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The Science & Engineering of Materialsby Donald R. Askeland
Synopses & Reviews
This text provides an understanding of the relationship between structure, processing, and properties of materials. By selecting the appropriate topics from this wealth of material, instructors can emphasize materials, provide a general overview, concentrate on mechanical behavior, or focus on physical properties. Since the book has more material than is needed for a one-semester course, students will also have a useful reference for subsequent courses in manufacturing, materials, design, or materials selection.
About the Author
Donald R. Askeland joined the University of Missouri-Rolla in 1970 after obtaining his doctorate in Metallurgical Engineering from the University of Michigan. His primary interest has been in teaching, resulting in a variety of campus, university, and industry awards and the preparation of a materials engineering textbook. Dr. Askeland has also been active in research involving metals casting and metals joining, particularly in the production, treatment, and joining of cast irons, gating and fluidity of aluminum alloys, and optimization of casting processes. Additional work has concentrated on lost foam casting, permanent mold casting, and investment casting; much of this work has been interdisciplinary, providing data for creating computer models and validation of such models. Pradeep P. Fulay received his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona and teaches at the University of Pittsburgh. His research is primarily concerned with the synthesis and processing of ceramic powders and thin films, consisting of nano-sized primary particles/grains. His current research involves development of novel synthesis and processing protocols for electro-optic and ferroelectric ceramics and studies related to the relationships between their microstructure and dielectric/optical properties. Dr. Fulay is also researching fundamental of magnetorheological (MR) fluids. He is a Fellow to the American Ceramic Society. Wendelin Wright is an associate professor at Bucknell University with a joint appointment in the departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering. She received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. (2003) in Materials Science and Engineering from Stanford University. Following graduation, she served a post-doctoral term at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Division and then returned to Stanford as an Acting Assistant Professor in 2005. She joined the Santa Clara University faculty as a tenure-track assistant professor and assumed her position at Bucknell in the fall of 2010. Professor Wright's research interests focus on the mechanical behavior of materials, particularly of metallic glasses. She is the recipient of the 2003 Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching, which is Stanford University's highest teaching honor, a 2005 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, and a 2010 National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Professor Wright is a licensed professional engineer in metallurgy in California.
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. What is Materials Science and Engineering? Classification of Materials. Functional Classification of Materials. Classification of Materials Based on Structure. Environmental and Other Effects. Materials Design and Selection. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE. The Structure of Materials: Technological Relevance. The Structure of the Atom. The Electronic Structure of the Atom. The Periodic Table. Atomic Bonding. Binding Energy and Interatomic Spacing. The Many Forms of Carbon. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 3. ATOMIC AND IONIC ARRANGEMENTS Short-Range Order versus Long-Range Order. Amorphous Materials. Lattice, Basis, Unit Cells, and Crystal Structures. Allotropic or Polymorphic Transformations. Points, Directions, and Planes in the Unit Cell. Interstitial Sites. Crystal Structures of Ionic Materials. Covalent Structures. Diffraction Techniques for Crystal Structure Analysis. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 4. IMPERFECTIONS IN THE ATOMIC AND IONIC ARRANGEMENTS. Point Defects. Other Point Defects. Dislocations. Significance of Dislocations. Schmidt's Law. Influence of Crystal Structure. Surface Defects. Importance of Defects. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 5. ATOM AND ION MOVEMENTS IN MATERIALS. Applications of Diffusion. Stability of Atoms and Ions. Mechanisms for Diffusion. Activation Energy for Diffusion. Rate of Diffusion (Fick's First Law). Factors Affecting Diffusion. Permeability of Polymers. Composition Profile (Fick's Second Law). Diffusion and Materials Processing. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 6. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: PART ONE. Technological Significance. Terminology for Mechanical Properties. The Tensile Test: Use of the Stress-Strain Diagram. Properties Obtained from the Tensile Test. True Stress and True Strain. The Bend Test for Brittle Materials. Hardness of Materials. Nanoindentation. Strain Rate Effects and Impact Behavior. Properties Obtained from the Impact Test. Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Mechanical Behavior. Mechanical Behavior at Small Length Scales. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: PART TWO. Fracture Mechanics. The Importance of Fracture Mechanics. Microstructural Features of Fracture in Metallic Materials. Microstructural Features of Fracture in Ceramics, Glasses, and Composites. Weibull Statistics for Failure Strength Analysis. Fatigue. Results of the Fatigue Test. Application of Fatigue Testing. Creep, Stress Rupture, and Stress Corrosion. Evaluation of Creep Behavior. Use of Creep Data Summary. Glossary. Problems. 8. STRAIN HARDENING AND ANNEALING. Relationship of Cold Working to the Stress-Strain Curve. Strain-Hardening Mechanisms. Properties versus Percent Cold Work. Microstructure, Texture Strengthening, and Residual Stresses. Characteristics of Cold Working. The Three Stages of Annealing. Control of Annealing. Annealing and Materials Processing. Hot Working. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 9. PRINCIPLES OF SOLIDIFICATION. Technological Significance. Nucleation. Applications of Controlled Nucleation. Growth Mechanisms. Solidification Time and Dendrite Size. Cooling Curves. Cast Structure. Solidification Defects. Casting Processes for Manufacturing Components. Continuous Casting and Ingot Casting. Directional Solidification [DS], Single Crystal Growth, and Epitaxial Growth. Solidification of Polymers and Inorganic Glasses. Joining of Metallic Materials. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 10. SOLID SOLUTIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM. Phases and the Phase Diagram. Solubility and Solid Solutions. Conditions for Unlimited Solid Solubility. Solid-Solution Strengthening. Isomorphous Phase Diagrams. Relationship Between Properties and the Phase Diagram. Solidification of a Solid-Solution Alloy. Nonequilibrium Solidification and Segregation. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 11. DISPERSION STRENGTHENING AND EUTECTIC PHASE DIAGRAMS. Principles and Examples Of Dispersion Strengthening. Intermetallic Compounds. Phase Diagrams Containing Three-Phase Reactions. The Eutectic Phase Diagram. Strength of Eutectic Alloys. Eutectics and Materials Processing. Nonequilibrium Freezing in the Eutectic System. Nanowires and the Eutectic Phase Diagram. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 12. DISPERSION STRENGTHENING BY PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS AND HEAT TREATMENT. Nucleation and Growth in Solid-State Reactions. Alloys Strengthened by Exceeding the Solubility Limit. Age or Precipitation Hardening. Applications of Age-Hardened Alloys. Microstructural Evolution in Age or Precipitation Hardening. Effects of Aging Temperature and Time. Requirements for Age Hardening. Use of Age-Hardenable Alloys at High Temperatures. The Eutectoid Reaction. Controlling the Eutectoid Reaction. The Martensitic Reaction and Tempering. The Shape-Memory Alloys (SMAs). Summary. Glossary. Problems. 13. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS AND CAST IRONS. Designations and Classification of Steels. Simple Heat Treatments. Isothermal Heat Treatments. Quench and Temper Heat Treatments. Effect of Alloying Elements. Application of Hardenability. Specialty Steels. Surface Treatments. Weldability of Steel. Stainless Steels. Cast Irons. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 14. NONFERROUS ALLOYS. Aluminum Alloys. Magnesium and Beryllium Alloys. Copper Alloys. Nickel and Cobalt Alloys. Titanium Alloys. Refractory and Precious Metals. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 15. CERAMIC MATERIALS. Applications of Ceramics. Properties of Ceramics. Synthesis and Processing of Ceramic Powders. Characteristics of Sintered Ceramics. Inorganic Glasses. Glass-Ceramics. Processing and Applications of Clay Products. Refractories. Other Ceramic Materials. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 16. POLYMERS. Classification of Polymers. Addition and Condensation Polymerization. Degree of Polymerization. Typical Thermoplastics. Structure-Property Relationships in Thermoplastics. Effect of Temperature on Thermoplastics. Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastics. Elastomers (Rubbers). Thermosetting Polymers. Adhesives. Polymer Processing and Recycling. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 17. COMPOSITES: TEAMWORK AND SYNERGY IN MATERIALS. Dispersion-Strengthened Composites. Particulate Composites. Fiber-Reinforced Composites. Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Composites. Manufacturing Fibers and Composites. Fiber-Reinforced Systems and Applications. Laminar Composite Materials. Examples and Applications of Laminar Composites. Sandwich Structures. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 18. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS. The Structure of Wood. Moisture Content and Density of Wood. Mechanical Properties of Wood. Expansion and Contraction of Wood. Plywood. Concrete Materials. Properties of Concrete. Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete. Asphalt. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 19. ELECTRONIC MATERIALS. Ohm's Law and Electrical Conductivity. Band Structures of Solids. Conductivity of Metals and Alloys. Semiconductors. Applications of Semiconductors. General Overview of Integrated Circuit Processing. Deposition of Thin Films. Conductivity in Other Materials. Insulators and Dielectric Properties. Polarization in Dielectrics. Electrostriction, Piezoelectricity, and Ferroelectricity. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 20. MAGNETIC MATERIALS. Classification of Magnetic Materials. Magnetic Dipoles and Magnetic Moments. Magnetization, Permeability, and the Magnetic Field. Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic, Ferrimagnetic, and Superparamagnetic Materials. Domain Structure and the Hysteresis Loop. The Curie Temperature. Applications of Magnetic Materials. Metallic and Ceramic Magnetic Materials. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 21. PHOTONIC MATERIALS. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Refraction, Reflection, Absorption, and Transmission. Selective Absorption, Transmission, or Reflection. Examples and Use of Emission Phenomena. Fiber-Optic Communication System. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 22. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat. Thermal Expansion. Thermal Conductivity. Thermal Shock. Summary. Glossary. Problems. 23. CORROSION AND WEAR. Chemical Corrosion. Electrochemical Corrosion. The Electrode Potential in Electrochemical Cells. The Corrosion Current and Polarization. Types of Electrochemical Corrosion. Protection Against Electrochemical Corrosion. Microbial Degradation and Biodegradable Polymers. Oxidation and Other Gas Reactions. Wear and Erosion. Summary. Glossary. Problems. APPENDIX A: SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. APPENDIX B: THE ATOMIC AND IONIC RADII OF SELECTED ELEMENTS. ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS. INDEX.
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