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Science & Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication


Science & Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication Cover


Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication provides an introduction to microelectronic processing. Geared towards a wide audience, it may be used as a textbook for both first year graduate and upper level undergraduate courses and as a handy reference for professionals. The text covers all the basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits including photolithography, plasma and reactive ion etching, ion implantation, diffusion, oxidation, evaporation, vapor phase epitaxial growth, sputtering and chemical vapor deposition. Advanced processing topics such as rapid thermal processing, nonoptical lithography, molecular beam epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition are also presented. The physics and chemistry of each process is introduced along with descriptions of the equipment used for the manufacturing of integrated circuits. The text also discusses the integration of these processes into common technologies such as CMOS, double poly bipolar, and GaAs MESFETs. Complexity/performance tradeoffs are evaluated along with a description of the current state-of-the-art devices. Each chapter includes sample problems with solutions. The book also makes use of the process simulation package SUPREM to demonstrate impurity profiles of practical interest.

Table of Contents


Section I Overview and Materials

1. Overview of Semiconductor Fabrication

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Layered Technologies: A Simple Example

1.3. Unit Processes

1.4. Technologies Overview

1.5. A Roadmap for the Course

2. Semiconductor Substrates

2.1. Phase Diagrams and Solid Solubility

2.2. Crystallography and Crystal Structure

2.3. Crystal Defects

2.4. Czochralski Growth

2.5. Bridgman Growth of GaAs

2.6. Float-Zone Growth

2.7. Wafer Preparation and Specifications

2.8. Summary and Future Trends

Section II Unit Process I: Hot Processing and Ion Implantation

3. Diffusion

3.1. Fick's Diffusion Equation in One Dimension

3.2. Atomistic Models of Diffusion

3.3. Analytic Solutions of Fick's Law

3.4. Corrections to the iSimple asdf;

3.5. Diffusion Codefficients for Common Dopants

3.6. Analysis of Diffused Profiles

3.7. Diffusion in SiO2

3.8. Diffusion Systems

3.9. SUPREM Simulations of Diffusion Profiles

3.10. Summary

4. Thermal Oxidation

4.1. The Deal-Grove Model of Oxidation

4.2. The Linear and Parabolic Rate Coefficients

4.3. The Initial Oxidiation Regime

4.4. The Structure of SiO2

4.5. Oxide Characterization

4.6. The Effects of Dopants on Oxidation and Polysilicon Oxidatation

4.7. Oxidation Induced Stacking Faults

4.8. Alternative Thermal Dielectrics

4.9. Oxidation Systems

4.10. SUPREM III Oxidations

4.11. Summary

5. Ion Implantation

5.1. Idealized Ion Implant Systems

5.2. Coulomb Scattering

5.3. Vertical Projection Range

5.4. Channeling and lteral Projected Range

5.5. Implantation Damage

5.6. Shallow Junction Formation

5.7. Buried Dielectrics

5.8. Ion Implant Systems - Problems and Concerns

5.9. Implanted Profiles Using SUPREM III

5.10. Summary

6. Rapid Thermal Processing

6.1. Gray Body Radiation, Heat Exchange and Optical Absorption

6.2. High Intensity Optical Sources and the Reflecting Cavity

6.3. Temperature Measurement

6.4. Thermoplastic Stress

6.5. Rapid Thermal Activation of Impurities

6.6. Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics

6.7. Silicidation and Contact Formation

6.8. Advanced Systems

6.9. Summary

Section III Unit Processes 2: Pattern Transfer

7. Optical Exposure Tools

7.1. Lithography Overview

7.2. Diffraction

7.3. The Modulation Transfer Function and Optical Exposures

7.4. Source Systems and Spatial Coherence

7.5. Contact/Proximity Printers

7.6. Projection Printers

7.7. Advanced Mask Concepts

7.8. Surface Reflections and Standing Waves

7.9. Alignment

7.10. Summary

8. Photoresists

8.1. Photoresist Types

8.2. Organic Materials and Polymers

8.3. Typical Reactions of DQN Positive Photoresists

8.4. Contrast Curves

8.5. The Critical Modultaion Transfer Function

8.6. Applying and Developing Photoresist

8.7. Second Order Exposure Effects

8.8. Advanced Photoresists and Photoresist Processes

8.9. Summary

9. Nonoptical Lithographic Techniques

9.1. Interaction of a High Energy Beam With Matter

9.2. Electron Beam Lithography Systems

9.3. Electron Beam Lithography Summary and Outlook

9.4. X-Ray Sources

9.5. X-Ray Exposure Systems

9.6. X-Ray Masks

9.7. Summary and Outlook for X-Ray Lithography

9.8. E-Beam and X-Ray Resists

9.9. Radiation Damage in MOS Devices

9.10. Summary

10. Vacuum Science and Plasmas

10.1. The Kinetic Theory of Gases

10.2. Gas Flow and Conductance

10.3. Pressure Ranges and Vacuum Pumps

10.4. Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurement

10.5. The DC Glow Discharge

10.6. RF Discharge

10.7. Magnetically Enhanced and ECR Plasmas

10.8. Radiation from Accelerated Charged Particles

10.9. Summary

11. Etching

11.1. Wet Etching

11.2. Basic Regimes of Plasma Etching

11.3. High Pressure Plasma Etching

11.4. Ion Milling

11.5. Reactive Ion Etching

11.6. Damage in Reactive Ion Etching

11.7. Magnetically Enhaned Reactive Ion Etch (MERIE) Systems

11.8. Lift Off

11.9. Summary

Section IV Unit Processing 3: Thin Film Deposition and Epitaxial Growth

12. Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering

12.1. Phase Diagrams: Sublimation and Evaporation

12.2. Deposition Rates

12.3. Step Coverage

12.4. Evaporator Systems: Crucible Heating Techniques

12.5. Multicomponent Films

12.6. An Introduction to Sputtering

12.7. Physics of Sputtering

12.8. Deposition Rate: Ion Yield

12.9. Magnetron Sputtering

12.10. Morphology and Step Coverage

12.11. Sputtering Methods

12.12. Sputtering of Specific Materials

12.13. Stress in Deposited Layers

12.14. Summary

13. Chemical Vapor Deposition

13.1. Types of Chemical Reactions

13.2. Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action

13.3. Gas Flow and Boundary Layers

13.4. CVD Process Requirements

13.5. Low Pressure CVD Processes

13.6. Plasma Enhanced CVD

13.7. Photon Assisted and Laser Induced CVD

13.8. Characterization of CVD Dielectrics

13.9. Metal CVD

13.10. Summary

14. Exitaxial Growth

14.1. Wafer Cleaning and Native Oxide Removal

14.2. The Thermodynamics of Growth

14.3. Surface Reactions

14.4. Dopant Incorporation

14.5. Defects in Epitaxial Growth

14.6. Selective Growth

14.7. Halide Transport GaAs Vapor Phase Epitaxy

14.8. Incommensurate and Strained Layer Heteroepitaxy

14.9. Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)

14.10. Advanced Silicon Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth Techniques

14.11. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technology

14.12. BCF Theory

14.13. Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy

14.14. Summary

Section V Process Integration

15. Device Isolation, Contacts, and Metalization

15.1. Junction and Oxide Isolation

15.2. LOCOS Methods

15.3. Trench Isolation

15.4. Silicon on Insulator Isolation Techniques

15.5. Semi-insulation Substrates

15.6. Schottky Contacts

15.7. Implanted Ohmic Contacts

15.8. Alloyed Contacts

15.9. Multilevel Metallization

15.10. Planarization

15.11. Summary

16. CMOS Process Flows

16.1. Basic Long Channel Device Behavior

16.2. Early MOS Technologies

16.3. The Basic Three Micron Technology

16.4. Device Scaling

16.5. Hot Carrier Effects and Drain Engineering

16.6. Latchup

16.7. Summary

17. GaAs FET Technologies

17.1. MESFET Device Operation

17.2. Basic MESFET Technology

17.3. Digital Technologies

17.4. MMIC Technologies

17.5. MODFETs

17.6. Summary

18. Silicon Bipolar Techniques

18.1. Review of Bipolar Devices - Ideal and Quasi Ideal Behavior

18.2. Second Order Effects

18.3. Performance of BJT's

18.4. Early Bipolar Processes

18.5. Advance Bipolar Processes

18.6. Hot Electron Effects in Bipolar Transistors

18.7. BiCMOS

18.8. Analog Bipolar Techniques

18.9. Summary

19. Integrated Circuit Manufacturing

19.1. Yield and Yield Tracking

19.2. Particle Control

19.3. Statistical Process Control

19.4. Full Factorial Experiments and ANOVA

19.5. Design of Experiments

19.6. Computer Integrated Manufacturing

19.7. Summary


I. List of Symbols and Acronyms

II. Properties of Selected Semiconductor Materials

III. Physical Constants

IV. Conversion Factors

V. The Complimentary Error Function

VI. F Values

Product Details

Campbell, Stephen A
Oxford University Press
Campbell, Stephen A.
null, Stephen A.
New York :
Edition Description:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
The Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering
Series Volume:
Publication Date:
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
413 illus.
9.58x7.72x1.22 in. 2.56 lbs.

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