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Synopses & ReviewsPublisher Comments:Key Message: This book aims to explain physics in a readable and interesting manner that is accessible and clear, and to teach readers by anticipating their needs and difficulties without oversimplifying. Physics is a description of reality, and thus each topic begins with concrete observations and experiences that readers can directly relate to. We then move on to the generalizations and more formal treatment of the topic. Not only does this make the material more interesting and easier to understand, but it is closer to the way physics is actually practiced. Key Topics: INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING, DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION, KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS, DYNAMICS: NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION , USING NEWTON’S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES , GRAVITATION AND NEWTON’S6 SYNTHESIS , WORK AND ENERGY , CONSERVATION OF ENERGY , LINEAR MOMENTUM , ROTATIONAL MOTION , ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION , STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE , FLUIDS , OSCILLATIONS , WAVE MOTION, SOUND , TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW KINETIC THEORY OF GASES , HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS , SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD, GAUSS’S LAW , ELECTRIC POTENTIAL , CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE , ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE , DC CIRCUITS, MAGNETISM, SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD, ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY’S LAW, INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS, THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE, DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION, SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM
Market Book News Annotation:An calculusbased introductory textbook that begins with examples and phenomena then proceeds to the formal explanations and equations. The third edition (first in 1984) has been substantially revised not only to update the physics since the 1988 second, such as planets rotating distant stars, the Hubble space telescope, and the age of the universe, but also to reflect radical changes in how science in general and physics in particular is taught. It comes in two versions; this one covers all of classical physics and adds a chapter each on special relativity and early quantum theory; the extended version also contains a total of nine detailed chapters on modern physics, ending with astrophysics and cosmology.
Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com) Synopsis:This book is written for readers interested in learning the basics of physics.
Synopsis: Physics for Scientists and Engineers combines outstanding pedagogy with a clear and direct narrative and applications that draw the reader into the physics. The new edition features an unrivaled suite of media and online resources that enhance the understanding of physics. Many new topics have been incorporated such as: the Otto cycle, lens combinations, threephase alternating current, and many more. New developments and discoveries in physics have been added including the Hubble space telescope, age and inflation of the universe, and distant planets. Modern physics topics are often discussed within the framework of classical physics where appropriate. For scientists and engineers who are interested in learning physics.
Table of ContentsCONTENTS OF VOLUME 1
APPLICATIONS LIST xii PREFACE xiv AVAILABLE SUPPLEMENTS AND MEDIA xxii NOTES TO STUDENTS (AND INSTRUCTORS) ON THE FORMAT xxiv COLOR USE: VECTORS, FIELDS, AND SYMBOLS xxv
CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING 1—1 The Nature of Science 1—2 Models, Theories, and Laws 1—3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures 1—4 Units, Standards, and the SI System 1—5 Converting Units 1—6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating *1—7 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION 2—1 Reference Frames and Displacement 2—2 Average Velocity 2—3 Instantaneous Velocity 2—4 Acceleration 2—5 Motion at Constant Acceleration 2—6 Solving Problems 2—7 Freely Falling Objects *2—8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus *2—9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical Integration SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 3: KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS 3—1 Vectors and Scalars 3—2 Addition of Vectors–Graphical Methods 3—3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 3—4 Adding Vectors by Components 3—5 Unit Vectors 3—6 Vector Kinematics 3—7 Projectile Motion 3—8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion 3—9 Relative Velocity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 4: DYNAMICS: NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 4—1 Force 4—2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 4—3 Mass 4—4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 4—5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 4—6 Weight–the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force 4—7 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws: FreeBody Diagrams 4—8 Problem Solving–A General Approach SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 5: USING NEWTON’S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES 5—1 Applications of Newton’s Laws Involving Friction 5—2 Uniform Circular Motion–Kinematics 5—3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 5—4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked *5—5 Nonuniform Circular Motion *5—6 VelocityDependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 6: GRAVITATION AND NEWTON’S6 SYNTHESIS 6—1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 6—2 Vector Form of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 6—3 Gravity Near the Earth’s Surface; Geophysical Applications 6—4 Satellites and “Weightlessness” 6—5 Kepler’s Laws and Newton’s Synthesis *6—6 Gravitational Field 6—7 Types of Forces in Nature *6—8 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 7: WORK AND ENERGY 7—1 Work Done by a Constant Force 7—2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors 7—3 Work Done by a Varying Force 7—4 Kinetic Energy and the WorkEnergy Principle SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 8: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 8—1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 8—2 Potential Energy 8—3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation 8—4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy 8—5 The Law of Conservation of Energy 8—6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems 8—7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity 8—8 Power *8—9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 9: LINEAR MOMENTUM 9—1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force 9—2 Conservation of Momentum 9—3 Collisions and Impulse 9—4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions 9—5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 9—6 Inelastic Collisions 9—7 Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions 9—8 Center of Mass (CM) 9—9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion *9—10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 10: ROTATIONAL MOTION 10—1 Angular Quantities 10—2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities 10—3 Constant Angular Acceleration 10—4 Torque 10—5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia 10—6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics 10—7 Determining Moments of Inertia 10—8 Rotational Kinetic Energy 10—9 Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling *10—10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down? SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 11: ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION 11—1 Angular Momentum–Object Rotating About a Fixed Axis 11—2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector 11—3 Angular Momentum of a Particle 11—4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion 11—5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object 11—6 Conservation of Angular Momentum *11—7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope *11—8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces *11—9 The Coriolis Effect SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE 12—1 The Conditions for Equilibrium 12—2 Solving Statics Problems 12—3 Stability and Balance 12—4 Elasticity; Stress and Strain 12—5 Fracture *12—6 Trusses and Bridges *12—7 Arches and Domes SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 13: FLUIDS 13—1 Phases of Matter 13—2 Density and Specific Gravity 13—3 Pressure in Fluids 13—4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure 13—5 Pascal’s Principle 13—6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer 13—7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle 13—8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity 13—9 Bernoulli’s Equation 13—10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, TIA *13—11 Viscosity *13—12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow *13—13 Surface Tension and Capillarity *13—14 Pumps, and the Heart SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS 14—1 Oscillations of a Spring 14—2 Simple Harmonic Motion 14—3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 14—4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion 14—5 The Simple Pendulum *14—6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum 14—7 Damped Harmonic Motion 14—8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 15: WAVE MOTION 15—1 Characteristics of Wave Motion 15—2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal 15—3 Energy Transported by Waves 15—4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave *15—5 The Wave Equation 15—6 The Principle of Superposition 15—7 Reflection and Transmission 15—8 Interference 15—9 Standing Waves; Resonance *15—10 Refraction *15—11 Diffraction SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 16: SOUND 16—1 Characteristics of Sound 16—2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves 16—3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels 16—4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns *16—5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition 16—6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 16—7 Doppler Effect *16—8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom *16—9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 17: TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW 17—1 Atomic Theory of Matter 17—2 Temperature and Thermometers 17—3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 17—4 Thermal Expansion *17—5 Thermal Stresses 17—6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature 17—7 The Ideal Gas Law 17—8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law 17—9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number *17—10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale–a Standard SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 18: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 18—1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature 18—2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 18—3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase 18—4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity *18—5 Van der Waals Equation of State *18—6 Mean Free Path *18—7 Diffusion SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 19: HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 19—1 Heat as Energy Transfer 19—2 Internal Energy 19—3 Specific Heat 19—4 Calorimetry–Solving Problems 19—5 Latent Heat 19—6 The First Law of Thermodynamics 19—7 Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work 19—8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy 19—9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 19—10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 20: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 20—1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics–Introduction 20—2 Heat Engines 20—3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; the Carnot Engine 20—4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 20—5 Entropy 20—6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 20—7 Order to Disorder 20—8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death *20—9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law *20—10 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics *20—11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 21: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD 21—1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation 21—2 Electric Charge in the Atom 21—3 Insulators and Conductors 21—4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope 21—5 Coulomb’s Law 21—6 The Electric Field 21—7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions 21—8 Field Lines 21—9 Electric Fields and Conductors 21—10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field 21—11 Electric Dipoles *21—12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology; DNA *21—13 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 22: GAUSS’S LAW 22—1 Electric Flux 22—2 Gauss’s Law 22—3 Applications of Gauss’s Law *22—4 Experimental Basis of Gauss’s and Coulomb’s Law SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 23: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 23—1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference 23—2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field 23—3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges 23—4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution 23—5 Equipotential Surfaces 23—6 Electric Dipole Potential 23—7 E Determined from V 23—8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt 23—9 Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 24: CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE 24—1 Capacitors 24—2 Determination of Capacitance 24—3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 24—4 Electric Energy Storage 24—5 Dielectrics *24—6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 25: ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE 25—1 The Electric Battery 25—2 Electric Current 25—3 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors 25—4 Resistivity 25—5 Electric Power 25—6 Power in Household Circuits 25—7 Alternating Current 25—8 Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity *25—9 Superconductivity *25—10 Electrical Conduction in the Nervous System SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 26: DC CIRCUITS 261 EMF and Terminal Voltage 262 Resistors in Series and in Parallel 263 Kirchoff’s Rules 264 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery 265 Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits) 266 Electric Hazards *267 Ammeters and Voltmeters SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 27: MAGNETISM 271 Magnets and Magnetic Fields 272 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields 273 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of 274 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field 275 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment *276 Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers 277 Discover and Properties of the Electron *278 The Hall Effect *279 Mass Spectrometer SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 28: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD 281 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire 282 Force between Two Parallel Wires 283 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb 284 Ampere’s Law 285 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid 286 BiotSavart Law *287 Magnetic materials–Ferromagnetism *288 Electromagnets and Solenoids—Applications *289 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis *2810 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 29: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY’S LAW 291 Induced EMF 292 Faraday’s Law of Induction; Lenz’s Law 293 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor 294 Electric Generators *295 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents 296 Transformers and Transmission of Power 297 A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field *298 Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCI SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 30: INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS 301 Mutual Inductance 302 SelfInductance 303 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 304 LR Circuits 305 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations 306 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit) 307 AC Circuits with AC Source 308 LRC Series AC Circuit 309 Resonance in AC Circuits *3010 Impedance Matching SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 31: MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 311 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere’s Law and Displacement Current 312 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism 313 Maxwell’s Equations 314 Production of Electromagnetic Waves *315 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell’s Equations 316 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 317 Measuring the Speed of Light 318 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector *319 Radiation Pressure *3110 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 32: LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION 321 The Ray Model of Light 322 The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction 323 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror 324 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 325 Refraction: Snell’s Law 326 Visible Spectrum and Dispersion 327 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics *328 Refraction at a Spherical Surface SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 33: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 331 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing 332 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification 333 Combinations of Lenses 334 Lensmaker’s Equation 335 Cameras, Film and Digital 336 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses 337 Magnifying Glass 338 Telescopes *339 Compound Microscope *3310 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 34: THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE 341 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction 342 Huygens’ Principle and the Law of Refraction 343 Interference–Young’s DoubleSlit Experiment 344 Intensity in the DoubleSlit Interference Pattern 345 Interference in Thin Films *346 Michelson Interferometer *347 Luminous Intensity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 35: DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION 351 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk 352 Intensity in SingleSlit Diffraction Pattern 353 Diffraction in the DoubleSlit Experiment 354 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures 355 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit *356 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification 357 Diffraction Grating *358 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy *359 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating *3510 XRays and XRay Diffraction 3511 Polarization *3512 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) *3513 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 36: SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY 361 Galilean—Newtonian Relativity *362 The MichelsonMorley Experiment 363 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity 364 Simultaneity 365 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox 366 Length Contraction 367 FourDimensional SpaceTime 368 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations 369 Relativistic Momentum and Mass 3610 The Ultimate Speed 3611 Energy and Mass; E=mc^{2} 3612 Doppler Shift for Light 3613 The Impact of Special Relativity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 37: EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM 371 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis 372 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect 373 Photons and the Compton Effect 374 Photon Interactions; Pair Production 375 WaveParticle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity 376 Wave Nature of Matter *377 Electron Microscopes 378 Early Models of the Atom 379 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom 3710 The Bohr Model 3711 DeBroglie’s Hypothesis Applied to Atoms SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS
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