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Aircraft Propulsion

Aircraft Propulsion Cover


Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Aircraft Propulsion is an engineering textbook written for students in aerospace and mechanical engineering. The book covers aircraft gas turbine engine and rocket propulsion from its basic principles to more advanced treatments in engine components. Propulsion system integration with aircraft plays an important role in understanding propulsion and is thus addressed in the book. Extensive review material and derivations are intended to help students navigate through the subject with more ease. Over 100 examples and 300 problems are designed to practice the principles learned in jet propulsion and compliment learning through applications. In every engine component, issues related to manufacturing, material properties, temperature limitations and cooling are included to give students an appreciation for the broader scope of propulsion engineering than just aero-thermodynamics. Component matching and off-design analysis is detailed in a separate chapter to provide the physical and performance linkage between the components and their impact on aircraft engines. Principles of chemical rocket propulsion are presented in the context of single-stage to orbit propulsion needs of a rocket-based combined cycle vehicle. The broad treatment of the gas turbine engine cycles and components makes the book suitable as a reference for propulsion and turbomachinery engineers, gas turbine industry and professional development courses.


"Aircrarft Propulsion" presents thorough coverage of fundamental concepts along with numerous detailed examples and extensive illustrations. This accessible introduction first discusses compressible flow with heat and friction as well as engine thrust and performance parameters. Readers will then learn about aircraft gas turbine engine cycles followed by aircraft engine components. And they'll discover the aerodynamics and performance of centrifugal compressors.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction.

1.1 History of Airbreathing Jet Engine: A 20th Century Invention.

1.2 Innovations in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines.

1.2.1 Multi-Spool Configuration.

1.2.2 Variable Stator.

1.2.3 Transonic Compressor.

1.2.4 Low-Emission Combustor.

1.2.5 Turbine Cooling.

1.2.6 Exhaust Nozzle.

1.2.7 Modern Materials and Manufacturing Techniques.

1.3 New Engine Concepts.

1.3.1 Wave Rotor Topping Cycle.

1.3.2 Pulse Detonation Engine.

1.3.3 Millimeter-Scale Gas Turbine Engines: A Triumph of MEMs.

1.3.4 Combined Cycle Propulsion: Engines from Takeoff to Space.

1.4 New Vehicles.

1.5 Summary.

1.6 Roadmap for the Book.

1.7 References.


Chapter 2. Compressible Flow with Friction & Heat.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 A Brief Review of Thermodynamics.

2.3 Isentropic Process/Flow.

2.4 Conservation Principles for Systems and Control Volumes.

2.5 Speed of Sound & Mach Number.

2.6 Stagnation State.

2.7 Quasi-One Dimensional Flow.

2.8 Area-Mach Number Relationship.

2.9 Sonic Throat.

2.10 Waves in Supersonic Flow.

2.11 Normal Shocks.

2.12 Oblique Shocks.

2.13 Conical Shocks.

2.14 Expansion Waves.

2.15 Frictionless, Constant-Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer.

2.16 Adiabatic Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction.

2.17 Friction (Drag) Coefficient, Cf and D'Arcy Friction Factor, fD.

2.18 Dimensionless Parameters.

2.19 Fluid Impulse.

2.20 Summary of Fluid Impulse.

2.21 References.


Chapter 3. Engine Thrust & Performance Parameters.

3.1 Introduction .

3.1.1 Takeoff Thrust.

3.2 Installed Thrust - Some Bookkeeping Issues on Thrust & Drag.

3.3 Engine Thrust Based on the Sum of Component Impulse.

3.4 Rocket Thrust.

3.5 Airbreathing Engine Performance Parameters.

3.5.1 Specific Thrust.

3.5.2 Specific Fuel Consumption & Specific Impulse.

3.5.3 Thermal Efficiency.

3.5.4 Propulsive Efficiency.

3.5.5 Engine Overall Efficiency & Its Impact on Aircraft Range, Endurance.

3.6 Summary.

3.7 References.


Chapter 4. Gas Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 The Gas Generator.

4.3 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines.

4.3.1 The Turbojet Engine. The Inlet. The Compressor. The Burner. The Turbine. The Nozzle. Thermal Efficiency of a Turbojet Engine. Propulsive Efficiency of a Turbojet Engine. The Overall Efficiency of a Turbojet Engine. Performance Evaluation of a Turbojet Engine.

4.3.2 The Turbojet Engine with an Afterburner. Introduction. Analysis. Optimum Compressor Pressure Ratio for Maximum Thrust Turbojet Engine with Afterburner.

4.3.3 The Turbofan Engine. Introduction. Analysis of a Separate-Exhaust Turbofan Engine. Thermal Efficiency of a Turbofan Engine. Propulsive Efficiency of a Turbofan Engine.

4.4 Analysis of a Mixed-Exhaust Turbofan Engine with an Afterburner.

4.4.1 Mixer.

4.4.2 Cycle Analysis. Solution Procedure.

4.5 The Turboprop Engine.

4.5.1 Introduction.

4.5.2 Cycle Analysis. The New Parameters. Design Point Analysis. Optimum Power Split Between the Propeller and the Jet.

4.6 Summary.

4.7 References.


Chapter 5. Aircraft Engine Inlets and Nozzles.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 The Flight Mach Number & Its Impact on Duct Geometry.

5.3 Diffusers.

5.4 An Ideal Diffuser.

5.5 Real Diffusers & Stall Characteristics.

5.6 Subsonic Diffuser Performance.

5.7 Subsonic Cruise Inlet.

5.8 Transition Ducts & Averaging Techniques.

5.9 An Interim Summary for Subsonic Inlets.

5.10 Supersonic Inlets.

5.10.1 Isentropic Convergent-Divergent Inlets.

5.10.2 Methods to Start a Supersonic Convergent-Divergent Inlet. Over-Speeding. Kantrowitz-Donaldson Inlet. Variable-Throat Isentropic C-D Inlet.

5.11 Normal Shock Inlets.

5.12 External Compression Inlets.

5.12.1 Optimum Ramp Angles.

5.12.2 Design & Off-Design Operation.

5.13 Variable Geometry — External Compression Inlets.

5.13.1 Variable Ramps.

5.14 Mixed Compression Inlets.

5.15 Supersonic Inlet Types & Their Performance - A Review.

5.16 Standards for Supersonic Inlet Recovery.

5.17 Exhaust Nozzle.

5.18 Gross Thrust.

5.19 Nozzle Adiabatic Efficiency.

5.20 Nozzle Total Pressure Ratio.

5.21 Nozzle Pressure Ratio, NPR, and Critical Nozzle Pressure Ratio, NPRcrit.

<p>5.22 Relation between Nozzle Figures of Merit, &eta;<sub>n</sub> and &pi;<sub>n</sub>.

5.23 A Convergent Nozzle or De Laval?

5.24 The Effect of Boundary Layer Formation on Nozzle Internal Performance.

5.25 Nozzle Exit Flow Velocity Coefficient.

5.26 Effect of Flow Angularity on Gross Thrust.

5.27 Nozzle Gross Thrust Coefficient.

5.28 Over Expanded Nozzle Flow - Shock Losses.

5.29 Nozzle Area Scheduling, A8 and A9/A8.

5.30 Nozzle Exit Area Scheduling, A9/A8.

5.31 Nozzle Cooling.

5.32 Thrust Reverser and Thrust Vectoring.

5.33 Hypersonic Nozzle.

5.34 Exhaust Mixer and Gross Thrust Gain in a Mixed-Flow Turbofan Engine.

5.35 Nozzle-Turbine (Structural) Integration.

5.36 Summary of Exhaust Systems.

5.37 References.


Chapter 6. Combustion Chambers and Afterburners.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Laws Governing Mixture of Gases.

6.3 Chemical Reaction & Flame Temperature.

6.4 Chemical Equilibrium & Chemical Composition.

6.4.1 The Law of Mass Action.

6.4.2 Equilibrium Constant, KP.

6.5 Chemical Kinetics.

6.5.1 Ignition & Relight Envelope.

6.5.2 Reaction Time Scale.

6.5.3 Flammability Limits.

6.5.4 Flame Speed.

6.5.5 Flame Stability.

6.5.6 Spontaneous-Ignition Delay Time.

6.5.7 Combustion-Generated Pollutants.

6.6 Combustion Chamber.

6.6.1 Combustion Chamber Total Pressure Loss.

6.6.2 Combustor Flow Pattern & Temperature Profile.

6.6.3 Combustor Liner & Its Cooling Methods.

6.6.4 Combustion Efficiency.

6.6.5 Some Combustor Sizing and Scaling Laws.

6.6.6 Afterburner.

6.7 Combustion-Generated Pollutants.

6.7.1 Greenhouse Gases, CO2 and H2O.

6.7.2 Carbon Monoxide, CO.

6.7.3 Oxides of Nitrogen, NO and NO2.

6.7.4 Smoke.

6.7.5 Engine Emission Standards.

6.7.6 Low-Emission Combustors.

6.7.7 Impact of NO on the Ozone Layer.

6.8 Aviation Fuels.

6.9 Combustion Instability: Screech.

6.9.1 Screech Damper.

6.10 Summary.

6.11 References.


Chapter 7. Axial Compressor Aerodynamics.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 The Geometry.

7.3 Rotor & Stator Frames of Reference.

7.4 The Euler Turbine Equation.

7.5 Axial-Flow vs. Radial-Flow Machines.

7.6 Axial-Flow Compressors & Fans.

7.6.1 Definition of Flow Angles.

7.6.2 Stage Parameters.

7.6.3 Cascade Aerodynamics.

7.6.4 Aerodynamic Forces on Compressor Blades.

7.6.5 Three-Dimensional Flow. Blade Vortex Design. Three-Dimensional Losses. Reynolds Number Effect.

7.7 Compressor Performance Map.

7.8 Compressor Instability—Stall & Surge.

7.9 Multi-Stage Compressors & Their Operating Line.

7.10 Multi-Stage Compressor Stalling Pressure Rise & Stall Margin.

7.11 Multi-Stage Compressor Starting Problem.

7.12 The Effect of Inlet Flow Condition on Compressor Performance.

7.13 Isometric and Cutaway Views of Axial-Flow Compressor Hardware.

7.14 Compressor Design Parameters and Principles.

7.14.1 Blade Design – Blade Selection.

7.14.2 Compressor Annulus Design.

7.14.3 Compressor Stall Margin.

7.15 Summary.

7.16 References.


Chapter 8. Centrifugal Compressor Aerodynamics.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Centrifugal Compressors.

8.3 Radial Diffuser.

8.4 Inducer.

8.5 Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) and Inducer-less Impellers.

8.6 Impeller Exit Flow and Blockage Effects.

8.7 Efficiency and Performance.

8.8 Summary.

8.9 References.


Chapter 9. Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbines.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Axial-Flow Turbines.

9.2.1 Optimal Exit Swirl Mach Number.

9.2.2 Turbine Blade Losses. Blade Profile Loss. Secondary Flow Losses. Annulus Losses. Turbine Rotor Tip Clearance Loss.

9.2.3 Optimum Solidity.

9.2.4 Turbine Cooling. Convective Cooling. Impingement Cooling. Film Cooling. Transpiration Cooling.

9.3 Turbine Performance Map.

9.4 The Effect of Turbine Cooling on Efficiency.

9.5 Turbine Blade Profile Design.

9.5.1 Angles.

9.5.2 Other Blade Geometric Parameters.

9.5.3 Throat Sizing.

9.5.4 Throat Reynolds Number.

9.5.5 Turbine Blade Profile Design.

9.5.6 Blade Vibration and Campbell Diagram.

9.5.7 Turbine Blade and Disk Material Selection and Design Criteria.

9.6 Stresses in Turbine Blades and Disks and Useful Life Estimation.

9.7 Axial-Flow Turbine Design and Practices.

9.8 Gas Turbine Design Summary.

9.9 Summary.

9.10 References.


Chapter 10. Aircraft Engine Component Matching & Off-Design Analysis.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Engine (Steady-State) Component Matching.

10.2.1 Engine Corrected Parameters.

10.2.2 Inlet-Compressor Matching.

10.2.3 Compressor-Combustor Matching.

10.2.4 Combustor-Turbine Matching.

10.2.5 Compressor-Turbine Matching & Gas Generator Pumping Characteristics. Gas Generator Pumping Characteristics.

10.2.6 Turbine-Afterburner- (Variable-Geometry) Nozzle Matching. Fixed-Geometry Convergent Nozzle Matching.

10.3 Engine Off-Design Analysis.

10.3.1 Off-Design Analysis of a Turbojet Engine.

10.3.2 Off-Design Analysis of an Afterburning Turbojet Engine.

10.3.3 Off-Design Analysis of a Separate-Flow Turbofan (2-Spool) Engine.

10.4 Un-choked Nozzles and Other Off-Design Iteration Strategies.

10.4.1 Un-choked Exhaust Nozzle.

10.4.2 Un-choked Turbine Nozzle.

10.4.3 Turbine Efficiency at Off-Design.

10.4.4 Variable Gas Properties.

10.5 Summary.

10.6 References.


Chapter 11. Chemical Rockets & High-Speed Propulsion.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 From takeoff to Orbit.

11.3 Chemical Rockets.

11.4 Chemical Rocket Applications.

11.4.1 Launch Vehicles.

11.4.2 Boos Engines.

11.4.3 Space Maneuver Engines.

11.4.4 Attitude Control Rockets.

11.5 New Parameters in Rocket Propulsion.

11.6 Thrust Coefficient, CF.

11.7 Characteristic Velocity, c*.

11.8 Flight Performance.

11.9 Multi-Stage Rockets.

11.10 Propulsive and Overall Efficiency.

11.11 Chemical Rocket Combustion Chamber.

11.11.1 Liquid Propellant Combustion Chambers. Some Design Guidelines for Injector Plate. Combustion Instabilities.

11.11.2 Solid Propellant Combustion Chambers.

11.12 Thrust Chamber Cooling.

11.12.1 Liquid Propellant Thrust Chambers.

11.12.2 Cooling of Solid Propellant Thrust Chambers.

11.13 Combustor Volume and Shape.

11.14 Rocket Nozzles.

11.14.1 Multi-Phase Flow in Rocket Nozzles.

11.14.2 Flow Expansion in Rocket Nozzles.

11.14.3 Thrust Vectoring Nozzles.

11.15 High-Speed Airbreathing Engines.

11.15.1 Supersonic Combustion Ramjet. Inlet Analysis. Scramjet Combustor. Scramjet Nozzle.

11.16 Rocket-Based Airbreathing Propulsion.

11.17 Summary.

11.18 References.


A. U.S. Standard Atmosphere.

B. Isentropic Table.

C. Normal Shock Table.

D. Rayleigh Flow Table.

E. Fanno Flow Table.

F. Prandtl-Meyer Function.

G. Oblique Shock (Plane).

H. Conical Shock.

I. Cascade Data.

Product Details

Farokhi, Saeed
Jet propulsion
Aeronautics & Astronautics
Airplanes -- Jet propulsion.
Airplanes -- Motors -- Design and construction.
Science Reference-Technology
Aeronautic & Aerospace Engineering
Publication Date:
February 2008
Grade Level:
10.13x8.21x1.35 in. 3.18 lbs.

Related Subjects

Engineering » Mechanical Engineering » General
Reference » Science Reference » Technology
Science and Mathematics » Chemistry » Organic
Transportation » General

Aircraft Propulsion
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$ In Stock
Product details 820 pages John Wiley & Sons - English 9780470039069 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , "Aircrarft Propulsion" presents thorough coverage of fundamental concepts along with numerous detailed examples and extensive illustrations. This accessible introduction first discusses compressible flow with heat and friction as well as engine thrust and performance parameters. Readers will then learn about aircraft gas turbine engine cycles followed by aircraft engine components. And they'll discover the aerodynamics and performance of centrifugal compressors.
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