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Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
Synopses & Reviews
A proven approach for analyzing and solving mechanical component problems
To solve mechanical component problems, you need a solid understanding of the fundamentals of component design as well as good engineering judgment. Juvinall and Marshek’s Fundamentals of Machine Component Design, Fourth Edition will help you develop both, so you can apply your knowledge, skills, and imagination to professional engineering problems.
Now revised and updated, this Fourth Edition continues to focus on the fundamentals of component design––free body diagrams, force flow concepts, failure theories, and fatigue design, with applications to fasteners, springs, bearings, gears, shafts, clutches, and brakes. A proven problem-solving methodology guides you through the process of accurately formulating problems and clearly presenting solutions. Graphical procedures help you visualize the solution format, develop added insight about the significance of the results, and determine how the design can be improved.
Filled with solved examples, problems, and handy tables, this text will be a valuable reference throughout your academic and professional careers.
New to the Fourth Edition:
This indispensable reference goes beyond explaining the basics of mechanics, strength of materials, and materials properties by showing readers how to apply these fundamentals to specific machine components. They'll learn how to solve mechanical component design problems while reviewing numerous examples and working on end-of-chapter problems. With the help of graphical procedures, they'll also gain the skills needed to visualize the solution format, develop added insight about the significance of the results, and determine how the design can be improved.
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Table of Contents
PART 1. FUNDAMENTALS.
Chapter 1. Mechanical Engineering Design in Broad Perspective.
1.1 An Overview of the Subject.
1.2 Safety Considerations.
1.3 Ecological Considerations.
1.4 Societal Considerations.
1.5 Overall Design Considerations.
1.6 Systems of Units.
1.7 Methodology for Solving Machine Component Problems.
1.8 Work and Energy.
1.10 Conservation of Energy.
Chapter 2. Load Analysis.
2.2 Equilibrium Equations and Free-Body Diagrams.
2.3 Beam Loading.
2.4 Locating Critical Sections—Force Flow Concept.
2.5 Load Division Between Redundant Supports.
2.6 Force Flow Concept Applied to Redundant Ductile Structures.
Chapter 3. Materials.
3.2 The Static Tensile Test—”Engineering” Stress–Strain Relationships.
3.3 Implications of the “Engineering” Stress–Strain Curve.
3.4 The Static Tensile Test—”True” Stress–Strain Relationships.
3.5 Energy-Absorbing Capacity.
3.6 Estimating Strength Properties from Penetration Hardness Tests.
3.7 Use of “Handbook” Data for Material Strength Properties.
3.9 Cast Iron.
3.11 Nonferrous Alloys.
3.13 Material Selection Charts.
3.14 Engineering Material Selection Process.
Chapter 4. Static Body Stresses.
4.2 Axial Loading.
4.3 Direct Shear Loading.
4.4 Torsional Loading.
4.5 Pure Bending Loading, Straight Beams.
4.6 Pure Bending Loading, Curved Beams.
4.7 Transverse Shear Loading in Beams.
4.8 Induced Stresses, Mohr Circle Representation.
4.9 Combined Stresses—Mohr Circle Representation.
4.10 Stress Equations Related to Mohr’s Circle.
4.11 Three-Dimensional Stresses.
4.12 Stress Concentration Factor, Kt.
4.13 Importance of Stress Concentration.
4.14 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Axial Loading.
4.15 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Bending and Torsional Loading.
4.16 Thermal Stresses.
4.17 Importance of Residual Stresses.
Chapter 5. Elastic Strain, Deflection, and Stability.
5.2 Strain Definition, Measurement, and Mohr Circle Representation.
5.3 Analysis of Strain—Equiangular Rosettes.
5.4 Analysis of Strain—Rectangular Rosettes.
5.5 Elastic Stress–Strain Relationships and Three-Dimensional Mohr Circles.
5.6 Deflection and Spring Rate—Simple Cases.
5.7 Beam Deflection.
5.8 Determining Elastic Deflections by Castigliano’s Method.
5.9 Redundant Reactions by Castigliano’s Method.
5.10 Euler Column Buckling—Elastic Instability.
5.11 Effective Column Length for Various End Conditions.
5.12 Column Design Equations—J. B. Johnson Parabola.
5.13 Eccentric Column Loading—the Secant Formula.
5.14 Equivalent Column Stresses.
5.15 Other Types of Buckling.
5.16 Finite Element Analysis.
Chapter 6. Failure Theories, Safety Factors, and Reliability.
6.2 Types of Failure.
6.3 Fracture Mechanics—Basic Concepts.
6.4 Fracture Mechanics—Applications.
6.5 The “Theory” of Static Failure Theories.
6.6 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory.
6.7 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory.
6.8 Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory (Maximum-Octahedral-Shear-Stress Theory)
6.9 Modified Mohr Theory.
6.10 Selection and Use of Failure Theories.
6.11 Safety Factors—Concept and Definition.
6.12 Safety Factors—Selection of a Numerical Value.
6.14 Normal Distributions.
6.15 Interference Theory of Reliability Prediction.
Chapter 7. Impact.
7.2 Stress and Deflection Caused by Linear and Bending Impact.
7.3 Stress and Deflection Caused by Torsional Impact.
7.4 Effect of Stress Raisers on Impact Strength.
Chapter 8. Fatigue.
8.2 Basic Concepts.
8.3 Standard Fatigue Strengths ( ) for Rotating Bending.
8.4 Fatigue Strengths for Reversed Bending and Reversed Axial Loading.
8.5 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Torsional Loading.
8.6 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Biaxial Loading.
8.7 Influence of Surface and Size on Fatigue Strength.
8.8 Summary of Estimated Fatigue Strengths for Completely Reversed Loading.
8.9 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Strength.
8.10 Effect of Stress Concentration with Completely Reversed Fatigue Loading.
8.11 Effect of Stress Concentration with Mean Plus Alternating Loads.
8.12 Fatigue Life Prediction with Randomly Varying Loads.
8.13 Effect of Surface Treatments on the Fatigue Strength of a Part.
8.14 Mechanical Surface Treatments—Shot Peening and Others.
8.15 Thermal and Chemical Surface-Hardening Treatments (Induction Hardening, Carburizing, and Others).
8.16 Fatigue Crack Growth.
8.17 General Approach for Fatigue Design.
Chapter 9. Surface Damage.
9.2 Corrosion: Fundamentals.
9.3 Corrosion: Electrode and Electrolyte Heterogeneity.
9.4 Design for Corrosion Control.
9.5 Corrosion Plus Static Stress,.
9.6 Corrosion Plus Cyclic Stress.
9.7 Cavitation Damage.
9.8 Types of Wear.
9.9 Adhesive Wear.
9.10 Abrasive Wear.
9.12 Analytical Approach to Wear.
9.13 Curved-Surface Contact Stresses.
9.14 Surface Fatigue Failures.
PART 2. APPLICATIONS.
Chapter 10. Threaded Fasteners and Power Screws.
10.2 Thread Forms, Terminology, and Standards.
10.3 Power Screws.
10.4 Static Screw Stresses.
10.5 Threaded Fastener Types.
10.6 Fastener Materials and Methods of Manufacture.
10.7 Bolt Tightening and Initial Tension.
10.8 Thread Loosening and Thread Locking.
10.9 Bolt Tension with External Joint-Separating Force.
10.10 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Static Loading.
10.11 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Fatigue Loading: Fundamentals.
10.12 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Fatigue Loading: Using Special Test Data.
10.13 Increasing Bolted-Joint Fatigue Strength.
Chapter 11. Rivets, Welding, and Bonding.
11.3 Welding Processes.
11.4 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Axial and Direct Shear Loading.
11.5 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Torsional and Bending Loading.
11.6 Fatigue Considerations in Welded Joints.
11.7 Brazing and Soldering.
Chapter 12. Springs.
12.2 Torsion Bar Springs.
12.3 Coil Spring Stress and Deflection Equations.
12.4 Stress and Strength Analysis for Helical Compression Springs—Static Loading.
12.5 End Designs of Helical Compression Springs.
12.6 Buckling Analysis of Helical Compression Springs.
12.7 Design Procedure for Helical Compression Springs—Static Loading.
12.8 Design of Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading.
12.9 Helical Extension Springs.
12.10 Beam Springs (Including Leaf Springs).
12.11 Torsion Springs.
12.12 Miscellaneous Springs.
Chapter 13. Lubrication and Sliding Bearings.
13.1 Types of Lubricants.
13.2 Types of Sliding Bearings.
13.3 Types of Lubrication.
13.4 Basic Concepts of Hydrodynamic Lubrication.
13.6 Temperature and Pressure Effects on Viscosity.
13.7 Petroff’s Equation for Bearing Friction.
13.8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory.
13.9 Design Charts for Hydrodynamic Bearings.
13.10 Lubricant Supply.
13.11 Heat Dissipation, and Equilibrium Oil Film Temperature.
13.12 Bearing Materials.
13.13 Hydrodynamic Bearing Design.
13.14 Boundary and Mixed-Film Lubrication.
13.15 Thrust Bearings.
13.16 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication.
Chapter 14. Rolling-Element Bearings.
14.1 Comparison of Alternative Means for Supporting Rotating Shafts.
14.2 History of Rolling-Element Bearings.
14.3 Rolling-Element Bearing Types.
14.4 Design of Rolling-Element Bearings.
14.5 Fitting of Rolling-Element Bearings.
14.6 “Catalogue Information” for Rolling-Element Bearings.
14.7 Bearing Selection.
14.8 Mounting Bearings to Provide Properly for Thrust Load.
Chapter 15. Spur Gears.
15.1 Introduction and History.
15.2 Geometry and Nomenclature.
15.3 Interference and Contact Ratio.
15.4 Gear Force Analysis.
15.5 Gear-Tooth Strength.
15.6 Basic Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Stress (Lewis Equation).
15.7 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Basic Concepts.
15.8 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Recommended Procedure.
15.9 Gear-Tooth Surface Durability—Basic Concepts.
15.10 Gear-Tooth Surface Fatigue Analysis—Recommended Procedure.
15.11 Spur Gear Design Procedures.
15.12 Gear Materials.
15.13 Gear Trains.
Chapter 16. Helical, Bevel, and Worm Gears.
16.2 Helical-Gear Geometry and Nomenclature.
16.3 Helical-Gear Force Analysis.
16.4 Helical-Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths.
16.5 Crossed Helical Gears.
16.6 Bevel Gear Geometry and Nomenclature.
16.7 Bevel Gear Force Analysis.
16.8 Bevel-Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths.
16.9 Bevel Gear Trains; Differential Gears.
16.10 Worm Gear Geometry and Nomenclature.
16.11 Worm Gear Force and Efficiency Analysis.
16.12 Worm-Gear-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths.
16.13 Worm Gear Thermal Capacity.
Chapter 17.Shafts and Associated Parts.
17.2 Provision for Shaft Bearings.
17.3 Mounting Parts onto Rotating Shafts.
17.4 Rotating-Shaft Dynamics.
17.5 Overall Shaft Design.
17.6 Keys, Pins, and Splines.
17.7 Couplings and Universal Joints.
Chapter 18. Clutches and Brakes.
18.2 Disk Clutches.
18.3 Disk Brakes.
18.4 Energy Absorption and Cooling.
18.5 Cone Clutches and Brakes.
18.6 Short-Shoe Drum Brakes.
18.7 Eternal Long-Shoe Drum Brakes.
18.8 Internal Long-Shoe Drum Brakes.
18.9 Band Brakes.
Chapter 19. Miscellaneous Machine Components.
19.2 Flat Belts.
19.4 Toothed Belts.
19.5 Roller Chains.
19.6 Inverted-Tooth Chains.
19.7 History of Hydrodynamic Drives.
19.8 Fluid Couplings.
19.9 Hydrodynamic Torque Converters.
Appendix A. Units.
A-1a Conversion Factors for British Gravitational, English, and SI Units.
A-1b Conversion Factor Equalities Listed by Physical Quantity.
A-2a Standard SI Prefixes.
A-2b SI Units and Symbols.
A-3 Suggested SI Prefixes for Stress Calculations.
A-4 Suggested SI Prefixes for Linear-Deflection Calculations.
A-5 Suggested SI Prefixes for Angular-Deflection Calculations.
Appendix B. Properties of Sections and Solids.
B-1a Properties of Sections.
B-1b Dimensions and Properties of Steel Pipe and Tubing Sections.
B-2 Mass and Mass Moments of Inertia of Homogeneous Solids.
Appendix C. Material Properties and Uses.
C-1 Physical Properties of Common Metals.
C-2 Tensile Properties of Some Metals.
C-3a Typical Mechanical Properties and Uses of Gray Cast Iron.
C-3b Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Malleable Cast Iron.
C-3c Average Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Ductile (Nodular) Iron.
C-4a Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels.
C-4b Typical Uses of Plain Carbon Steels.
C-5a Properties of Some Water-Quenched and Tempered Steels.
C-5b Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Carbon Steels.
C-5c Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steels.
C-6 Effect of Mass on Strength Properties of Steel.
C-7 Mechanical Properties of Some Carburizing Steels.
C-8 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought Stainless Steels.
C-9 Mechanical Properties of Some Iron-Based Superalloys.
C-10 Mechanical Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of Some Wrought Aluminum Alloys.
C-11 Tensile Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of Some Cast-Aluminum Alloys.
C-12 Temper Designations for Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys.
C-13 Mechanical Properties of Some Copper Alloys.
C-14 Mechanical Properties of Some Magnesium Alloys.
C-15 Mechanical Properties of Some Nickel Alloys.
C-16 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought-Titanium Alloys.
C-17 Mechanical Properties of Some Zinc Casting Alloys.
C-18a Representative Mechanical Properties of Some Common Plastics.
C-18b Properties of Some Common Glass-Reinforced and Unreinforced Thermoplastic Resins.
C-18c Typical Applications of Common Plastics.
C-19 Material Classes and Selected Members of Each Class.
C-20 Designer’s Subset of Engineering Materials.
C-21 Processing Methods Used Most Frequently with Different Materials.
C-22 Joinability of Materials.
C-23 Materials for Machine Components.
C-24 Relations Between Failure Modes and Material Properties.
Appendix D. Shear, Moment, and Deflection Equations for Beams.
D-1 Cantilever Beams.
D-2 Simply Supported Beams.
D-3 Beams with Fixed Ends.
D-4 Program for Determining Elastic Deflections of Stepped Shafts.
Appendix E. Fits and Tolerances.
E-1 Fits and Tolerances for Holes and Shafts.
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