII    BIOORGANIC COMPOUNDS

22    The Organic Chemistry of Carbohydrates

22.1    Classification of Carbohydrates

22.2    The D and L Notation

22.3    The Configurations of Aldoses

22.4    The Configurations of Ketoses

22.5    The Reactions of Monosaccharides in Basic Solutions

22.6    The Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Monosaccharides

22.7    Monosaccharides Form Crystalline Osazones

22.8    Lengthening the Chain: The Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis

22.9    Shortening the Chain: The Wohl Degradation

22.10    The Stereochemistry of Glucose: The Fischer Proof

22.11    Monosaccharides Form Cyclic Hemiacetals

22.12    Glucose is the Most Stable Aldohexose

22.13    Formation of Glycosides

22.14    The Anomeric Effect

22.15    Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars

22.16    Disaccharides

22.17    Polysaccharides

22.18    Some Naturally Occurring Products Derived from Carbohydrates

22.19    Carbohydrates on Cell Surfaces

22.20    Synthetic Sweeteners

23    The Organic Chemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

23.1    Classification and Nomenclature of Amino Acids

23.2    The Configuration of the Amino Acids

23.3    The Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids

23.4    The Isoelectric Point

23.5    Separating Amino Acids

23.6    The Synthesis of Amino Acids

23.7    The Resolution of Racemic Mixtures of Amino Acids

23.8    Peptide Bonds and Disulfide Bonds

23.9    Some Interesting Peptides

23.10    The Strategy of Peptide Bond Synthesis: N-Protection and C-Activation

23.11    Automated Peptide Synthesis

23.12    An Introduction to Protein Structure

23.13    How to Determine the Primary Structure of a Polypeptide or Protein

23.14    The Secondary Structure of Proteins

23.15    The Tertiary Structure of Proteins

23.16    The Quaternary Structure of Proteins

23.17    Protein Denaturation

24    Catalysis

24.1    Catalysis in Organic Reactions

24.2    Acid Catalysis

24.3    Base Catalysis

24.4    Nucleophilic Catalysis

24.5    Metal-Ion Catalysis

24.6    Intramolecular Reactions

24.7    Intramolecular Catalysis

24.8    Catalysis in Biological Reactions

24.9    Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

24.10    The Organic Mechanisms of the Coenzymes

25    Compounds Derived from Vitamins

25.1    The Vitamin Needed for Many Redox Reactions: Vitamin B3

25.2    Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide and Flavin Mononucleotind: Vitamin B

25.3    Thiamine Pyrophosphate: Vitamin B1

25.4    Biotin: Vitamin H

25.5    Pyridoxal Phosphate: Vitamin B6

25.6    Coenzyme B12: Vitamin B12

25.7    Tetrahydrofolate: Folic Acid

25.8    Vitamin KH2: Vitamin K

26    The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways

26.1    ATP is Used for Phosphoryl Transfer Reactions

26.2    The Three Mechanisms for Phosphoryl Transfer Reactions

26.3    The “High-Energy” Character of Phosphoanhydride Bonds

26.4    Why ATP is Kinetically Stable in a Cell

26.5    The Four Stages of Catabolism

26.6    The Catabolism of Fats

26.7    The Catabolism of Carbohydrates

26.8    The Fates of Pyruvate

26.9    The Catabolism of Proteins

26.10    The Citric Acid Cycle

26.11    Oxidative Phosphorylation

26.12    Anabolism

27    The Organic Chemistry of Lipids

27.1    Fatty Acids Are Long-Chain Carboxylic Acids

27.2    Waxes are High-Molecular-Weight Esters

27.3    Fats and Oils are Triacylclycerols

27.4    Phospholipids and Sphingolipids Are Components of Membranes

27.5    Prostaglandis Regulate Physiological Responses

27.6    Terpenes Contain Carbon Atoms in Multiples of Five    

27.7    How Terpenes Are Biosynthesized

27.8    How Steriods Are Chemical Messengers

27.9    How Nature Synthesizes Cholesterol

27.10    Synthetic Steroids

28    The Chemistry of Nucleic Acids

28.1    Nucleosides and Nucleotides

28.2    Other Important Nucleotides

28.3    Nucleic Acids Are Composed of Nucleotide Subunits

28.4    Why DNA Does Not Have A 2’- OH Group

28.5    The Biosynthesis of DNA is Called Replication

28.6    DNA and Heredity

28.7    The Biosynthesis of RNA is Called Transcription    

28.8    There Are Three Kinds of RNA

28.9    The Biosynthesis of Proteins Is Called Translation

28.10    Why DNA Contains Thymine Instead of Uracil

28.11    How the Base Sequence of DNA Is Determined

28.12    The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

28.13    Genetic Engineering

28.14    The Laboratory Synthesis of DNA Strands

IX    SPECIAL TOPICS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

29    Synthetic Polymers

29.1    There Are Two Major Classes of Synthetic Polymers

29.2    Chain-Growth Polymers

29.3    Stereochemistry of Polymerization • Ziegler- Natta Catalysts

29.4    Polymerization of Dienes • The Manufacture of Rubber

29.5    Copolymers

29.6    Step-Growth Polymers

29.7    Classes of Step-Growth Polymers

29.8    Physical Properties of Polymers

29.9    Biodegradable Polymers

30    Pericyclic Reactions

30.1    There Are Three Kinds of Pericyclic Reactions

30.2    Molecular Orbitals and Orbital Symmetry

30.3    Electrocyclic Reactions

30.4    Cycloaddition Reactions

30.5    Sigmatropic Rearrangements

30.6    Pericyclic Reactions in Biological Systems

30.7    Summary of the Selection Rules for Pericyclic Reactions

31    The Organic Chemistry of Drugs: Discovery and Design

31.1    Naming Drugs

31.2    Lead Compounds

31.3    Molecular Modification

31.4    Random Screening

31.5    Serendipity in Drug Development

31.6    Receptors

31.7    Drugs as Enzyme Inhibitors

31.8    Designing a Suicide Substrate

31.9    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR)

31.10    Molecular Modeling

31.11    Combinatorial Organic Synthesis

31.12    Antiviral Drugs

31.13    Economics of Drugs • Governmental Regulations

Product Details

ISBN:
9780321663139
Author:
Bruice, Paula Y.
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Author:
Bruice, Paula Yurkanis
Subject:
Chemistry - Organic
Subject:
Lehrbuch
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Publication Date:
January 2010
Binding:
Mixed media, eg book and CD-ROM, book and toy etc
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
1440
Dimensions:
11.2 x 9 x 3.6 in 4559 gr

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