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Earth Under Siege : From Air Pollution To Global Change (2ND 02 Edition)

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Earth Under Siege : From Air Pollution To Global Change (2ND 02 Edition) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Please note that used books may not include additional media (study guides, CDs, DVDs, solutions manuals, etc.) as described in the publisher comments.

Publisher Comments:

"We urgently need a comprehensive and comprehensible book on the dangers to the environment. That need has now been supplied in the present book by Richard Turco."

--the Foreword by Carl Sagan

This acclaimed book examines one of the most important problems facing our modern technological age: environmental pollution. Written to inform general readers--including future policy makers, business administrators, and political leaders--the text offers a comprehensive description of environmental systems, providing a basic understanding of how the world around us works and how human activities affect it. Building on a popular course he taught at UCLA, Richard Turco clearly explains underlying environmental principles and processes including the role of evolutionary forces in shaping the environment, Earth's energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Against this background, Turco surveys local and regional problems, including indoor air pollution, smog, and acid rain, identifying the sources and fates of pollutants and examining human exposure to natural and manmade toxins. He then addresses global issues such as stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse climate warming and describes responses to these threats in the form of "global environmental engineering." Now in its second edition, Earth Under Siege has been revised and updated to reflect advances in knowledge and progress in regulation. It offers a comprehensive overview of environmental issues for students in the physical and life sciences, geography, economics, engineering, environmental management and law, policy studies, and social and health sciences.

Features


· Presents information in a way that is readily accessible to nonscientists but is sufficiently detailed to hold the interest of scientists and engineers


· Explains the technical principles underlying a wide range of current environmental problems


· Addresses critical local, regional, and global issues and their impact on life and society


· Uses common experiences and novel illustrations to familiarize students with fundamental concepts


· Challenges readers to think about and approach problems objectively and creatively


· Includes a helpful primer on the basic mathematics employed in the text

Synopsis:

In this clear and authoritative text, Richard Turco examines one of the most important problems facing the modern age — air pollution. Based on his popular course at University of California, Los Angeles, this text, specifically designed for nonscience majors, offers a basic understanding of how the physical environment surrounding us functions and how human activities are affecting it, while presenting sufficient supporting details to hold the interest of science majors. It provides a comprehensive description of the atmospheric environment and details the foundation on which the science and policy of atmosphere-related environmental issues are based. Fundamental scientific concepts that determine the scope of a variety of environmental problems are introduced, including the behavior of atmosphere, basic chemical processes in the environment, and the properties of light and heat. Key logical, regional, and global pollution issues are addressed in terms of their implications for society and life. In his survey of local and regional issues--which include indoor air pollution, smog, and acid rain--the author identifies the principal sources and effects of pollutants and discusses the many ways in which people are exposed to environmental toxins. Global environmental issues, such as stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and greenhouse warming are treated in the same context as "global environmental engineering." The physical and chemical principles central to all of these problems are placed in the perspective of real world events, and everyday experiences are used to familiarize students with these principles. Special care has been taken to provide illustrative examples and problems to help students hone their understanding of the concepts and ideas discussed, and to challenge their creative and deductive approaches to all environmental problems, thus requiring more than the rote memorization of facts. An appendix provides a helpful primer to the basic mathematics used throughout the book. Enjoyable, stimulating, and comprehensive, this text is an ideal introduction to environmental sciences for students in the earth and atmospheric sciences, geography, engineering, environmental management and law, and life sciences.

About the Author

Richard P. Turco is Professor of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Director of UCLA's Institute of the Environment.

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with Questions and Problems.

Foreword by Carl Sagan

Preface

Preface to the First Edition

1. Introduction

1.1. The Cronus Syndrome

1.2. On the Quality of Life

1.3. Global Change and Preservation

1.4. Methodology for Study

Part I. Fundamentals

2. Air: The Medium of Change

2.1. What Is Air?

2.1.1. Sensing Air

2.1.2. The Basic Ingredients

2.1.3. The Basic Properties

2.2. A Short History of Discovery

2.2.1. The Air Revealed

2.2.2. The Mechanics of Air

2.3. The Structure of the Atmosphere

2.3.1. How Much Air Is There?

2.3.2. Temperature Profiles

2.3.3. The Stratification of the Atmosphere

2.4. Air in Motion

2.4.1. Local Winds and Weather

2.4.2. Global Wind Systems

3. Basic Physical and Chemical Principles

3.1. The Mechanical Behavior of Gases and Particles

3.1.1. Gas Laws and Hydrostatics

3.1.2. Particles in Suspension

3.1.3. Clouds and Precipitation

3.2. Radiation and Energy

3.2.1. Sunlight and Heat

3.2.2. Scattering and Absorption

3.2.3. Common Optical Effects

3.3. Chemistry and the Environment

3.3.1. Symbols and Terminology

3.3.2. Properties of Common Substances

3.3.3. The Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions

3.3.4. Basic Chemical Reactions

4. The Evolution of Earth

4.1. The Origin of the Earth

4.1.1. Early Evolutionary Phases

4.1.2. Box Models for Earth Reservoirs

4.1.3. The Prebiotic Atmosphere

4.2. The Coevolution of the Environment and Life

4.2.1. The Evolution of Life Processes

4.2.2. Ancient Organisms and Greenhouse Gases

4.2.3. Photosynthesis and the Ozone Layer

4.3. The Mass Extinction of Life

4.3.1. Fossil History

4.3.2. The Dinosaurs: A Lesson in Longevity

4.3.3. Goddess Gaia and Homeostasis

4.4. The Coevolution of Intelligence and Pollution

4.4.1. Population and Technology

Part II. Local and Regional Pollution Issues

5. Sources and Dispersion of Pollutants

5.1. The Source of the Problem

5.1.1. What to Call Pollutants?

5.1.2. Distributed and Point Sources

5.1.3. Size Scales of Dispersion

5.2. The Dispersion of Pollutants

5.2.1. Diffusion and Turbulence

5.2.2. Convection and Lofting

5.2.3. Advection and Long-Range Transport

5.3. Temperature Inversions

5.3.1. Temperatures in the Lower Atmosphere

5.3.2. Atmospheric Stability

5.3.3. Large-Scale Inversions

5.4. Plumes of Pollution

5.4.1. Smokestack Plumes

5.4.2. Ground Plumes

5.4.3. Urban Heat Islands

5.5. Regional Dispersion of Pollutants

5.5.1. In Coastal Zones

5.5.2. Near Mountain Barriers

6. Smog: The Urban Syndrome

6.1. The History of Smog

6.1.1. Air Pollution and Poets

6.1.2. London Smog

6.1.3. Los Angeles Smog

6.2. Primary and Secondary Pollutants

6.2.1. The Basic Ingredients

6.2.2. Clean and Dirty Air

6.3. Smog Scenarios: A Typical Polluted Day

6.3.1. Carbon Monoxide

6.3.2. Nitrogen Dioxide

6.3.3. Ozone

6.4. Dissecting Smog

6.4.1. The Evolution of Smoggy Air

6.4.2. Trends in Air Pollution

6.5. Haze and Visibility

6.5.1. Total Suspended Particulate

6.5.2. Seeing through Air

6.5.3. Acid Particles and Fog

6.6. Controlling Smog: Everyone's Job

6.6.1. Reducing Emissions of Primary Pollutants

6.6.2. Alternative Fuels

6.6.3. Lifestyles for Health and Survival

7. Effects of Exposure to Pollution

7.1. How Pollutants Affect Health

7.1.1. The Discovery of Toxicity

7.1.2. The Physiology of Toxicity

7.2. The Toxic Effects of Air Pollutants

7.2.1. Common Ingredients of Smog

7.2.2. Eye Irritants

7.2.3. Organic Vapors

7.2.4. Problem Particles

7.2.5. Persistent Environmental Toxins

7.3. Radioactivity

7.3.1. Stability of the Elements

7.3.2. Sources of Radioactivity

7.3.3. The Physiological Effects of Radioactivity

7.4. Assessment of Health Risks

7.4.1. Defining the Threat

7.4.2. Risks and Benefits of Pollution

7.4.3. Box Models for Risk Assessment

7.4.4. Urban Smog: A Case Study

7.5. Limiting Risk

8. Indoor Air Pollution

8.1. What Are "Indoor" Air Pollutants?

8.1.1. The Special Character of Indoor Pollution

8.1.2. Indoor Pollution and the News

8.2. Radon: Mother and Daughters

8.2.1. Poison from the Earth

8.2.2. Radon Exposure and Its Effects

8.3. Formaldehyde

8.3.1. Embalmers' Fluid

8.3.2. Formaldehyde's Impacts on Health

8.4. Tobacco Smoke

8.4.1. Composition of Tobacco Smoke

8.4.2. Tobacco Smoke's Effects on Health

8.4.3. Smoke and Mirrors

8.5. Other Indoor Pollutants

8.5.1. Biogenic Pollutants

8.5.2. Indoor Water Pollution

8.6. Indoor Versus Outdoor Pollution

8.6.1. Is It Safe to Go Indoors?

8.6.2. Making Indoors Safe

9. Acid Rain

9.1. The Tainted Rain

9.2. Acidity and pH

9.2.1. The pH Scale

9.2.2. Acids in Water

9.2.3. Alkalinity: The Acid Buffer

9.3. Sources of Environmental Acids

9.3.1. How Acid Is Acid Rain?

9.3.2. Sulfur Oxides and Acid Rain

9.3.3. Nitrogen Oxides and Acid Rain

9.4. Acid Fog

9.5. The Costs of Excess Acidity

9.5.1. Dying Forests and Lakes

9.5.2. A Potpourri of Destruction

9.5.3. Health Implications

9.6. Controlling Acid Rain and Fog

Part III. Global-Scale Pollution Issues

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect

Ozone Depletion and the Ozone Hole

Climate Change Caused by Nuclear War: Nuclear Winter

The Relationship between Population and Pollution

10. Global Biogeochemical Cycles

10.1. The Grand Chemical Cycles of Earth

10.1.1. Reservoirs in the Earth System

10.1.2. Simple Reservoir Models

10.2. Biogeochemical Cycles of the Primary Elements

10.2.1. Sulfur

10.2.2. Nitrogen

10.2.3. Oxygen

10.2.4. Carbon

10.3. The Hydrological Cycle

10.4. A Global Garbage Dump?

11. The Climate Machine

11.1. Weather and Climate

11.2. Energy from the Sun

11.2.1. Solar Illumination

11.2.2. The Four Seasons

11.3. The Temperature of Earth

11.3.1. Sunlight In, Earthglow Out

11.3.2. An Energy Balance Model

11.3.3. The Temperatures of the Planets

11.4. The Greenhouse Effect

11.4.1. Atmospheric Band Absorption

11.4.2. Radiation Emission from the Earth

11.4.3. Clouds and Radiation

11.4.4. The Greenhouse Energy Balance

11.5. Energy Reservoirs: The Climate Flywheel

11.5.1. Reservoirs for Heat

11.5.2. Ice: The Cool Reservoir

11.5.3. A Coupled Climate System

11.6. Causes of Climate Change

11.6.1. Climate Variability

11.6.2. Solar Variability: External Forcing

11.6.3. Ice Ages

11.6.4. Volcanic Eruptions

11.6.5. The Albedo Effect

11.7. The Vulnerability of Life to a Changing Climate

11.7.1. Modern Society and Climate

11.7.2. Do We Need Climate Insurance?

12. Greenhouse Warming

12.1. Greenhouse Gases

12.1.1. The Greenhouse Culprits: A Rogue's Gallery

12.1.2. Water Vapor: Innocent Bystander or Good Samaritan?

12.2. Carbon Dioxide

12.2.1. Increasing CO[2: What Is the Cause?

12.2.2. The Problem with Energy Addiction

12.3. Other Greenhouse Gases

12.3.1. Methane

12.3.2. Nitrous Oxide

12.3.3. Chlorofluorocarbons

12.3.4. Ozone

12.4. the Warming Effect of Greenhouse Gases

12.4.1. Climate History and the Greenhouse Effect

12.4.2. Recent Temperature Trends

12.4.3. Forecasts of Greenhouse Warming

12.4.4. Uncertainty Is the Future

12.4. Solutions?

12.5.1. Recyclable Fuels

12.5.2. Alternative Energy Sources

12.5.3. Climate Correction: Endangering the Environment

13. The Stratospheric Ozone Layer

13.1. The Ozone Shield

13.2. The Formation and Destruction of Ozone

13.2.1. The Photochemistry of Ozone

13.2.2. The Destruction of Catalytic Ozone

13.3. The Distribution of Ozone in the Atmosphere

13.3.1. Dobson Units: Ozone Overhead

13.3.2. How Much Ozone Is There?

13.4. Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation

13.4.1. Regions of the Ultraviolet Spectrum

13.4.2. Health Effects of UV-B Radiation

13.4.3. Environmental Effects of UV-B Radiation

13.5. Threats Against Ozone

13.5.1. A Litany of Threats

13.5.2. Chlorine

13.5.3. Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone Change

13.5.4. Bromine and the Halons

13.6. Forecasts of Global Ozone Depletion

13.6.1. Scenarios and Projections

13.6.2. Signature of the Culprit

13.7. The Ozone Hole

13.7.1. Discovery

13.7.2. The Polar Vortex

13.7.3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds

13.7.4. Ozone Depletion: The Hole Story

13.7.5. A Global Ozone Disaster?

13.8. Solutions and Actions

13.8.1. The Montreal Protocol

13.8.2. Saving the Earth's Ozone Layer

14. Global Environmental Engineering

14.1. What Is Global Environmental Engineering?

14.1.1. Living Thermostats: Natural Compensation

14.1.2. Planetary Engineering

14.2. Technological Traps

14.2.1. Nuclear Winter

14.2.2. Carbon Dioxide

14.2.3. Chlorofluorocarbons

14.3. Technological Cures

14.3.1. Preventing Armageddon

14.3.2. Cooling Down the Greenhouse

14.3.3. Fixing the Ozone Shield

14.4. A Rational Approach to Environmental Management

Appendix A. Scientific Notation, Units, and Constants

A.1. Scientific Notation

Applications of Scientific Notation

Large and Small Numbers

Using Mixing Ratios

A.2. The Metric System: Units and Conversions

Common Units of Measure

Manipulation of Dimensions and Units

A.3. Physical and Mathematical Constants

Physical Constants (and Their Common Symbols)

Mathematical Constants

A.4. Mathematical Operations

Squares and Square Roots

Higher Powers

Exponentials and Logarithms

Algebraic Equations

Inequalities

Appendix B. Demonstrations of Common Natural Phenomena

Demonstration 1: Light Scattering by Small Particles

Background

Experimental Procedure

Demonstration 2: Gas-to-Particle Conversion in Smog

Background

Experimental Procedure

Demonstration 3: Atmospheric Pressure and Water Vapor Condensation

Background

Experimental Procedure

Demonstration 4: Acid Rain Formation

Background

Experimental Procedure

Appendix C. Radiation Nomenclature

Index

Product Details

ISBN:
9780195142747
Subtitle:
From Air Pollution to Global Change
Author:
Turco, Richard P.
Foreword by:
Sagan, Carl
Foreword:
Sagan, Carl
Author:
null, Richard P.
Author:
null, Carl
Author:
Cram101 Textbook Reviews
Author:
Sagan, Carl
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Location:
New York
Subject:
Environmental Science
Subject:
Earth Sciences
Subject:
Climatic changes
Subject:
Air pollution
Subject:
Earth Sciences - General
Subject:
Environmental Engineering & Technology
Subject:
Earth Sciences | Ecology
Subject:
Environmental - General
Subject:
Environmental Studies-General
Subject:
Education-General
Edition Number:
2
Edition Description:
bonded leather burgundy 591RRL
Series Volume:
no. 42
Publication Date:
20020221
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
176 line illus/halftones
Pages:
552
Dimensions:
7.4 x 9.9 x 1.1 in 2.25 lb

Related Subjects


Reference » Science Reference » Technology
Science and Mathematics » Environmental Studies » Environment
Science and Mathematics » Environmental Studies » General
Science and Mathematics » Physics » Meteorology

Earth Under Siege : From Air Pollution To Global Change (2ND 02 Edition) Used Trade Paper
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Product details 552 pages Oxford University Press - English 9780195142747 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , In this clear and authoritative text, Richard Turco examines one of the most important problems facing the modern age — air pollution. Based on his popular course at University of California, Los Angeles, this text, specifically designed for nonscience majors, offers a basic understanding of how the physical environment surrounding us functions and how human activities are affecting it, while presenting sufficient supporting details to hold the interest of science majors. It provides a comprehensive description of the atmospheric environment and details the foundation on which the science and policy of atmosphere-related environmental issues are based. Fundamental scientific concepts that determine the scope of a variety of environmental problems are introduced, including the behavior of atmosphere, basic chemical processes in the environment, and the properties of light and heat. Key logical, regional, and global pollution issues are addressed in terms of their implications for society and life. In his survey of local and regional issues--which include indoor air pollution, smog, and acid rain--the author identifies the principal sources and effects of pollutants and discusses the many ways in which people are exposed to environmental toxins. Global environmental issues, such as stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and greenhouse warming are treated in the same context as "global environmental engineering." The physical and chemical principles central to all of these problems are placed in the perspective of real world events, and everyday experiences are used to familiarize students with these principles. Special care has been taken to provide illustrative examples and problems to help students hone their understanding of the concepts and ideas discussed, and to challenge their creative and deductive approaches to all environmental problems, thus requiring more than the rote memorization of facts. An appendix provides a helpful primer to the basic mathematics used throughout the book. Enjoyable, stimulating, and comprehensive, this text is an ideal introduction to environmental sciences for students in the earth and atmospheric sciences, geography, engineering, environmental management and law, and life sciences.
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