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System Performance Tuning 1ST Editionby Mike Loukides
Synopses & Reviews
System Performance Tuning answers one of the most fundamental questions you can ask about your UNIX-based computer: How can I get it to do more work without buying more hardware? Anyone who has ever used a computer has wished that the system was faster, particularly at times when it was under heavy load.
If your system gets sluggish when you start a big job, if it feels as if you spend hours waiting for remote file access to complete, if your system stops dead when several users are active at the same time, you need to read this book. Some performance problems do require you to buy a bigger or faster computer, but many can be solved simply by making better use of the resources you already have.
This book answers one of the most fundamental questions you can ask about your computer: How can I get it to do more work without buying more hardware? Some performance problems do require you to buy a bigger or faster computer, but many can be solved simply by making better use of the resources you already have--Mike Loukides tells you how.
About the Author
Mike Loukides is an editor for O'Reilly & Associates. He is the author of System Performance Tuning and UNIX for FORTRAN Programmers. Mike's interests are system administration, networking, programming languages, and computer architecture. His academic background includes degrees in electrical engineering (B.S.) and English literature (Ph.D.).
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Preface Audience Organization UNIX Versions Conventions Used in This Handbook Acknowledgements Chapter 1. Introduction to System Performance System Performance Issues How Users Perceive Performance System Resources The CPU The Memory Subsystem The I/O Subsystem User Communities Performance Agreements Chapter 2. Monitoring System Activity Tools of the Trade: What Your System is Really Doing System Load Average Process Summary and Status ps Under BSD UNIX ps Under System V Some Quick Remedies Other Options and Ideas Idle Time The cron Facility BSD cron System V cron Accounting BSD Accounting Utilities System V Accounting Utilities Administrative Setup for sar Running sadc at Startup Running sadc Periodically Some sar Basics SunOS Performance Meters Benchmarks Chapter 3. Managing the Workload Some Tricks for Users Cleanup: Reducing the Workload Daemons You Can Do Without Disabling Unnecessary Daemons Fighting with sendmail Scheduling Priority Setting Priorities with nice Changing a Job's Priority Under BSD UNIX Off-peak Job Submission The at Command System V.4 Batch Queues More Complex Queueing Systems Shell Time Limits CPU Capacity What the Basic Kernel Tables Are How These Parameters are Defined Some Other Important Definitions When to Change These Parameters The X Window System and Table Size Measuring Table Usage (BSD) Measuring Table Usage (System V) Time Slice (System V) Chapter 4. Memory Performance Paging and Swapping How to Tell if Your System is Paging Using vmstat Some Examples Watching vmstat Automatically Sun vmstat XENIX vmstat Memory Statistics (System V.3) Memory Statistics (System V.4) A System V Example Conserving Memory Shared Text Segments Shared Libraries Programming Techniques Setting Memory Limits The Buffer Cache BSD Network Buffers STREAMS Buffers Kernel Tables Tuning the Paging Algorithm Managing the Swap Area Filesystem Paging Swap Area Size Swap Area Distribution Computing Memory Requirements Estimating Memory for BSD Systems Special Considerations for SunOS Estimating Memory for System V Summary Chapter 5. Disk Performance Issues I/O Subsystem Configuration Disk Specifications Partitions and Filesystems Filesystem Types Disk Organization (BSD) Disk Organization (System V) Planning and Creating Filesystems Filesystem Tools Filesystem Block Size Inodes Rotational Delay Fragmentation Control (BSD Only) Fragmentation Control (System V Only) Balancing I/O Workload Disk Locality Filesystem Buffers Disk Updates (System V) In-memory Filesystems Striped Filesystems Conserving Disk Space Filesystem Free Space Filesystem Usage Disk Rationing Disk Housekeeping Chapter 6 Network Performance UNIX Networking Introduction to TCP/IP Problems Basic Network Etiquette Network Performance Issues Unreachable Hosts Data Corruption on the Network Gathering Network Integrity Data from NFS Tracking Down Network Problems Data Corruption at a Gateway Network Congestion Networks and CPU Load Living with Slow Servers NFS Workload and Kernel Table Size RFS: System V Remote File Sharing Filesystem Organization with RFS RFS Buffer Usage Server Usage Special Considerations for STREAMS STREAMS and SunOS Chapter 7. Terminal Performance Chattering Terminal Lines Detecting Chattering Terminals (BSD) Detecting Chattering Terminals (System V) Other Techniques Disabling a Bad Terminal Line (BSD) Disabling a Bad Terminal Line (System V) Character Lists Terminal Drivers and STREAMS Chapter 8. Kernel Configuration Why Build a Custom Kernel? How We'll Proceed A Word on BSD and System V Kernels Measuring Memory Words to the Wise Configuring a BSD Kernel Structure of a Configuration File The maxusers Parameter Devices Pseudo-devices Root and Swap Configuration Options Other Configuration Definitions Configuring a System V Kernel The Configuration Process Configuring a XENIX Kernel Configuring an Interactive 386/ix Kernel General V.3 Configuration Rules Configuring a System V.4 Kernel System V Configuration Parameters Appendix A. Real-time Processes in System V.4 Real-time and Time-sharing Processes Manipulating Priorities with priocntl (V.4) Configuring the Scheduler (V.4) Scheduler Configuration Tables Real-time Scheduler Table Time-sharing Scheduler Table Appendix B. A Performance Tuning Strategy Preparation: Setting Up Record Keeping Before the Problem Strikes When the Problem Strikes Detecting Memory Problems Detecting Disk I/O Problems Detecting Network Problems Terminal I/O General Tips Glossary Index Figures 2-1 A performance meter 5-1 Typical BSD disk partitioning 5-2 Disk partitioning-Fujitsu Eagle 5-3 Blocks and fragments in the BSD filesystem 5-4 The buffer cache 6-1 The redesigned network A-1 Global priority scheme Tables 2-1 Reports Available from sar 3-1 Configuration Parameters for Kernel Tables 3-2 Other Parameters Determining System Capacity 8-1 Filesystem Parameters 8-2 Process Management Parameters 8-3 Memory Management Parameters 8-4 STREAMS Parameters 8-5 Message Facility Parameters 8-6 Shared Memory 8-7 Semaphore Configuration Parameters 8-8 System V.4 Process Limit Parameters
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