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Kinetic Processes: Crystal Growth, Diffusion, and Phase Transitions in Materials

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Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

In this completely revised edition, all the chapters have been updated to reflect the current state of crystal growth kinetics. At the same time, fifteen percent additional content now allows coverage of computer-assisted modeling of second-order phase changes, microstructure development, novel data and images of coarsening mechanisms, with the most significant single addition being breakthrough results on spinodal decomposition — published here for the first time in book form.

The refined didactical approach with a streamlined presentation now allows readers to grasp the kinetic concepts even more easily, coherently introducing the field of kinetic processes, especially those involved in crystal growth, and explaining such phenomena as diffusion, nucleation, segregation and phase transitions at a level accessible to graduate students. In addition to the basic kinetic concepts, the textbook presents modern applications where these processes play a major role, including ion implantation, plasma deposition and rapid thermal processing.

Synopsis:

This revised edition provides the reader with an up-to-date account of the current state of crystal growth kinetics. Amidst the new content is - published for the first time in a book - the groundbreaking results of spinodal decomposition.

The refined didactical approach with a streamlined presentation now allows readers to grasp the kinetic concepts even more easily, coherently introducing the field of kinetic processes, especially those involved in crystal growth, and explaining such phenomena as diffusion, nucleation, segregation and phase transitions at a level accessible to graduate students. In addition to the basic kinetic concepts, the textbook presents modern applications where these processes play a major role, including ion implantation, plasma deposition and rapid thermal processing.

About the Author

Kenneth A. Jackson is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Arizona in Tucson, USA. He received his PhD degree from Harvard University and was an assistant Professor there before he joined AT&T Bell Laboratories. At Bell Labs he was head of Materials Physics Research for many years. His major scientific interests are the kinetic processes of crystal growth, and his scientific contributions include constitutional supercooling, the surface roughening transition, defect formation in crystals, and studies of alloy crystallization. He pioneered in computer simulation studies of the atomic scale processes during crystal growth. Kenneth A. Jackson has served as President for both the American Association for Crystal Growth and the Materials Research Society. He has received numerous awards for his scientific contributions from both the American and the International Crystal Growth societies. He is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

INTRODUCTION

Arrhenius Plot

The Relationship between Kinetics and Thermodynamics

The Boltzmann Distribution

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Collisions

DIFFUSION IN FLUIDS

Diffusion in a Gas

Diffusion in Liquids

DIFFUSION IN AMORPHOUS MATERIALS

Amorphous Materials

Network Glass Formers

The Glass Transition

The Free Volume Model

Fictive Temperature

Diffusion in Polymers

The Stokes-Einstein Relationship

DIFFUSION IN CRYSTALS

Diffusion in a Crystal

Diffusion Mechanisms in Crystals

Equilibrium Concentration of Vacancies

Simmons and Balluffi Experiment

Ionic and Covalent Crystals

Stoichiometry

Measurement of Diffuion Coefficients

Surface Diffusion

Diffusion in Grain Boundaries

Kirkendall Effect

Whisker Growth

Electromigration

DIFFUSION IN SEMICONDUCTORS

Introduction

Diffusion in Silicon

Diffusion of Zinc in GaAs

Recombination Enhanced Diffusion

Doping of Semiconductors

Point Defect Generation in Silicon during Crystal Growth

Migration of Interstitials (and Liquid Droplets) in a Temperature Gradient

Oxygen in Silicon

Gettering

Solid-State Doping

ION IMPLANTATION

Introduction

Ion Interactions

Implantation Damage

Rutherford Backscattering

Channeling

Silicon-on-Insulator

MATHEMATICS OF DIFFUSION

Random Walk

The Diffusion Equation

Solutions to the Diffusion Equation

Numerical Methods

Boltzmann-Matano Analysis

Diffusion During Phase Separation

STEFAN PROBLEMS

Steady State Solutions to the Diffusion Equation

Deal-Grove Analysis

Diffusion Controlled Growth of a Spherical Precipitate

Diffusion Limited Growth in Cylindrical Coordinates

Diffuion Controlled Growth of a Precipitate

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS

Transformation Rate Limited Growth

Diffuion Limited Growth

Thermally Limited Growth

Casting of Metals

Operating Point

CRYSTAL GROWTH METHODS

Melt Growth

Solution Growth

Vapor Phase Growth

Stoichiometry

SEGREGATION

Segregation During a Phase Change

Lever Rule

Scheil Equation

Zone Refining

Diffusion at a Moving Interface

Segregation in Three Dimensions

Burton, Primm and Schlicter Analysis

INTERFACE INSTABILITIES

Constitutional Supercooling

Mullins and Sekerka Linear Instability Analysis

Anisotropic INterface Kinetics

CHEMICAL REACTION RATE THEORY

The Equilibrium Constant

Reaction Rate Theory

Reaction Rate Constant

Transition State Theory

Experimental Determination of the Order of a Reaction

Net Rate of Reaction

Catalysis

Quasi-Equilibrium Model for the Rate of a First Order Phase Change

PHASE EQUILIBRIA

First Order Phase Changes

Second Order Phase Changes

Critical Point Between Liquid and Vapor

NUCLEATION

Homogenous Nucleation

Heterogeneous Nucleation

Johnson-Mehl-Avrami Equation

SURFACE LAYERS

Langmuir Adsorption

CVD Growth by a Surface Decomposition Reaction

Langmuir-Hinschelwood Reaction

Surface Nucleation

Thin Films

Surface Reconstruction

Amorphous Deposits

Surface Modification

Fractal Deposits

Strain Energy and Misfit Dislocations

Strained Layer Growth

THIN FILM DEPOSITION

Liquid Phase Epitaxy

Growth Configuration for LPE

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

Physical Vapor Deposition

Sputter Deposition

Metallization

Laser Ablation

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Atomic Layer Epitaxy

PLASMAS

Direct Current (DC) Plasmas

Radio Frequency Plasmas

Plasma Etching

Plasma Reactors

Magnetron Sputtering

Electron Cyclotron Resonance

Ion Milling

RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING

Introduction

Rapid Thermal Processing Equipment

Radiative Heating

Temperature Measurement

Thermal Stress

Laser Heating

KINETICS OF FIRST ORDER PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS

General Considerations

The Macroscopic Shape of Crystals

General Equation for the Growth Rate of Crystals

Kinetic Driving Force

Vapor Phase Growth

Melt Growth

Molecular Dynamics Studies of Melt Crystallization Kinetics

The Kossel-Stranski Model

Nucleation of Layers

Growth on Screw Dislocations

The Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem

THE SURFACE ROUGHENING TRANSITION

Surface Roughness

The Ising Model

Cooperative Processes

Monte Carlo Simulations of Crystallization

Equilibrium Surface Structure

Computer Simulations

Growth Morphologies

Kinetic Roughening

Polymer Crystallization

ALLOYS: THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS

Crystallization of Alloys

Phase Equilibria

Regular Solution Model

Near Equilibrium Conditions

Phase Diagrams

The DLP Model

PHASE SEPARATION AND ORDERING

Phase Separation versus Ordering

Phase Separation

The Spinodal in a Regular Solution

Analytical Model for Diffusion during Spinodal Decomposition

Microstructure Development

Modeling of Phase Separation and Ordering

NON-EQUILIBRIUM CRYSTALLIZATION OF ALLOYS

Non Equilibrium Crystallization

Experiment

Computer Modeling

Analytical Model

Comparison with Experiment

Crystallization of Glasses

COARSENING, RIPENING

Coarsening

Free Energy of a Small Particle

Coarsening in a Solution

Coarsening of Dendritic Structures

Sintering

Bubbles

Grain Boundaries

Scrath Smoothing

DENDRITES

Dendritic Growth

Conditions for Dendritic Growth

Simple Dendrite Model

Phase Field Modeling

Faceted Growth

Distribution Coefficient

EUTECTICS

Eutectic Phase Diagram

Classes of Eutectic Microstructures

Analysis of Lamellar Eutectics

Off-Composition Eutectics

Coupled Growth

Third Component Elements

CASTINGS

Grain Structure of Castings

Dendrite Re-Melting

Product Details

ISBN:
9783527327362
Author:
Jackson, Kenneth A.
Publisher:
Wiley-VCH
Subject:
Material Science
Subject:
Chemistry - Physical & Theoretical
Subject:
Materials Science-General
Subject:
Chemical kinetics
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Revised, Enlarg
Publication Date:
20100824
Binding:
Hardback
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
453
Dimensions:
241.5 x 177 x 27.2 mm 38 oz

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Kinetic Processes: Crystal Growth, Diffusion, and Phase Transitions in Materials New Hardcover
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Product details 453 pages Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH - English 9783527327362 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , This revised edition provides the reader with an up-to-date account of the current state of crystal growth kinetics. Amidst the new content is - published for the first time in a book - the groundbreaking results of spinodal decomposition.

The refined didactical approach with a streamlined presentation now allows readers to grasp the kinetic concepts even more easily, coherently introducing the field of kinetic processes, especially those involved in crystal growth, and explaining such phenomena as diffusion, nucleation, segregation and phase transitions at a level accessible to graduate students. In addition to the basic kinetic concepts, the textbook presents modern applications where these processes play a major role, including ion implantation, plasma deposition and rapid thermal processing.

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