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The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

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The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Teeming with weird and wonderful life--giant clams and mussels, tubeworms, "eyeless" shrimp, and bacteria that survive on sulfur--deep-sea hot-water springs are found along rifts where sea-floor spreading occurs. The theory of plate tectonics predicted the existence of these hydrothermal vents, but they were discovered only in 1977. Since then the sites have attracted teams of scientists seeking to understand how life can thrive in what would seem to be intolerable or extreme conditions of temperature and fluid chemistry. Some suspect that these vents even hold the key to understanding the very origins of life. Here a leading expert provides the first authoritative and comprehensive account of this research in a book intended for students, professionals, and general readers. Cindy Lee Van Dover, an ecologist, brings nearly two decades of experience and a lively writing style to the text, which is further enhanced by two hundred illustrations, including photographs of vent communities taken in situ.

The book begins by explaining what is known about hydrothermal systems in terms of their deep-sea environment and their geological and chemical makeup. The coverage of microbial ecology includes a chapter on symbiosis. Symbiotic relationships are further developed in a section on physiological ecology, which includes discussions of adaptations to sulfide, thermal tolerances, and sensory adaptations. Separate chapters are devoted to trophic relationships and reproductive ecology. A chapter on community dynamics reveals what has been learned about the ways in which vent communities become established and why they persist, while a chapter on evolution and biogeography examines patterns of species diversity and evolutionary relationships within chemosynthetic ecosystems.

Cognate communities such as seeps and whale skeletons come under scrutiny for their ability to support microbial and invertebrate communities that are ecologically and evolutionarily related to hydrothermal faunas. The book concludes by exploring the possibility that life originated at hydrothermal vents, a hypothesis that has had tremendous impact on our ideas about the potential for life on other planets or planetary bodies in our solar system.

Synopsis:

"This is a truly readable book, lavishly illustrated, that covers one of the most exciting and interesting aspects of marine biology. Offering a very thoughtful interpretation and analysis of the data available, the book takes a wonderful holistic approach to its subject. It will be the standard text in vent biology."--Paul Tyler, University of Southampton

"This book will acquaint a whole generation of readers and students to the wonders of the deep sea and the discoveries that have yet to be made on the earth. It will be a valuable resource, serving as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and as a reference for researchers in the fields of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, oceanography, marine biology, invertebrate zoology, microbiology, and biogeography. Because Cindy Van Dover is a truly gifted writer, her book will also be extremely useful to general readers outside of these main fields. It is a joy to read."--Colleen Cavanaugh, Harvard University

Synopsis:

Teeming with weird and wonderful life--giant clams and mussels, tubeworms, "eyeless" shrimp, and bacteria that survive on sulfur--deep-sea hot-water springs are found along rifts where sea-floor spreading occurs. The theory of plate tectonics predicted the existence of these hydrothermal vents, but they were discovered only in 1977. Since then the sites have attracted teams of scientists seeking to understand how life can thrive in what would seem to be intolerable or extreme conditions of temperature and fluid chemistry. Some suspect that these vents even hold the key to understanding the very origins of life. Here a leading expert provides the first authoritative and comprehensive account of this research in a book intended for students, professionals, and general readers. Cindy Lee Van Dover, an ecologist, brings nearly two decades of experience and a lively writing style to the text, which is further enhanced by two hundred illustrations, including photographs of vent communities taken in situ.

The book begins by explaining what is known about hydrothermal systems in terms of their deep-sea environment and their geological and chemical makeup. The coverage of microbial ecology includes a chapter on symbiosis. Symbiotic relationships are further developed in a section on physiological ecology, which includes discussions of adaptations to sulfide, thermal tolerances, and sensory adaptations. Separate chapters are devoted to trophic relationships and reproductive ecology. A chapter on community dynamics reveals what has been learned about the ways in which vent communities become established and why they persist, while a chapter on evolution and biogeography examines patterns of species diversity and evolutionary relationships within chemosynthetic ecosystems.

Cognate communities such as seeps and whale skeletons come under scrutiny for their ability to support microbial and invertebrate communities that are ecologically and evolutionarily related to hydrothermal faunas. The book concludes by exploring the possibility that life originated at hydrothermal vents, a hypothesis that has had tremendous impact on our ideas about the potential for life on other planets or planetary bodies in our solar system.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix

1. The Non-Vent Deep Sea 3

1.1 The Physical Environment in the Deep Sea 4

1.2 The Deep-Sea Fauna 5

1.3 Deep-Sea Diversity 8

1.4 Biogeography and Population Genetics 11

1.5 Biochemical and Physiological Adaptations to the Deep-Sea Environment 13

1.6 Benthopelagic Coupling between Surface Productivity and the Deep Sea 15

1.7 Rates of Biological Processes in the Deep Sea 18

1.8 The Vent Contrast 19

References 20

2. Geological Setting ot Hydrothermal Vents 25

2.1 What Are Mid-Ocean Ridges? 25

2.1.1 How Spreading Rates for Ridge Axes Are Determined 28

2.1.2 Spreading Rates 29

2.1.3 Segmentation 31

2.1.4 Magma Supply and Spreading Rate 34

2.2 Back-Arc and Fore-Are Spreading Centers 36

2.3 Seamounts 37

2.4 Volcanic and Tectonic Seafloor Features 39

2.4.1 Crustal Structure 39

2.4.2 Volcanic and Tectonic Fissures 39

2.4.3 Lava Lakes, Drainback. Features, and Lava Pillars 41

2.4.4 Axial Boundary Faults 41

2.4.5 Lava Flow Morphologies 43

2.4.6 Emplacement of Lavas and the Time-Course of a Diking Event 43

2.4.7 Lava Dating 45

2.5 Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields 47

2.5.1 Missing Heat and Hydrothermal Cooling at Ridge Crests 47

2.5.2 Sulfide Deposits 48

Morphological Variations 48

Columnar Chimneys and Black Smokers 49

White Smokers 50

Beehives and Flanges 50

Complex Sulfide Mounds 53

Weathering of Seafloor Sulfides 56

Dimensions and Ages of Active Hydrothermal Fields 56

2.5.3 Low-Temperature Diffuse Flows 58

2.5.4 Sediment-Hosted Hydrothermal Systems 60

2.5.5 Ophiolites 61

Appendix 63

References 70

3. Chemical and Physical Properties of Vent Fluids 76

3.1 Submarine Hydrothermal Circulation Cells: High-Temperature Reaction Zones 76

3.2 Phase Separation 78

3.3 Flow Rates, Transit Times, and Temperature of Formation 80

3.4 End-Member Fluids 80

3.4.1 Composition 80

Basic Controls on Chemistry 81

3.4.2 Magmatic Inputs 82

3.4.3 Evolution of Vent-Fluid Chemistry 83

3.4.4 Back-Arc Fluid Chemistries 83

3.5 Thermal Radiation 84

3.6 Axial Low-Temperature, Diffuse-Flow Chemistry 85

3.6.1 Flow Rates, Temperature, and Temperature Variability 86

3.6.2 Silicate 87

3.6.3 Sulfide 87

3.6.4 Oxygen 89

3.6.5 Profiles of Oxygen, Sulfide, Silicate, and Temperature 89

3.6.6 Methane, Manganese, and Iron 91

3.6.7 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Compounds 92

3.7 Flank Low-Temperature Fluids 92

3.8 Global Fluxes and the Hydrothermal Influence on Ocean Chemistry and Currents 92

References 94

4. Hydrothermal Plumes 99

4.1 Anatomy of a Black-Smoker Plume 99

4.1.1 Orifice 99

4.1.2 Buoyant Plume 100

4.1.3 Effluent Layer 101

4.2 Megaplumes 104

4.3 Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Plumes 106

4.3.1 Relationship between Plume Distributions and Geophysical Parameters 106

4.4 Plume-DTiven Mesoscale Circulation 110

4.4.1 Plume Vortices 110

4.4.2 Advection and Downwelling 110

4.4.3 Basin-Scale Circulation 111

4.5 Diffuse-Flow Plumes 112

References 112

5. Microbial Ecology 115

5.1 Autotrophic Organisms at Vents 117

5.1.1 Nomenclature 117

5.1.2 Aerobic and Anaerobic Chemoautotrophy at Vents 117

Methanotrophy 119

5.1.3 Carbon Dioxide Fixation 120

5.1.4 Mixotrophy 120

5.1.5 Net Chemoautotrophic Production in Free-Living Hydrothermal-Vent Microorganisms 120

Alternatives to Chemoautotrophy 120

Organic Thennogenesis Hypothesis 121

Detrital Thennal Alteration Hypothesis 121

5.2 Ecology of Free-Living Microorganisms122

5.2.1 Microbial Habitats 122

5.2.2 Hyperthen-nophiles and Superthermophiles 122

Flange Microbial Ecology and the Archaea 125

Microorganisms in Black-Smoker Fluids 125

The "Endeavour Model" 125

The Subsurface Biosphere 127

5.2.3 Plume Microbiology 127

5.2.4 Suspended Microbial Populations 128

5.2.5 Microbial Community Composition 129

Dominance of a Single Bacterial Phylotype at a Mid-Atlantic Ridge Vent 130

Diversity and Community Structure in Microbial Mats, Loihi Seamount 130

Sulfur-Oxidizing Heterotrophs at Vents 132

5.2.6 Bacterial Blooms 132

5.2.7 Microbial Mats 134

5.2.8 The Link between Chemoautotrophic and Photosynthetic Processes 135

5.3 A Search for In Situ Bacterial Photosynthesis 137

5.4 Microbial Genesis of Hydrothermal. Mineral Deposits 137

5.5 Microbial Exploitation of Particulate Sulfides 138

5.6 Biotechnology 139

References 140

6. Symbiosis 145

6. 1. Discovery 145

6.1.1 Sustenance of Gutless Tubeworms 146

6.1.2 Endosymbiotic Bacteria in Vent Mollusks 150

6.1.3 Episymbionts 150

6.2 Methanotrophic Symbioses 153

6.2.1 Dual Symbioses 153

6.2.2 Methanotrophs in Sponges 156

6.3 Adaptive Characteristics of Symbiosis157

6.4 Host Nutrition 158

6.4.1 Digestive Enzymes 160

6.5 Symbiont Phylogeny 162

6.5.1 Endosymbiont Phylogeny and Host Fidelity 162

6.5.2 Episymbiont Phylogeny 165

6.6 Symbiont Acquisition 166

References 167

7. Physiological Ecology 173

7.1 Novel Metabolic Demands 173

7.2 Riftia pachyptila 174

7.2.1 Anatomy of a Tubeworm 174

7.2.2 The Tubeworm Environment 177

7.2.3 Adaptations for Carbon Uptake and Transport in Riftia pachyptila 177

Host Respiratory Inorganic Carbon 177

Environmental Sources of Inorganic Carbon and the Role of Carbonic Anhydrase 179

pH Regulation 180

Carbon Transport 182

Inorganic Carbon Capacity 182

Carbon Fixation Rates 182

7.2.4 Sulfide 183

Sulfide Toxicity 183

Sulfide Uptake and Transport 183

Coupling of Sulfide Detoxification and Energy Exploitation 186

7.2.5 Oxygen 187

7.2.6 Nitrogen 187

Nitrate Respiration 188

7.3 Seep Vestimentiferans and Methanotrophic Pogonophorans 188

7.4 Vent and Seep Bivalve-Mollusk Symbioses 189

7.4.1 Calyptogena magnifica 189

7.4.2 Bathymodiolid Mussels 192

Bathymodiolus thennophilus 192

Methanotrophic Mussels 193

7.4.3 Other Mollusk Symbioses 194

7.5 Physiological Ecology of Episymbiont-Invertebrate Associations 196

7.5.1 Alvinella pompejana 196

7.6 Sulfide Detoxification 197

7.7 Growth Rates 201

7.8 Thermal Adaptations 202

7.8.1 Indices of Thermal Tolerance and Adaptation 203

Thermal Tolerance in Alvinellid Species 204

7.9 Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons 208

7.10 Sensory Adaptations 209

7.10.1 Novel Photoreceptors in Vent Shrimp 210

7.10.2 Chemoreception 214

References 216

8. Trophic Ecology 227

8.1 The Food Web 227

8.1.1 The Rose Garden Food Web 228

8.2 Biological Sleuthing: Biomarker Assays 231

8.2.1 Stable Isotope Techniques 231

Notation 231

Stable Isotope Evidence for the Role of Free-Living Microorganisms in Vent Food Webs 233

8.2.2 Fatty Acids, Sterols, and Carotenoids 236

Fatty-Acid Nomenclature 236

Fatty-Acid Biomarkers 237

Comparison of Lipid Characteristics of Tubeworms (Riftia pachyptila), Mussels (Bathymodiolus thermophilus), and Amphipods (Halice hesmonectes) on the East Pacific Rise 237

"Essential" Fatty Acids 240

Lipid-Condition Indices 240

Sterols 240

Carotenoids 241

8.3 Integrated Approaches to Trophic Ecology 241

8.3.1 Trophic Ecology of Vent Mussels, Bathymodiolus thermophilus 242

8.3.2 Trophic Ecology of Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, and an Anecdote about Who Eats Them 244

8.4 Export of Chemosynthetic Production from Vents 246

References 253

9. Reproductive Ecology 259

9.1 Gametogenesis 259

9.1.1 Evidence for Synchronous Gametogenesis 260

Environmental Cues 261

Recruited Synchrony 264

9.1.2 Evidence for Asynchronous Gametogenesis 264

Release of Gametes and Larvae 264

Riftia pachyptila 265

Bythograea sp. 266

Calyptogena soyae 266

9.2 Larval Development 267

9.2.1 Vestimentifera 268

9.2.2 Bathymodiolid Mussels 269

9.2.3 Bythograeid Crabs 271

9.2.4 Alvinocarid. Shrimp 271

9.3 Larval Dispersal and Retention 273

9.3.1 Alvinellid Dispersal Model 273

9.3.2 Plume Dispersal 276

9.3.3 Megaplume Dispersal 277

9.3.4 Mesoscale Flows 277

9.3.5 Dispersal by Non-Larval Stages 278

9.4 Settlement Cues 279

9.5 Recruitment 279

Appendix 281

References 285

10. Community Dynamics 290

10. 1 The Early Work 290

10.2 Dynamic Succession at Northeast Pacific Vents 293

10.2.1 High-Resolution Time-Series Studies on the Juan de Fuca Ridge 298

10.3 Community Dynamics on the Mid-Adantic Ridge 299

10.4 Eruptions 301

10.4.1 The 9'N Event 301

10.4.2 The CoAxial Event 303

10.4.3 Sweepstakes versus Predictable Sequences 308

References 309

11. Evolution and Biogeography 313

11.1 Origins of Vent Fauna 313

11.1.1 Immigrants from the Surrounding Deep Sea 313

11.1.2 Immigrants with Close Shallow-Water Relatives 314

11.1.3 Vent Taxa Shared with Other Chemosynthetic Ecosystems 314

Taxonomic Position and Origin of the Vestimentifera 316

11.1.4 Vent Taxa Shared with Both Other Chemosynthetic

Ecosystems and Nonchemosynthetic Habitats 319

11.1.5 Specialized Taxa Found Only at Hydrothermal Vents 320

11.1.6 The "Ancient" Taxa 320

Ancient Barnacles 320

Ancient Mollusks 322

11.1.7 The Newman and McLean Hypothesis of Relict Vent Faunas 323

Hickman's Counternypothesis 323

11.2 Fossil Vent Communities 324

11.3 Vent Ecosystems as Refuges from Major Planetary Extinction Events 325

11.4 Species Diversity 325

11.5 Taxonomic Cautionary Tales 328

11.5.1 Cryptic Species 328

11.5.2 Phenotypic Plasticity 329

11.5.3 Ontogenetic Stages 329

11.6 Biogeography 330

11.6.1 Pacific Biogeographic Patterns 330

Missing Mussels (Bathymodiolus thermophilus) 331

Centers of Diversity along Linear Arrays of Habitat 332

North America as a Biogeographical Barrier 332

Mariana Hydrothermal-Vent Fauna 333

11.6.2 Paleotectonic Controls on the Atlantic Vent Fauna 335

11.6.3 Similarities among Global Vent Biogeographic Provinces 337

11.6.4 Biogeography of Fast- versus Slow-Spreading Centers 340

11.6.5 Physical Oceanography and Bathymetry 342

The Romanche Fracture Zone 342

11.6.6 Shallow-Water Vents 343

11.7 Gene Flow and Genetic Diversity 343

References 347

12. Cognate Communities 355

12.1 Atlantic Sites 360

12.1.1 Rofida Escaipment (Gulf of Mexico) 360

12.1.2 Louisiana Slope Hydrocarbon and Brine Seeps (Gulf of Mexico) 363

12.1.3 The Laurentian Fan 367

12.1.4 Barbados Subduction Zone 369

12.1.5 North Sea Pockmarks 372

12.1.6 Skagerrak Methane Seep 374

12.1.7 The Francois Vielieux 374

12.1.8 Coral Reefs 375

12.2 Pacific Sites 375

12.2.1 Cascadia Subduction Zone 375

12.2.2 Western Pacific Subduction Zones 376

Kaiko Project 376

Sagami Bay 379

12.2.3 Peruvian Subduction Zone 379

12.2.4 Monterey Canyon 381

12.2.5 Northern California Methane Hydrate Field 383

12.2.6 Guaymas Basin Transform Margin Seeps 383

12.2.7 Shallow-Water Hydrocarbon Seeps384

12.2.8 British Columbia Fjords 384

12.2.9 Aleutian Subduction Zone 384

12.3 Whale Skeletons 385

12.4 Fossil Seeps 389

References 39

13. Hydrothermal Systems and the Origin of Life 397

13.1 Earth's Early Environment 397

13.2 Evolution of Hydrothermal Systems 398

13.3 Heterotrophic versus Chemosynthetic Hypotheses for the Origin of Life 399

13.4 Evidence for Thermophilic, Autotrophic Ancestors 402

13.4.1 Wdchterhiiuser's Outline for the Origin and Evolution of Life 404

13.4.2 Synthesis of Organic Compounds in Hydrothermal Systems 406

13.5 Extraterrestrial Hydrothermal Systems and the Search for Life in Outer Space 407

References 409

INDEX 413

Product Details

ISBN:
9780691049298
Author:
Van Dover, Cindy Lee
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Author:
Van, Cindy Lee
Author:
Cindy Lee Van Dover
Location:
Princeton, NJ :
Subject:
Ecology
Subject:
Ecology - Ecosystems
Subject:
Hydrothermal vent ecology
Subject:
Hot springs
Subject:
Life Sciences - Ecology - Ecosystems
Subject:
Earth Sciences - Oceanography
Subject:
Oceanography
Subject:
Earth Sciences
Subject:
Biological Sciences.
Subject:
Geological Science
Subject:
Environmental Studies-General
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Publication Date:
March 2000
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
4 pages of color plates, 28 halftones, 1
Pages:
448
Dimensions:
9 x 6 in 23 oz

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The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents New Trade Paper
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$106.50 In Stock
Product details 448 pages Princeton University Press - English 9780691049298 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , "This is a truly readable book, lavishly illustrated, that covers one of the most exciting and interesting aspects of marine biology. Offering a very thoughtful interpretation and analysis of the data available, the book takes a wonderful holistic approach to its subject. It will be the standard text in vent biology."--Paul Tyler, University of Southampton

"This book will acquaint a whole generation of readers and students to the wonders of the deep sea and the discoveries that have yet to be made on the earth. It will be a valuable resource, serving as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and as a reference for researchers in the fields of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, oceanography, marine biology, invertebrate zoology, microbiology, and biogeography. Because Cindy Van Dover is a truly gifted writer, her book will also be extremely useful to general readers outside of these main fields. It is a joy to read."--Colleen Cavanaugh, Harvard University

"Synopsis" by , Teeming with weird and wonderful life--giant clams and mussels, tubeworms, "eyeless" shrimp, and bacteria that survive on sulfur--deep-sea hot-water springs are found along rifts where sea-floor spreading occurs. The theory of plate tectonics predicted the existence of these hydrothermal vents, but they were discovered only in 1977. Since then the sites have attracted teams of scientists seeking to understand how life can thrive in what would seem to be intolerable or extreme conditions of temperature and fluid chemistry. Some suspect that these vents even hold the key to understanding the very origins of life. Here a leading expert provides the first authoritative and comprehensive account of this research in a book intended for students, professionals, and general readers. Cindy Lee Van Dover, an ecologist, brings nearly two decades of experience and a lively writing style to the text, which is further enhanced by two hundred illustrations, including photographs of vent communities taken in situ.

The book begins by explaining what is known about hydrothermal systems in terms of their deep-sea environment and their geological and chemical makeup. The coverage of microbial ecology includes a chapter on symbiosis. Symbiotic relationships are further developed in a section on physiological ecology, which includes discussions of adaptations to sulfide, thermal tolerances, and sensory adaptations. Separate chapters are devoted to trophic relationships and reproductive ecology. A chapter on community dynamics reveals what has been learned about the ways in which vent communities become established and why they persist, while a chapter on evolution and biogeography examines patterns of species diversity and evolutionary relationships within chemosynthetic ecosystems.

Cognate communities such as seeps and whale skeletons come under scrutiny for their ability to support microbial and invertebrate communities that are ecologically and evolutionarily related to hydrothermal faunas. The book concludes by exploring the possibility that life originated at hydrothermal vents, a hypothesis that has had tremendous impact on our ideas about the potential for life on other planets or planetary bodies in our solar system.

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