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Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction

by

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The leading source for learning materials science and engineering

Bill Callister’s text is the number one choice for learning materials science and engineering. Why?  Because it delivers lucid explanations, thorough and up-to-date coverage, and outstanding art and learning resources. Now revised, this 7th Edition continues to promote student understanding of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships between the structural elements of materials and their properties.

New to the Seventh Edition

  • A number of new “Materials of Importance” pieces (for most chapters).
  • Concept Check questions throughout.
  • Revised illustrations, now all in full-color to enhance visualization and convey realism.
  • Expanded discussions on material types and general properties of materials (Chapter 1), and crystallographic directions and planes in hexagonal crystals (Chapter 3).
  • New discussions on one-component (pressure-temperature) phase diagrams, compacted graphite iron, lost foam casting, fractography of ceramics, and magnetic anisotropy.
  • Enhanced discussions on representations of polymer structures and defects in polymers, and a new discussion on permeability in polymers.
  • Revised coverage of deformation of semicrystalline polymers and polymerization.

Online Animations and Learning Modules

The book companion site (www.wiley.com/college/callister) features learning modules with animations and 3-D projections that help students visualize challenging concepts and processes.  The website also includes an interactive database of materials properties and costs.

Synopsis:

Building on the extraordinary success of six best-selling editions, Bill Callister's new Seventh Edition of MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: AN INTRODUCTION continues to promote student understanding of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties.

Synopsis:

Now in its seventh edition, this accessible book provides readers with clear and concise discussions of key concepts while also incorporating familiar terminology. The author treats the important properties of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties. Throughout, the emphasis is placed on mechanical behavior and failure, including techniques that are employed to improve performance.

About the Author

William D. Callister is currently an adjunct professor in the Department of Engineering at the University of Utah.  His teaching interests include writing and revising introductory materials science and engineering textbooks, in both print and electronic formats. He also enjoys developing ancillary resources, including instructional software and on-line testing/evaluation tools.

Table of Contents

List of Symbols.

1. Introduction.

Learning Objectives.

1.1 Historical Perspective.

1.2 Materials Science and Engineering.

1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering?

1.4 Classification of Materials.

1.5 Advanced Materials.

1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs.

References.

2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding.

Learning Objectives.

2.1 Introduction.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE.

2.2 Fundamental Concepts.

2.3 Electrons in Atoms.

2.4 The Periodic Table.

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS.

2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies.

2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds.

2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding.

2.8 Molecules.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids.

Learning Objectives.

3.1 Introduction.

CRYSTALSTRUCTURES.

3.2 Fundamental Concepts.

3.3 Unit Cells.

3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures.

3.5 Density Computations.

3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy.

3.7 Crystal Systems.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES.

3.8 Point Coordinates.

3.9 Crystallographic Directions.

3.10 Crystallographic Planes.

3.11 Linear and Planar Densities.

3.12 Close-Packed Crystal Structures.

CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS.

3.13 Single Crystals.

3.14 Polycrystalline Materials.

3.15 Anisotropy.

3.16 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures.

3.17 Noncrystalline Solids.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

4. Imperfections in Solids.

Learning Objectives.

4.1 Introduction.

POINT DEFECTS.

4.2 Vacancies and Self-Interstitials.

4.3 Impurities in Solids.

4.4 Specification of Composition.

MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS.

4.5 Dislocations–Linear Defects.

4.6 Interfacial Defects.

4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects.

4.8 Atomic Vibrations.

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION.

4.9 General.

4.10 Microscopic Techniques.

4.11 Grain Size Determination.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

5. Diffusion.

Learning Objectives.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms.

5.3 Steady-State Diffusion.

5.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion.

5.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion.

5.6 Other Diffusion Paths.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

6. Mechanical Properties of Metals.

Learning Objectives.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain.

ELASTIC DEFORMATION.

6.3 Stress-Strain Behavior.

6.4 Anelasticity.

6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials.

PLASTIC DEFORMATION.

6.6 Tensile Properties.

6.7 True Stress and Strain.

6.8 Elastic Recovery after Plastic Deformation.

6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation.

6.10 Hardness.

PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS.

6.11 Variability of Material Properties.

6.12 Design/Safety Factors.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

7. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms.

Learning Objectives.

7.1 Introduction.

DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION.

7.2 Basic Concepts.

7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations.

7.4 Slip Systems.

7.5 Slip in Single Crystals.

7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials.

7.7 Deformation by Twinning.

MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS.

7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction.

7.9 Solid-Solution Strengthening.

7.10 Strain Hardening.

RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH.

7.11 Recovery.

7.12 Recrystallization.

7.13 Grain Growth.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

8. Failure.

Learning Objectives.

8.1 Introduction.

FRACTURE.

8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture.

8.3 Ductile Fracture.

8.4 Brittle Fracture.

8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics.

8.6 Impact Fracture Testing.

FATIGUE.

8.7 Cyclic Stresses.

8.8 The S–N Curve.

8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation.

8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life.

8.11 Environmental Effects.

CREEP.

8.12 Generalized Creep Behavior.

8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects.

8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods.

8.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Use.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

9. Phase Diagrams.

Learning Objectives.

9.1 Introduction.

DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS.

9.2 Solubility Limit.

9.3 Phases.

9.4 Microstructure.

9.5 Phase Equilibria.

9.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams.

BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS.

9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems.

9.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams.

9.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys.

9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys.

9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems.

9.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys.

9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds.

9.14 Eutectic and Peritectic Reactions.

9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations.

9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase Diagrams.

9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule.

THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM.

9.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram.

9.19 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys.

9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

10. Phase Transformations in Metals: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties.

Learning Objectives.

10.1 Introduction.

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS.

10.2 Basic Concepts.

10.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations.

10.4 Metastable versus Equilibrium States.

MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS.

10.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams.

10.6 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams.

10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys.

10.8 Tempered Martensite.

10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

11. Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys.

Learning Objectives.

11.1 Introduction.

TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS.

11.2 Ferrous Alloys.

11.3 Nonferrous Alloys.

FABRICATION OF METALS.

11.4 Forming Operations.

11.5 Casting.

11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques.

THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS.

11.7 Annealing Processes.

11.8 Heat Treatment of Steels.

11.9 Precipitation Hardening.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

12. Structures and Properties of Ceramics.

Learning Objectives.

12.1 Introduction.

CERAMIC STRUCTURES.

12.2 Crystal Structures.

12.3 Silicate Ceramics.

12.4 Carbon.

12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics.

12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials.

12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics.

12.9 Stress–Strain Behavior.

12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation.

12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical Considerations.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

13. Applications and Processing of Ceramics.

Learning Objectives.

13.1 Introduction.

TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS.

13.2 Glasses.

13.3 Glass–Ceramics.

13.4 Clay Products.

13.5 Refractories.

13.6 Abrasives.

13.7 Cements.

13.8 Advanced Ceramics.

FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS.

13.9 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass–Ceramics.

13.10 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products.

13.11 Powder Pressing.

13.12 Tape Casting.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problem.

14. Polymer Structures.

Learning Objectives.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules.

14.3 Polymer Molecules.

14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules.

14.5 Molecular Weight.

14.6 Molecular Shape.

14.7 Molecular Structure.

14.8 Molecular Configurations.

14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers.

14.10 Copolymers.

14.11 Polymer Crystallinity.

14.12 Polymer Crystals.

14.13 Defects in Polymers.

14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

15. Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers.

Learning Objectives.

15.1 Introduction.

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS.

15.2 Stress–Strain Behavior.

15.3 Macroscopic Deformation.

15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation.

15.5 Fracture of Polymers.

15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical Characteristics.

MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS.

15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers.

15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers.

15.9 Deformation of Elastomers 541

CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS.

15.10 Crystallization.

15.11 Melting.

15.12 The Glass Transition.

15.13 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures.

15.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures.

POLYMER TYPES.

15.15 Plastics.

15.16 Elastomers.

15.17 Fibers.

15.18 Miscellaneous Applications.

15.19 Advanced Polymeric Materials.

POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING.

15.20 Polymerization.

15.21 Polymer Additives.

15.22 Forming Techniques for Plastics.

15.23 Fabrication of Elastomers.

15.24 Fabrication of Fibers and Films.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Questions.

16. Composites.

Learning Objectives.

16.1 Introduction.

PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES.

16.2 Large-Particle Composites.

16.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites.

FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES.

16.4 Influence of Fiber Length.

16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration.

16.6 The Fiber Phase.

16.7 The Matrix Phase.

16.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites.

16.9 Metal-Matrix Composites.

16.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites.

16.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites.

16.12 Hybrid Composites.

16.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES.

16.14 Laminar Composites.

16.15 Sandwich Panels.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

17. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials.

Learning Objectives.

17.1 Introduction.

CORROSION OF METALS.

17.2 Electrochemical Considerations.

17.3 Corrosion Rates.

17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates.

17.5 Passivity.

17.6 Environmental Effects.

17.7 Forms of Corrosion.

17.8 Corrosion Environments.

17.9 Corrosion Prevention.

17.10 Oxidation.

CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 654 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS.

17.11 Swelling and Dissolution.

17.12 Bond Rupture.

17.13 Weathering.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

18. Electrical Properties.

Learning Objectives.

18.1 Introduction.

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION.

18.2 Ohm’s Law.

18.3 Electrical Conductivity.

18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction.

18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids.

18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models.

18.7 Electron Mobility.

18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals.

18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys.

SEMICONDUCTIVITY.

18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction.

18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction.

18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration.

18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility.

18.14 The Hall Effect.

18.15 Semiconductor Devices.

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS.

18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials.

18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers.

DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR.

18.18 Capacitance.

18.19 Field Vectors and Polarization.

18.20 Types of Polarization.

18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant.

18.22 Dielectric Strength.

18.23 Dielectric Materials.

OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS.

18.24 Ferroelectricity.

18.25 Piezoelectricity.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

19. Thermal Properties.

Learning Objectives.

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Heat Capacity.

19.3 Thermal Expansion.

19.4 Thermal Conductivity.

19.5 Thermal Stresses.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

20. Magnetic Properties.

Learning Objectives.

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Basic Concepts.

20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism.

20.4 Ferromagnetism.

20.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism.

20.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior.

20.7 Domains and Hysteresis.

20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy.

20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials.

20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials.

20.11 Magnetic Storage.

20.12 Superconductivity.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problems.

21. Optical Properties.

Learning Objectives.

21.1 Introduction.

BASIC CONCEPTS.

21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation.

21.3 Light Interactions with Solids.

21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions.

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS.

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS.

21.5 Refraction.

21.6 Reflection.

21.7 Absorption.

21.8 Transmission.

21.9 Color.

21.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators.

APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA.

21.11 Luminescence.

21.12 Photoconductivity.

21.13 Lasers.

21.14 Optical Fibers in Communications.

Summary.

Important Terms and Concepts.

References.

Questions and Problems.

Design Problem.

22. Materials Selection and Design Considerations.

Learning Objectives.

22.1 Introduction.

MATERIALS SELECTION FOR A TORSIONALLY STRESSED CYLINDRICAL SHAFT.

22.2 Strength Considerations–Torsionally Stressed Shaft.

22.3 Other Property Considerations and the Final Decision.

AUTOMOTIVE VALVE SPRING.

22.4 Mechanics of Spring Deformation.

22.5 Valve Spring Design and Material Requirements.

22.6 One Commonly Employed Steel Alloy.

FAILURE OF AN AUTOMOBILE REAR AXLE.

22.7 Introduction.

22.8 Testing Procedure and Results.

22.9 Discussion.

ARTIFICIAL TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT.

22.10 Anatomy of the Hip Joint.

22.11 Material Requirements.

22.12 Materials Employed.

CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.

22.13 Introduction.

22.14 Assessment of CPC Glove Materials to Protect Against Exposure to Methylene Chloride.

MATERIALS FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PACKAGES.

22.15 Introduction.

22.16 Leadframe Design and Materials.

22.17 Die Bonding.

22.18 Wire Bonding.

22.19 Package Encapsulation.

22.20 Tape Automated Bonding.

Summary.

References.

Design Questions and Problems.

23. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.

Learning Objectives.

23.1 Introduction.

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS.

23.2 Component Design.

23.3 Materials.

23.4 Manufacturing Techniques.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS.

23.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.

Summary.

References.

Design Question.

Appendix A. The International System of Units.

Appendix B. Properties of Selected Engineering Materials.

B.1 Density.

B.2 Modulus of Elasticity.

B.3 Poisson’s Ratio.

B.4 Strength and Ductility.

B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness.

B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion.

B.7 Thermal Conductivity.

B.8 Specific Heat.

B.9 Electrical Resistivity.

B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions.

Appendix C. Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials.

Appendix D. Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers.

Appendix E. Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials.

Glossary.

Answers to Selected Problems.

Index.

Product Details

ISBN:
9780471736967
Subtitle:
An Introduction
Publisher:
Wiley
Author:
Cram101 Textbook Reviews
Author:
Callister, William D., Jr.
Author:
William D. Callister, Jr.
Subject:
Engineering - General
Subject:
Material Science
Subject:
Materials
Subject:
Education-General
Subject:
General & Introductory Materials Science
Copyright:
Edition Number:
7
Publication Date:
March 2006
Binding:
Hardback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
832
Dimensions:
10.34x8.20x1.26 in. 3.33 lbs.

Related Subjects

Engineering » Engineering » General Engineering
Science and Mathematics » Materials Science » General
Textbooks » General

Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction
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Product details 832 pages John Wiley & Sons - English 9780471736967 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Building on the extraordinary success of six best-selling editions, Bill Callister's new Seventh Edition of MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: AN INTRODUCTION continues to promote student understanding of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties.
"Synopsis" by , Now in its seventh edition, this accessible book provides readers with clear and concise discussions of key concepts while also incorporating familiar terminology. The author treats the important properties of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties. Throughout, the emphasis is placed on mechanical behavior and failure, including techniques that are employed to improve performance.
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