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Introduction to Soil Chemistry: Analysis and Instrumentation (Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chem)

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Introduction to Soil Chemistry: Analysis and Instrumentation (Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chem) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Provides the tools needed to explore the incredible complexities of the earth's soils

Now in its Second Edition, this highly acclaimed text fully equips readers with the skills and knowledge needed to analyze soil and correctly interpret the results. Due to the highly complex nature of soil, the author carefully explains why unusual results are routinely obtained during soil analyses, including the occurrence of methane in soil under oxidative conditions. The text also assists readers in developing their own analytical techniques in order to analyze particular samples or test for particular compounds or properties.

The Second Edition of Introduction to Soil Chemistry features four new chapters. Moreover, the entire text has been thoroughly updated and revised. It begins with a review of the history of soil chemistry, introducing fundamental concepts that apply to all soils. Next, the text explores:

  • Basic soil characteristics, horizonation, texture, clay, air, water, solids, organic matter, organisms, and fundamental chemical concepts essential to soil chemistry
  • Tested and proven sampling techniques for soil analysis that provide reliable analytical results
  • Basic soil measurement techniques and extraction procedures
  • Instrumentation to isolate and identify soil chemicals, including plant nutrients and contaminants

Detailed examples and figures throughout the text help readers successfully perform soil sampling and analytical methods as well as better understand soil's chemical characteristics. At the end of each chapter, a bibliography and list of references lead to additional resources to explore individual topics in greater depth. Each chapter also offers problem sets, encouraging readers to put their newfound skills into practice.

Reflecting the latest research findings and best practices, the Second Edition of Introduction to Soil Chemistry is ideal for both students and soil chemists who want to explore the incredible complexities of the earth's soils.

Synopsis:

Soil is the most complicated of materials and an essential element to life. Now in a new second edition, Introduction to Soil Chemistry provides professionals with the background they need to analyze soil, interpret their findings, and develop new analytical methods for soil. A valuable resource for soil scientists confronting soil analyses that appear to be incorrect or do not work, the updated edition includes new coverage on soil sampling and storage, direct and indirect measurements in soil chemistry, and extraction of organics and inorganics.

About the Author

ALFRED R. CONKLIN JR., PhD, is Professor of Agriculture and Soil at Wilmington College, where he teaches soil science, organic chemistry, and chemistry and the environment. He is also the International Director of the International Undergraduate Research Symposium. The recipient of three Fulbright Awards, Dr. Conklin has more than four decades of experience extracting and analyzing soil samples from Africa, Asia, and North and South America.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ACRONYMS xiv

COMMON HYPHENATED INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ABBREVIATIONS xv

ABBREVIATED PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS xvi

CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF SOIL CHEMISTRY 1

1.1 The 19th Century 3

1.2 The End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century 8

1.3 The 20th Century 11

1.4 The End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century 14

1.5 Conclusion 15

Problems 15

References 16

Bibliography 18

CHAPTER 2 SOIL BASICS PART I: LARGE FEATURES 19

2.1. Horizonation 28

2.2 Peds 33

2.3 Soil Color 36

2.4 Soil Naming 38

2.5 The Landscape 39

2.6 Relationship of Large Features to Soil Chemistry, Soil Analysis, and Instrumentation 40

2.7 Conclusions 42

Problems 42

References 43

Bibliography 43

CHAPTER 3 SOIL BASICS PART II: MICROSCOPIC TO ATOMIC ORBITAL DESCRIPTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS 44

Soil Components Independent 45

3.1 Soil Solids 45

Soil Components Interacting 53

3.2. Bonding Considerations 53

Soil Components in Combination 58

3.3 Surface Features 58

3.4 Energy Considerations 60

3.5 Reaction Paths 61

3.6 Steric Factors 62

3.7 Rate Factors 62

3.8 All Factored Together 63

3.9 Micelles 63

3.10 Coated Surfaces 63

3.11 Conclusions 65

Problems 65

References 66

Bibliography 67

CHAPTER 4 SOIL BASICS PART III: THE BIOLOGICAL AND ORGANIC COMPONENTS IN SOIL 68

Biota of Soil 69

4.1 Animals 69

4.2 Plants 71

4.3 Microorganisms 75

Biological and Organic Chemicals of Soil 79

4.4 Biochemical 79

4.5 Bioorganic 81

4.6 Organic Compounds 81

4.7 Analysis 87

4.8 Conclusions 89

Problems 90

References 90

Bibliography 92

Web Sites 92

CHAPTER 5 SOIL BASICS PART IV: THE SOIL AIR AND SOIL SOLUTION 93

5.1 Soil Air 94

5.2 Water 95

5.3 Solubility 98

5.4 Elements in Solution 99

5.5 Dissolved Gases 99

5.6 Compounds in Solution 100

5.7 Inorganic Ions in Solution 102

5.8 Organic Ions in Solution 104

5.9 Soil pH 105

5.10 The Soil Solution around Particles 106

5.11 Distribution between Soil Solids and Soil Solution 106

5.12 Oxidative and Reductive Reactions in the Soil Solution 108

5.13 Measuring Soil Water 109

5.14 Conclusion 112

Problems 112

References 113

Bibliography 114

CHAPTER 6 SPECIATION 115

6.1 Cations 118

6.2 Anions 123

6.3 Isolation of Species 128

6.4 Sampling, Sample Storage, and Speciation 129

6.5 Conclusions 130

Problems 131

References 131

Bibliography 134

CHAPTER 7 SOIL AND SOIL SOLUTION SAMPLING, SAMPLE TRANSPORT, AND STORAGE 135

7.1 Field Sampling 136

7.2 Sampling Cropped Land 147

7.3 Environmental Sampling 148

7.4 Other Environmental Sampling Situations 148

7.5 Sample Transport and Storage 148

7.6 Laboratory Sampling 149

7.7 Sampling the Soil Solution 153

7.8 Conclusions 155

Problems 156

References 157

Bibliography 158

CHAPTER 8 DIRECT AND INDIRECT MEASUREMENT IN SOIL ANALYSIS 159

8.1 Direct Measurements 160

8.2 Mediated Direct Measurement 166

8.3 Indirect Soil Measurements 168

8.4 Destructive Soil Analysis Methods 170

8.5 Soil Solution 171

8.6 Soil Solids 171

8.7 Conclusions 172

Problems 173

References 173

Bibliography 174

CHAPTER 9 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS 175

9.1 The Basic Electrochemical Cell 177

9.2 Electricity Generation in Soil 177

9.3 Potentiometry (Electrodes in Soil Measurements) 178

9.4 Voltammetry 187

9.5 Electrical Conductivity 187

9.6 Time-Domain Reflectometry 188

9.7 Porous Block 189

9.8 Other Methods 189

9.9 Conclusions 189

Problems 190

References 190

Bibliography 192

CHAPTER 10 TITRIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS 193

10.1 Soil Titration 195

10.2 Titration of Soil pH 197

10.3 Organic Matter 200

10.4 Ammonia 200

10.5 Kjeldahl: Organic Nitrogen 202

10.6 Nitrite and Nitrate 203

10.7 Carbonate Determination 204

10.8 Halogen Ion Determination 205

10.9 pH–Stat Titrations 206

10.10 Conclusions 207

Problems 207

References 208

CHAPTER 11 EXTRACTION OF INORGANICS 209

11.1 Extraction Equipment 210

11.2 Water as a Soil Extractant 211

11.3 Acid Extractants 218

11.4 Extractants for Basic Soils 222

11.5 Microwave-Assisted Extraction 224

11.6 Ultrasonic Extraction 225

11.7 Sequential Extraction 225

11.8 Ion Exchange Resin Extractions 226

11.9 Surfactants 227

11.10 Conclusion 227

Problems 227

References 228

Bibliography 230

CHAPTER 12 EXTRACTION OF ORGANICS 231

12.1 Sampling Handling before Extraction 235

12.2 Extraction Equipment 235

12.3 Soil Organic Matter Extraction Solvents 243

12.4 Cleanup 247

12.5 Conclusion 250

Problems 250

References 251

Bibliography 252

CHAPTER 13 CHROMATOGRAPHY 254

13.1 Fundamentals of Chromatography 256

13.2 Gas Chromatography 257

13.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 264

13.4 Thin-Layer Chromatography 265

13.5 Electrophoresis 267

13.6 Identification of Compounds Separated by Chromatographic Procedures 268

13.7 Quantification 270

13.8 Conclusion 271

Problems 271

References 272

Bibliography 273

CHAPTER 14 SPECTROSCOPY AND SPECTROMETRY 274

14.1 Spectral Overlap 275

14.2 Noise 276

14.3 The Visible Region 277

14.4 Ultraviolet Region 278

14.5 Infrared Spectroscopy 280

14.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 286

14.7 Mass Spectrometry 287

14.8 Atomic Spectroscopy 288

14.9 Color Measurement: The Spectrophotometer 292

14.10 Regression Analysis 296

14.11 Relationship to the Original Sample 296

14.12 X-ray Diffraction 297

14.13 X-ray Fluorescence 297

14.14 Remote Sensing 299

14.15 Conclusion 299

Problems 300

References 300

Bibliography 303

CHAPTER 15 HYPHENATED METHODS IN SOIL ANALYSIS 304

15.1 Sample Preparation 307

15.2 Sample Destroyed 307

15.3 Nondestructive Methods 313

15.4 Triple Hyphenated Methods 314

15.5 Conclusions 316

Problems 316

References 317

Bibliography 318

INDEX 320

Product Details

ISBN:
9781118135143
Author:
Conklin, Alfred R., Jr.
Publisher:
Wiley
Author:
Conklin, Alfred R.
Subject:
Chemistry - General
Subject:
Chemistry - Technical & Industrial
Subject:
analytical chemistry
Subject:
Introduction to Soil Chemistry, Alfred R. Conklin, Jr, soil sampling and storage, direct and indirect measurements in soil chemistry, extraction of organics and inorganic, mineral composition, organic matter and environmental factors
Subject:
Introduction to Soil Chemistry, Alfred R. Conklin, Jr, soil sampling and storage, direct and indirect measurements in soil chemistry, extraction of organics and inorganic, mineral composition, organic matte
Subject:
r and environmental factors
Copyright:
Edition Description:
WOL online Book (not BRO)
Series:
Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications
Publication Date:
20140128
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Language:
English
Pages:
376
Dimensions:
241.29 x 160 x 25.4 mm 21.92 oz

Related Subjects

Engineering » Mechanical Engineering » General
Science and Mathematics » Agriculture » General
Science and Mathematics » Agriculture » Soil
Science and Mathematics » Chemistry » Analytical
Science and Mathematics » Chemistry » General
Science and Mathematics » Materials Science » General

Introduction to Soil Chemistry: Analysis and Instrumentation (Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chem) New Hardcover
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Product details 376 pages John Wiley & Sons - English 9781118135143 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Soil is the most complicated of materials and an essential element to life. Now in a new second edition, Introduction to Soil Chemistry provides professionals with the background they need to analyze soil, interpret their findings, and develop new analytical methods for soil. A valuable resource for soil scientists confronting soil analyses that appear to be incorrect or do not work, the updated edition includes new coverage on soil sampling and storage, direct and indirect measurements in soil chemistry, and extraction of organics and inorganics.
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