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Greening Brazil: Environmental Activism in State and Societyby Kathryn Hochstetler
Synopses & Reviews
Greening Brazil challenges the claim that environmentalism came to Brazil from abroad. Two political scientists, Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret E. Keck, retell the story of environmentalism in Brazil from the inside out, analyzing the extensive efforts within the country to save its natural environment, and the interplay of those efforts with transnational environmentalism. The authors trace Brazilandrsquo;s complex environmental politics as they have unfolded over time, from their mid-twentieth-century conservationist beginnings to the contemporary development of a distinctive socio-environmentalism meant to address ecological destruction and social injustice simultaneously. Hochstetler and Keck argue that explanations of Brazilian environmentalismandmdash;and environmentalism in the global South generallyandmdash;must take into account the way that domestic political processes shape environmental reform efforts.
The authors present a multilevel analysis encompassing institutions and individuals within the governmentandmdash;at national, state, and local levelsandmdash;as well as the activists, interest groups, and nongovernmental organizations that operate outside formal political channels. They emphasize the importance of networks linking committed actors in the government bureaucracy with activists in civil society. Portraying a gradual process marked by periods of rapid advance, Hochstetler and Keck show how political opportunities have arisen from major political transformations such as the transition to democracy and from critical events, including the well-publicized murders of environmental activists in 1988 and 2004. Rather than view foreign governments and organizations as the instigators of environmental policy change in Brazil, the authors point to their importance at key moments as sources of leverage and support.
Authoritative work on the complex history of modern Brazilian environmental policy and its relation to both transnational politics and domestic democratization processes.
About the Author
Kathryn Hochstetler is Professor of Political Science at the University of New Mexico. She is a coauthor of Sovereignty, Democracy, and Global Civil Society: State-Society Relations at UN World Conferences and a coeditor of Palgrave Advances in International Environmental Politics.
Margaret E. Keck is Professor of Political Science at The Johns Hopkins University. She is the author of The Workersandrsquo; Party and Democratization in Brazil and a coauthor of Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics.
Table of Contents
List of Tables viii
List of Acronyms and Organizations xv
1. Building Environmental Institutions: National Environmental Politics and Policy 23
2. National Environmental Activism: The Changing Terms of Engagement 63
3. From Protest to Project: The Third Wave of Environmental Activism 97
4. Amazonia 140
5. From Pollution Control to Sustainable Cities 186
Appendix: List of Interviews 231
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