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1 Beaverton COMP- ELEC ENGINEERING

Science & Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication

by

Science & Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication provides an introduction to microelectronic processing. Geared towards a wide audience, it may be used as a textbook for both first year graduate and upper level undergraduate courses and as a handy reference for professionals. The text covers all the basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits including photolithography, plasma and reactive ion etching, ion implantation, diffusion, oxidation, evaporation, vapor phase epitaxial growth, sputtering and chemical vapor deposition. Advanced processing topics such as rapid thermal processing, nonoptical lithography, molecular beam epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition are also presented. The physics and chemistry of each process is introduced along with descriptions of the equipment used for the manufacturing of integrated circuits. The text also discusses the integration of these processes into common technologies such as CMOS, double poly bipolar, and GaAs MESFETs. Complexity/performance tradeoffs are evaluated along with a description of the current state-of-the-art devices. Each chapter includes sample problems with solutions. The book also makes use of the process simulation package SUPREM to demonstrate impurity profiles of practical interest.

Table of Contents

Preface


Section I Overview and Materials


1. Overview of Semiconductor Fabrication


1.1. Introduction


1.2. Layered Technologies: A Simple Example


1.3. Unit Processes


1.4. Technologies Overview


1.5. A Roadmap for the Course


2. Semiconductor Substrates


2.1. Phase Diagrams and Solid Solubility


2.2. Crystallography and Crystal Structure


2.3. Crystal Defects


2.4. Czochralski Growth


2.5. Bridgman Growth of GaAs


2.6. Float-Zone Growth


2.7. Wafer Preparation and Specifications


2.8. Summary and Future Trends


Section II Unit Process I: Hot Processing and Ion Implantation


3. Diffusion


3.1. Fick's Diffusion Equation in One Dimension


3.2. Atomistic Models of Diffusion


3.3. Analytic Solutions of Fick's Law


3.4. Corrections to the iSimple asdf;


3.5. Diffusion Codefficients for Common Dopants


3.6. Analysis of Diffused Profiles


3.7. Diffusion in SiO2


3.8. Diffusion Systems


3.9. SUPREM Simulations of Diffusion Profiles


3.10. Summary


4. Thermal Oxidation


4.1. The Deal-Grove Model of Oxidation


4.2. The Linear and Parabolic Rate Coefficients


4.3. The Initial Oxidiation Regime


4.4. The Structure of SiO2


4.5. Oxide Characterization


4.6. The Effects of Dopants on Oxidation and Polysilicon Oxidatation


4.7. Oxidation Induced Stacking Faults


4.8. Alternative Thermal Dielectrics


4.9. Oxidation Systems


4.10. SUPREM III Oxidations


4.11. Summary


5. Ion Implantation


5.1. Idealized Ion Implant Systems


5.2. Coulomb Scattering


5.3. Vertical Projection Range


5.4. Channeling and lteral Projected Range


5.5. Implantation Damage


5.6. Shallow Junction Formation


5.7. Buried Dielectrics


5.8. Ion Implant Systems - Problems and Concerns


5.9. Implanted Profiles Using SUPREM III


5.10. Summary


6. Rapid Thermal Processing


6.1. Gray Body Radiation, Heat Exchange and Optical Absorption


6.2. High Intensity Optical Sources and the Reflecting Cavity


6.3. Temperature Measurement


6.4. Thermoplastic Stress


6.5. Rapid Thermal Activation of Impurities


6.6. Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics


6.7. Silicidation and Contact Formation


6.8. Advanced Systems


6.9. Summary


Section III Unit Processes 2: Pattern Transfer


7. Optical Exposure Tools


7.1. Lithography Overview


7.2. Diffraction


7.3. The Modulation Transfer Function and Optical Exposures


7.4. Source Systems and Spatial Coherence


7.5. Contact/Proximity Printers


7.6. Projection Printers


7.7. Advanced Mask Concepts


7.8. Surface Reflections and Standing Waves


7.9. Alignment


7.10. Summary


8. Photoresists


8.1. Photoresist Types


8.2. Organic Materials and Polymers


8.3. Typical Reactions of DQN Positive Photoresists


8.4. Contrast Curves


8.5. The Critical Modultaion Transfer Function


8.6. Applying and Developing Photoresist


8.7. Second Order Exposure Effects


8.8. Advanced Photoresists and Photoresist Processes


8.9. Summary


9. Nonoptical Lithographic Techniques


9.1. Interaction of a High Energy Beam With Matter


9.2. Electron Beam Lithography Systems


9.3. Electron Beam Lithography Summary and Outlook


9.4. X-Ray Sources


9.5. X-Ray Exposure Systems


9.6. X-Ray Masks


9.7. Summary and Outlook for X-Ray Lithography


9.8. E-Beam and X-Ray Resists


9.9. Radiation Damage in MOS Devices


9.10. Summary


10. Vacuum Science and Plasmas


10.1. The Kinetic Theory of Gases


10.2. Gas Flow and Conductance


10.3. Pressure Ranges and Vacuum Pumps


10.4. Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurement


10.5. The DC Glow Discharge


10.6. RF Discharge


10.7. Magnetically Enhanced and ECR Plasmas


10.8. Radiation from Accelerated Charged Particles


10.9. Summary


11. Etching


11.1. Wet Etching


11.2. Basic Regimes of Plasma Etching


11.3. High Pressure Plasma Etching


11.4. Ion Milling


11.5. Reactive Ion Etching


11.6. Damage in Reactive Ion Etching


11.7. Magnetically Enhaned Reactive Ion Etch (MERIE) Systems


11.8. Lift Off


11.9. Summary


Section IV Unit Processing 3: Thin Film Deposition and Epitaxial Growth


12. Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering


12.1. Phase Diagrams: Sublimation and Evaporation


12.2. Deposition Rates


12.3. Step Coverage


12.4. Evaporator Systems: Crucible Heating Techniques


12.5. Multicomponent Films


12.6. An Introduction to Sputtering


12.7. Physics of Sputtering


12.8. Deposition Rate: Ion Yield


12.9. Magnetron Sputtering


12.10. Morphology and Step Coverage


12.11. Sputtering Methods


12.12. Sputtering of Specific Materials


12.13. Stress in Deposited Layers


12.14. Summary


13. Chemical Vapor Deposition


13.1. Types of Chemical Reactions


13.2. Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action


13.3. Gas Flow and Boundary Layers


13.4. CVD Process Requirements


13.5. Low Pressure CVD Processes


13.6. Plasma Enhanced CVD


13.7. Photon Assisted and Laser Induced CVD


13.8. Characterization of CVD Dielectrics


13.9. Metal CVD


13.10. Summary


14. Exitaxial Growth


14.1. Wafer Cleaning and Native Oxide Removal


14.2. The Thermodynamics of Growth


14.3. Surface Reactions


14.4. Dopant Incorporation


14.5. Defects in Epitaxial Growth


14.6. Selective Growth


14.7. Halide Transport GaAs Vapor Phase Epitaxy


14.8. Incommensurate and Strained Layer Heteroepitaxy


14.9. Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)


14.10. Advanced Silicon Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth Techniques


14.11. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technology


14.12. BCF Theory


14.13. Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy


14.14. Summary


Section V Process Integration


15. Device Isolation, Contacts, and Metalization


15.1. Junction and Oxide Isolation


15.2. LOCOS Methods


15.3. Trench Isolation


15.4. Silicon on Insulator Isolation Techniques


15.5. Semi-insulation Substrates


15.6. Schottky Contacts


15.7. Implanted Ohmic Contacts


15.8. Alloyed Contacts


15.9. Multilevel Metallization


15.10. Planarization


15.11. Summary


16. CMOS Process Flows


16.1. Basic Long Channel Device Behavior


16.2. Early MOS Technologies


16.3. The Basic Three Micron Technology


16.4. Device Scaling


16.5. Hot Carrier Effects and Drain Engineering


16.6. Latchup


16.7. Summary


17. GaAs FET Technologies


17.1. MESFET Device Operation


17.2. Basic MESFET Technology


17.3. Digital Technologies


17.4. MMIC Technologies


17.5. MODFETs


17.6. Summary


18. Silicon Bipolar Techniques


18.1. Review of Bipolar Devices - Ideal and Quasi Ideal Behavior


18.2. Second Order Effects


18.3. Performance of BJT's


18.4. Early Bipolar Processes


18.5. Advance Bipolar Processes


18.6. Hot Electron Effects in Bipolar Transistors


18.7. BiCMOS


18.8. Analog Bipolar Techniques


18.9. Summary


19. Integrated Circuit Manufacturing


19.1. Yield and Yield Tracking


19.2. Particle Control


19.3. Statistical Process Control


19.4. Full Factorial Experiments and ANOVA


19.5. Design of Experiments


19.6. Computer Integrated Manufacturing


19.7. Summary


Appendices


I. List of Symbols and Acronyms


II. Properties of Selected Semiconductor Materials


III. Physical Constants


IV. Conversion Factors


V. The Complimentary Error Function


VI. F Values


Product Details

ISBN:
9780195105087
Author:
Campbell, Stephen A
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Author:
Campbell, Stephen A.
Author:
null, Stephen A.
Location:
New York :
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Series:
The Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering
Series Volume:
9430
Publication Date:
19960229
Binding:
Hardback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
413 illus.
Pages:
560
Dimensions:
9.58x7.72x1.22 in. 2.56 lbs.

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