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Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing: A Brief Guide to Argument

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Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing: A Brief Guide to Argument Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing is a compact but complete guide to critical thinking and argumentation. Comprising the text portion of the widely adopted Current Issues and Enduring Questions, it draws on the authors dual expertise in effective persuasive writing and comprehensive rhetorical strategies to help students move from critical thinking to argumentative and researched writing. With comprehensive coverage of classic and contemporary approaches to argument, including Aristotle, Toulmin, and a range of alternative views, as well as 35 readings and a casebook on the state and the individual, it is an extraordinarily versatile text. This affordable guide can stand alone or supplement a larger anthology of readings.

Table of Contents

PREFACE

PART ONE     
CRITICAL THINKING AND READING
 
1 Critical Thinking

THINKING ABOUT DRIVERS LICENSES AND PHOTOGRAPHIC IDENTIFICATION

THINKING ABOUT ANOTHER ISSUE CONCERNING DRIVERS LICENSES: 

IMAGINATION, ANALYSIS, EVALUATION

THINKING ABOUT STUDENT EVALUATIONS OF THEIR PROFESSORS

Idea Prompt:  Visualizing Pros and Cons

WRITING AS A WAY OF THINKING

Getting Ideas

Idea Prompt:  Understanding Classical Topics

A CHECKLIST FOR CRITICAL THINKING
A SHORT ESSAY ILLUSTRATING CRITICAL THINKING

Harlan Coben   The Undercover Parent

Letter of Response by Carol Weston

A Checklist for Evaluating Letters of Response

EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS
A CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS
Peter Cave, Should We Save the Jerboa?

Five Exercises in Critical Thinking

 
2 Critical Reading: Getting Started

ACTIVE READING

SUMMARIZING AND PARAPHRASING

A Note about Paraphrase and Plagiarism

Last Words (Almost) about Summarizing

Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie

Summarizing Jacoby, Paragraph by Paragraph

A CHECKLIST FOR GETTING STARTED

Anya Kamenetz,  Youre 16, Youre Beautiful and Youre a Voter

Exercises Examining Paragraphs

Letters of Response by Betty Agard, Robert Epstein, Delia McQuade Emmons, and Amanda Bergson-Shilcock

Gwen Wilde (student essay), Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be Revised
A CASEBOOK FOR CRITICAL READING: SHOULD SOME KINDS OF SPEECH BE CENSORED?

Susan Brownmiller, Lets Put Pornography Back in the Closet

Charles R. Lawrence III,  On Racist Speech
DEREK BOK, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus
Andrew Keen, Douse the Online Flamers

Thinking Further about Freedom of Expression, Cyberbullying, and Facebook

Exercise:  Letter to the Editor

 
3 Critical Reading: Getting Deeper into Arguments

PERSUASION, ARGUMENT, DISPUTE

REASON VERSUS RATIONALIZATION
SOME PROCEDURES IN ARGUMENT

Definition

Idea Prompt:  Ways to Give Definitions

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL EVIDENCE
NONRATIONAL APPEALS
DOES ALL WRITING CONTAIN ARGUMENTS?
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT
AN EXAMPLE: AN ARGUMENT AND A LOOK AT THE WRITERS STRATEGIES

George F. Will, Being Green at Ben and Jerrys

George F. Willss Strategies

ARGUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS

Stanley Fish, When “ Identity” Politics is Rational

James Carroll, If Poison Gas Can Go, Why Not Nukes?
Gloria Jimenez (student essay), Against the Odds, and Against the Common Good

Anna Lisa Raya (student essay), Its Hard Enough Being Me

Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority
James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns
Sally Satel, Deaths Waiting List

Letters of Response by Dorothy H. Hayes, Charles B. Fruit, and Michelle Goodwin

Heather Rogers, Hiding in Plain Sight
 
4 Visual Rhetoric: Images as Arguments
SOME USES OF IMAGES
APPEALS TO THE EYE
ARE SOME IMAGES NOT FIT TO BE SHOWN?

Politics and Pictures

Exercises: Thinking about Images

READING ADVERTISEMENTS
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING IMAGES (ESPECIALLY ADVERTISEMENTS)
WRITING ABOUT A POLITICAL CARTOON

Idea Prompt:  Analysis of a Political Cartoon

A Checklist for Analyzing Political Cartoons

Jackson Smith (student essay), Pledging Nothing?

VISUALS AS AIDS TO CLARITY: MAPS, GRAPHS, TABLES, AND PIE CHARTS

A Checklist for Charts and Graphs

A NOTE ON USING VISUALS IN YOUR OWN PAPER
A NOTE ON FORMATTING YOUR PAPER:  DOCUMENT DESIGN
ADDITIONAL IMAGES FOR ANALYSIS

Nora Ephron, The Boston Photographs

PART TWO

CRITICAL WRITING

 
5 Writing an Analysis of an Argument
ANALYZING AN ARGUMENT

Idea Prompt:  Drawing Conclusions and Implying Proof

An Argument, Its Elements, and a Students Analysis of the Argument

Nicholas D. Kristof, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle

Betsy Swinton (student essay) , Tracking  Kristof

An Analysis of the Students Analysis

A Checklist for Writing an Analysis of an Argument

ARGUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS
Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging
Gerald Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids
Sunaura Taylor and Alexander Taylor, Is It Possible To Be a Conscientious Meat Eater?
Peter Singer, Animal Liberation
JONATHAN SWIFT, A Modest Proposal
 
6 Developing an Argument of Your Own

PLANNING, DRAFTING, AND REVISING AN ARGUMENT

A Checklist for a Thesis Statement

A Checklist for Imagining an Audience

Idea Promt:  Using Transitions in Argument

A CHECKLIST FOR ATTENDING TO THE NEEDS OF THE AUDIENCE
PEER REVIEW
A PEER REVIEW CHECKLIST FOR A DRAFT OF AN ARGUMENT
A STUDENTS ESSAY, FROM ROUGH NOTES TO FINAL VERSION

Emily Andrews, Why I Dont Spare “Spare Change”

The Essay Analyzed

Exercise

 
7 Using Sources

WHY USE SOURCES?

CHOOSING A TOPIC
FINDING MATERIAL

Finding Quality Information on the Web

A Word about Wikipedia

Finding Articles Using Library Databases

Locating Books

INTERVIEWING PEERS AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES
EVALUATING  YOUR SOURCES
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING PRINT SOURCES
TAKING NOTES
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING ELECTRONIC SOURCES
A NOTE ON PLAGIARIZING, PARAPHRASING, AND USING COMMON KNOWLEDGE
A CHECKLIST FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM
COMPILING AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
WRITING THE PAPER
QUOTING FROM SOURCES

Incorporating Your Reading into Your Thinking: The Art and Science of Synthesis

The Use and Abuse of Quotations,

How to Quote,

A Checklist for Using Quotations Rather than Summaries

DOCUMENTATION

Idea Prompt:  Signal Phrases

A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)

MLA Format: Citations within the Text

MLA Format: The List of Works Cited

APA Format: Citations within the Text

APA Format: The List of References

A CHECKLIST FOR PAPERS USING SOURCES
AN ANNOTATED STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER IN MLA FORMAT

THERESA WASHINGTON, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised

AN ANNOTATED STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER IN APA FORMAT

LAURA DEVEAU, The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health

 
PART THREE

FURTHER VIEWS ON ARGUMENT

 
8 A Philosophers View: The Toulmin Model

THE CLAIM

GROUNDS

WARRANTS

BACKING

MODAL QUALIFIERS

REBUTTALS

A MODEL ANALYSIS USING THE TOULMIN METHOD

A CHECKLIST FOR USING THE TOULMIN METHOD

Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument

Michael S. Dukakis and Daniel J. B. Mitchell, Raise Wages, Not Walls

Thinking with Toulmins Method

9 A Logicians View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies

DEDUCTION

INDUCTION

FALLACIES

Fallacies of Ambiguity

Fallacies of Presumption

Fallacies of Relevance

A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT FROM A LOGICAL POINT OF VIEW Exercise: Fallacies—Or Not?

MAX SHULMAN, Love Is a Fallacy

 
10 A Moralists View: Ways of Thinking Ethically

AMORAL REASONING

IMMORAL REASONING

MORAL REASONING: A CLOSER LOOK

CRITERIA FOR MORAL RULES

A CHECKLIST FOR MORAL REASONING

Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Garrett Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics: The Case against Helping the Poor
Randy Cohen, Three Letters (to an Ethicist)
 
11 A Lawyers View: Steps toward Civic Literacy
CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES

TRIAL AND APPEAL

DECISION AND OPINION

MAJORITY, CONCURRING, AND DISSENTING OPINIONS

FACTS AND LAW

BALANCING INTERESTS

A WORD OF CAUTION

A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING LEGAL ARGUMENTS

A CASEBOOK ON THE LAW AND SOCIETY: WHAT RIGHTS DO THE CONSTITUTION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS PROTECT?
Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey v. T.L.O.
Harry Blackmun and William H. Rehnquist, Roe v. Wade
 
12 A Psychologists View: Rogerian Argument

Rogerian Argument: An Introduction

Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation
A CHECKLIST FOR ANALYZING ROGERIAN ARGUMENT
Edward O. Wilson, Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister
 
13 A Literary Critics View: Arguing about Literature

INTERPRETING

JUDGING (OR EVALUATING)

THEORIZING

A CHECKLIST FOR AN ARGUMENT ABOUT LITERATURE

EXAMPLES: TWO STUDENTS INTERPRET ROBERT FROSTS “MENDING WALL”

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker in Frosts “Mending Wall”

Felicia Alonso, The Debate in Robert Frosts “Mending Wall”

Exercises: Reading a Poem and a Story

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

THINKING ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF LITERATURE

Plato, “The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject”

THINKING ABOUT GOVERNMENT FUNDING FOR THE ARTS
 
14 A Debaters View: Individual Oral Presentations and Debate

CLASSROOM INDIVIDUAL ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Personal Appearance

Forms of Delivery

The Language of the Talk

Pace of Speaking

Movement

Audiovisual Aids

A CHECKLIST FOR AN ORAL PRESENTATION

FORMAL DEBATES

Standard Debate Format

The Audience

Delivery

The Talk

A CHECKLIST FOR PREPARING FOR A DEBATE

PART FOUR

A CASEBOOK ON THE STATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL

 
5 What Is the Ideal Society?
Thomas More, From Utopia
Niccolo Machiavelli, From The Prince
Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream
Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

Product Details

ISBN:
9780312601607
Subtitle:
A Brief Guide to Argument
Author:
Barnet, Sylvan
Author:
Bedau, Hugo
Publisher:
Bedford/St. Martin's
Subject:
Readers
Subject:
Logic
Subject:
PHILOSOPHY / Logic
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Seventh Edition
Publication Date:
20100714
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
592
Dimensions:
9.13 x 6.00 in

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