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25 Local Warehouse Chemistry- Analytic

Quantitative Chemical Analysis

by

Quantitative Chemical Analysis Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The most widely used analytical chemistry textbook in the world, Dan Harris's Quantitative Chemical Analysis provides a sound physical understanding of the principles of analytical chemistry, showing how these principles are applied in chemistry and related disciplines—especially in life sciences and environmental science.  As always, the new edition incorporates real data, spreadsheets, and a wealth of applications, in a witty, personable presentation that engages students without compromising the depth necessary for a thorough and practical understanding of analytical chemistry.

About the Author

Biographical Statement for Nomination of Daniel C. Harris for

J. Calvin Giddings Award for Excellence in Analytical Chemical Education

I was born in 1948 in Brooklyn, New York.  As a teenager, I enjoyed a science program on Saturdays at Columbia University, where I took note of especially good teaching by astronomy professor Lloyd Motz.  In my freshman year at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, excellent teaching of organic chemistry by Daniel S. Kemp diverted me from biochemistry to chemistry.  A spectroscopy class from George F. Whitesides led me to Whitesides and his student Chuck Casey (later President of the American Chemical Society) for senior thesis research.  I developed a strong consciousness for high quality teaching.  Two other classes with noteworthy teaching quality were quantum mechanics from John S. Waugh and group theory from F. A. Cotton.

After graduating from MIT shortly before my 20th birthday, I headed to Caltech where I joined the research group of Harry B. Gray—an exceptional lecturer.  After a year as a teaching assistant in organic chemistry, George S. Hammond and Harry Gray recognized a spark for teaching and offered me the opportunity to team teach an advanced freshman course.  My graduate student partner, Michael D. Bertolucci, and I were given carte blanche to develop an interesting course for freshman that would not overlap other courses in the curriculum.  We chose an overview of general chemistry for one term, followed by two terms of introduction to group theory and spectroscopy.  We conducted a critique of each others lecture immediately after every class.  I placed highest value in interest, content, clarity, and physical understanding, which became main goals in my textbook writing.  At the age of 21, I found myself driven to write lecture notes which, upon the recommendation of Harry Gray, evolved into the book Symmetry and Spectroscopy.  I team-taught the freshman course with other graduate students and had the academic rank of Instructor during my last year of graduate studies.  For part of that year, I was a postdoc in the fledgling field of 13C-NMR spectroscopy with John D. Roberts.

After two years as a postdoc at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City with Philip Aisen—an exemplary mentor—I started my first faculty position at the University of California at Davis in 1975.  I was assigned to teach analytical chemistry for sophomores and accelerated freshmen.  This assignment was interesting because I had never taken a course in analytical chemistry.  I arrived at MIT after analytical chemistry became an elective and flew through MIT too quickly to partake in the analytical course.  I had practical analytical experience from undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral research.  My source of instruction in chemical equilibrium was the graduate course “Aquatic Chemistry” taught by J. J. Morgan at Caltech.  At Davis, I sat in on an analytical courses taught by a senior member of the department to “learn the ropes” before being thrust before my first students in analytical chemistry.

My burning desire at Davis was to be the best teacher I could be.  I was known for being available at all hours for student questions, for circulating through laboratories every day, and for memorizing the names and faces of every student.  It became apparent to students that sitting in the back row of a 300-seat lecture hall did not offer immunity from being called upon by name to answer a question during lecture.  I brought a demonstration into almost every lecture and each term ended with a series of explosions.  The last class each term attracted far more students than were enrolled in the course.  The majority of my students at Davis were life science majors whose interests resonated with my research interest in metalloproteins.

I surveyed every analytical textbook I could find and taught from several.  I found the more thorough books to be dull and the more interesting books to be less thorough.  After two years, I decided to write text to accompany my lectures.  My goal was to be interesting and thorough in the selected topics.  Publishers representatives saw my notes in the bookstore and soon there were five offers for publication.  I visited each publisher and unashamedly adopted the best suggestions from each editor.  In 1978, I signed with W. H. Freeman as the publisher I thought would produce the nicest book.  After two more years of writing, a year of revision, and a year of production, the first edition of Quantitative Chemical Analysis was born in 1982.

By this time, I had not been offered tenure at Davis or at Franklin and Marshall College.  I loved teaching, but decided to try a different career.  In 1983, I moved to the U.S. Navys Michelson Laboratory at China Lake, California, where my present title is Senior Scientist.  In the course of 25 years with the Navy, I was elected an Esteemed Fellow and received a Top Navy Scientist award.  My research concerns transparent ceramic sensor windows.  I have been teaching a professional course in this subject several times each year since 1990 and wrote the monograph Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes, which is the standard reference in its field.

Meanwhile, Quantitative Chemical Analysis sold well enough for the publisher to invite me to prepare a 2nd edition.  I found myself with two full-time jobs—one for the Navy and a second as a textbook writer.  My wife Sally has been editorial assistant and proofreader on every book.  She produced all of the illustrations for Symmetry and Spectroscopy with a one-year-old watching over her shoulder.  Thirty years after signing our contract with Freeman, we are working on the 8th edition.  The book has had 12 foreign translations.

Our chief competitor, Doug Skoog (with coauthors West, Holler, and Crouch) had “big” and “little” books to serve two market levels.  Freeman asked me to write a small book to complement Quantitative Chemical Analysis, but I hesitated to go into competition with myself.  By 1995, we no longer had children in the house and the time was ripe for a “small” book.  My priorities for Exploring Chemical Analysis were to be (1) short, (2) interesting, and (3) elementary—in that order.  This book has now gone through 4 editions and 3 foreign translations.

A survey published in 2002 found that my two books were used in over half of the analytical chemistry courses in the United States.  [P. A. Mabrouk, Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 269A.]  In 2008, Quantitative Chemical Analysis received the McGuffey Longevity Award from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association.

In my writing, I try to catch the readers attention and to convey excitement by illustrating each topic with interesting real-world examples.  I try to get to the heart of a topic with the minimum number of words.  It is good pedagogy to explain everything and not to assume prior knowledge on the part of the reader.  Heavy use of illustrations makes ideas more understandable and memorable.  Chapters are broken into short sections which are more digestable than long sections.  Recalling my own student days, I include answers to all problems at the back of the book.  Some teachers would rather have a set of problems without answers, but I have never heard a student complain about immediate feedback after working a problem.  An informal writing style and a little humor provide a relaxed tone.
Quantitative Chemical Analysis evolved over 30-years.  Spectrophotometry grew from one to three chapters as it moved from the middle of the book to the front and then to the middle again.  Chromatography expanded from two to four chapters as its importance grew.  Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were added.  Quality assurance, sampling, and sample preparation were added and quality assurance increased in importance.  Computer programming projects were introduced in the second edition.  Spreadsheets appeared in the fourth edition and increased in each subsequent edition.  A spreadsheet-oriented chapter on advanced chemical equilibrium appeared in the seventh edition.  Uniform, high-interest opening vignettes appeared in the fourth edition.  Chapter 0 on the “analytical process” describing an actual student analysis of caffeine in chocolate appeared in the fifth edition.  Gravimetric analysis was demoted to the back of the book.  Electroanalytical chemistry decreased from five to four chapters.  Instructions for experiments moved to the web in the sixth edition to make room for growth in other subjects.

Exploring Chemical Analysis began with brevity as the first goal.  User feedback directed me to add several topics that had been rejected for the first edition.  These topics included activity coefficients, systematic treatment of equilibrium, EDTA and redox titration curve calculations, and an expanded discussion of spectrophotometry.  Placement of spectrophotometry early in the book did not fit well with many curricula, so the subject was moved back in the second edition.  The third edition increased emphasis on quality assurance, integrated mass spectrometry with chromatography, and introduced inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.  Spreadsheets gradually increased in every edition.  A short “ask yourself” question with an answer at the end of every worked example appeared in the fourth edition.

The most common comment I receive from teachers can be paraphrased as “I love your book and I wish it werent so long.  And please add more on (fill in favorite topic).”  Kolthoff, Sandell, Mehan, and Bruckenstein wrote in the preface of what was perhaps the most venerable analytical textbook of the 20th century, “as much as anyone, we regret the length of this revised edition ” (1170 pages) and “it is a very hard undertaking to seek to please everybody.”

A good textbook has the attributes of a good teacher.  The best description I have seen for a good teacher is a person with a “deep understanding of the subject, unbounded enthusiasm, humor, and the ability to communicate excitement, clarity and precision of thought and word, and the ability to put oneself in the mind of a student new to the subject.”  [C. Thyagaraja, Caltech News, 2000, 34[2], 11.]  To these I would add the ability to convey the significance and applications of the subject.  I strive toward these ends in my writing.

Table of Contents

0  The Analytical Process

Opener:  The “Most Important” Environmental Data Set of the 20th Century

0-1  Charles David Keeling and the Measurement of Atmospheric CO2

0-2  The Analytical Chemist's Job

0-32  General Steps in a Chemical Analysis

Box 0-1  Constructing a Representative Sample

1  Chemical Measurements

Opener:  Biochemical Measurements with a Nanoelectrode

1-1  SI Units

1-2  Chemical Concentrations

1-3  Preparing Solutions

1-4  Stoichiometry Calculations for Gravimetric Analysis

7-1  Introduction to Titrations

Box 1-1    Reagent Chemicals and Primary Standards

7-2  Titration Calculations

2  Tools of the Trade

Opener:  Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Medical Diagnosis

2-1  Safe, Ethical Handling of Chemicals and Waste

2-2  The Lab Notebook

2-3  Analytical Balance

2-4  Burets

2-5  Volumetric Flasks

2-6  Pipets and Syringes

2-7  Filtration

2-8  Drying

2-9  Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

2-10  Introduction to Microsoft Excel®

2-11  Graphing with Microsoft Excel®

Reference Procedure:  Calibrating a 50-mL Buret

3  Experimental Error

Opener:  Experimental Error

3-1  Significant Figures

3-2  Significant  Figures in Arithmetic

3-3  Types of Error

Box 3-1  Case Study in Ethics:  Systematic Error in Ozone Measurement

3-4  Propagation of Uncertainty from Random Error

Box 3-2  Keelings Exquisitely Precise Measurement of CO2

3-5  Propagation of Uncertainty from Systematic Error

4  Statistics

Opener:  Is My Red Blood Cell Count High Today?

4-1  Gaussian Distribution

4-2  Confidence Intervals

4-3  Comparison of Means with Student's t

Box 4-1  Choosing the Null Hypothesis in Epidemiology

4-4   F Test

4-5   t Tests with a Spreadsheet

4-6  Grubbs Test for an Outlier

4-7.  The Method of Least Squares

4-8  Calibration Curves

Box 4-2  Using a Nonlinear Calibration Curve

4-9  A Spreadsheet for Least Squares

5  Quality Assurance and Calibration Methods

Opener:  The Need for Quality Assurance

5-1  Basics of Quality Assurance

Box 5-1  Control Charts

5-2   Method Validation

Box 5-2   The Horwitz Trumpet:  Variation in Interlaboratory Precision

5-3  Standard Addition

5-4  Internal Standards

5-5  Efficiency in Experimental Design

6  Chemical Equilibrium

Opener:  Chemical Equilibrium in the Environment

6-1  The Equilibrium Constant

6-2  Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

6-3  Solubility Product

Box 6-1  Solubility is Governed by More than the Solubility Product

Demonstration 6-1   Common Ion Effect

6-4  Complex Formation

Box 6-2  Notation for Formation Constants

6-5  Protic Acids and Bases

6-6  pH

6-7  Strengths of Acids and Bases

Demonstration 6-2   The HCl Fountain

Box 6-3  The Strange Behavior of Hydrofluoric Acid

Box 6-4  Carbonic Acid

7   Activity and the Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium

Opener:  Hydrated Ions

7-1  The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts

Demonstration 7-1   Effect of Ionic Strength on Ion Dissociation

Box 7-1   Salts with Ions of Charge =|2| Do Not Fully Dissociate

7-2  Activity Coefficients

7-3  pH Revisited

7-4  Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium

Box 7-2   Calcium Carbonate Mass Balance in Rivers

7-5  Applying the Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium

8  Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria

Opener:  Measuring pH Inside Cellular Compartments

8-1  Strong Acids and Bases

Box 8-1   Concentrated HNO3 is Only Slightly Dissociated

8-2  Weak Acids and Bases

8-3  Weak-Acid Equilibria

Demonstration 8-1   Conductivity of Weak Electrolytes

Box 8-2   Dyeing Fabrics and the Fraction of Dissociation

8-4  Weak-Base Equilibria

8-5  Buffers

Box 8-3   Strong Plus Weak Reacts Completely

Demonstration 8-2   How Buffers Work

9  Polyprotic Acid-Base Equilibria

Opener:  Proteins are Polyprotic Acids and Bases

9-1  Diprotic Acids and Bases

Box 9-1  Carbon Dioxide in the Air and Ocean (new)

Box 9-2  Successive Approximations

9-2  Diprotic Buffers

9-3  Polyprotic Acids and Bases

9-4  Which Is the Principal Species?

9-5  Fractional Composition Equations

9-6  Isoelectric and Isoionic pH

Box 9-3  Isoelectric Focusing

10  Acid-Base Titrations

Opener:  Acid-Base Titration of a Protein

10-1  Titration of Strong Base with Strong Acid

10-2  Titration of  Weak Acid with Strong Base

10-3  Titration of  Weak  Base with Strong Acid

10-4  Titrations in Diprotic Systems

10-5  Finding the End Point with a pH Electrode

Box 10-1     Alkalinity and Acidity

10-6  Finding the End Point with Indicators

Demonstration 10-1     Indicators and the Acidity of CO2

Box 10-2  What Does a Negative pH Mean?

10-7  Practical Notes

10-8  Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis

Box 10-3  Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis Behind the Headline

10-9  Leveling Effect

10-10  Calculating Titration Curves with Spreadsheets

Reference Procedure:  Preparing Standard Acid and Base

11  EDTA Titrations

Opener:  Ion Channels in Cell Membranes

11-1  Metal-Chelate Complexes

Box 11-1   Chelation Therapy and Thalassemia

11-2  EDTA

11-3  EDTA Titration Curves

11-4  Do It with a Spreadsheet

11-5  Auxiliary Complexing Agents

Box 11-2   Metal Ion Hydrolysis Decreases the Effective Formation Constant for

 EDTA Complexes

11-6  Metal Ion Indicators

Demonstration 13-1   Metal Ion Indicator Color Changes

11-7  EDTA Titration Techniques

Box 11-3   Water Hardness

12   Advanced Topics in Equilibrium

Opener:  Acid Rain

12-1  General Approach to Acid-Base Systems

12-2  Activity Coefficients

12-3  Dependence of Solubility on pH

12-4  Analyzing Acid-Base Titrations with Difference Plots

13  Fundamentals of Electrochemistry

Opener:  Lithium-Ion Battery

13-1  Basic Concepts

Box 13-1   Ohms Law, Conductance, and Molecular Wire

13-2  Galvanic Cells

Demonstration 13-1   The Human Salt Bridge

13-3  Standard Potentials

13-4  Nernst Equation

Box 13-2   E° and the Cell Voltage Do Not Depend on How You Write the Cell Reaction

Box 13-3   Latimer Diagrams:  How to Find E° for a New Half-Reaction

13-5  E° and the Equilibrium Constant

Box 13-4   Concentrations in the Operating Cell

13-6  Cells as Chemical Probes

13-7  Biochemists Use E°'

14  Electrodes and Potentiometry

Opener:  Chem Lab on Mars

14-1  Reference Electrodes

14-2  Indicator Electrodes

Demonstration 14-1  Potentiometry with an Oscillating Reaction

14-3  What Is a Junction Potential?

14-4  How Ion-Selective Electrodes Work

14-5  pH Measurement with a Glass Electrode

Box 14-1  Systematic Error in Rainwater pH Measurement  The Effect of Junction Potential

14-6  Ion-Selective Electrodes

Box 14-2  Measuring Selectivity Coefficients for an Ion-Selective Electrode (new)

Box 14-3  How Was Perchlorate Discovered on Mars? (new)

14-7  Using Ion-Selective Electrodes

14-8  Solid-State Chemical Sensors

15  Redox Titrations

Opener:  Chemical Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors

15-1  The Shape of a Redox Titration Curve

Box 15-1   Many Redox Reactions are Atom-Transfer Reactions

Demonstration 15-1   Potentiometric Titration of Fe2+ with MnO4-

15-2  Finding the End Point

15-3  Adjustment of Analyte Oxidation State

15-4  Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate

15-5  Oxidation with Ce4+

15-6  Oxidation with Potassium Dichromate

Box 15-2   Environmental Carbon Analysis and Oxygen Demand

15-7  Methods Involving Iodine

Box 15-3  Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors

16  Electroanalytical Techniques

Opener:  How Sweet It Is!

Demonstration 16-1   Electrochemical Writing

16-1  Fundamentals of Electrolysis

16-2  Electrogravimetric Analysis

16-3  Coulometry

16-4  Amperometry

Box 16-1   Clark Oxygen Electrode

Box 16-2   What Is an “Electronic Nose”?

16-5  Voltammetry

Box 16-3   The Electric Double Layer

16-6  Karl Fischer Titration of H2O

17  Fundamentals of Spectrophotometry

Opener:  The Ozone Hole

17-1  Properties of Light

17-2  Absorption of Light

Box 17-1   Why Is There a Logarithmic Relation Between Transmittance and Concentration?

Demonstration 17-1   Absorption Spectra

17-3  Measuring Absorbance

17-4  Beer's Law in Chemical Analysis

17-5  Spectrophotometric Titrations

17-6  What Happens When a Molecule Absorbs Light?

Box 17-2   Fluorescence All Around Us

17-7  Luminescence

Box 17-3   Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

18  Applications of Spectrophotometry

Opener:  Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Biosensor

18-1  Analysis of a Mixture

18-2  Measuring an Equilibrium Constant:  The Scatchard Plot

18-3  The Method of Continuous Variation

18-4  Flow Injection Analysis and Sequential Injection

18-5  Immunoassays and Aptamers

18-6  Sensors Based on Luminescence Quenching

Box 18-1   Converting Light into Electricity

Box 18-2   Upconversion

19   Spectrophotometers

Opener:  Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy:  Do You Have an Ulcer?

19-1  Lamps and Lasers:  Sources of Light

Box 19-1   Blackbody Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect

19-2  Monochromators

19-3  Detectors

Box 19-2   The Most Important Photoreceptor

Box 19-3   Nondisperesive Infrared Measurement of CO2 on Mauna Loa

19-4  Optical Sensors

19-5  Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

19-6  Dealing with Noise

20  Atomic Spectroscopy

Opener:  An Anthropology Puzzle

20-1  An Overview

Box 20-1   Mercury Analysis by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence

20-2  Atomization:  Flames, Furnaces, and Plasmas

20-3  How Temperature Affects Atomic Spectroscopy

20-4  Instrumentation

20-5  Interference

20-6  Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

Box 20-2   GEOTRACES

21  Mass Spectrometry

Opener:  Droplet Electrospray

21-1  What Is Mass Spectrometry?

Box 21-1   Molecular Mass and Nominal Mass

Box 21-2   How Ions of Different Masses Are Separated by a Magnetic Field

21-2  Oh, Mass Spectrum, Speak to Me!

Box 21-3   Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

21-3  Types of Mass Spectrometers

21-4  Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Box 21-4   Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

21-5  Open-Air Sampling for Mass Spectrometry

22  Introduction to Analytical Separations

Opener:  Measuring Silicones Leaking from Breast Implants

22-1  Solvent Extraction

Demonstration 22-1   Extraction with Dithizone

Box 22-1   Crown Ethers and Phase Transfer Agents

22-2  What Is Chromatography?

22-3  A Plumber's View of Chromatography

22-4  Efficiency of Separation

22-5  Why Bands Spread

Box 22-2   Microscopic Description of Chromatography

23   Gas Chromatography

Opener:  What Did They Eat in the Year 1000?

23-1  The Separation Process in Gas Chromatography

Box 23-1   Chiral Phases for Separating Optical Isomers

Box 23-2   Chromatography Column on a Chip (new)

23-2  Sample Injection

23-3  Detectors

23-4  Sample Preparation

23-5  Method Development in Gas Chromatography

24  High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Opener:  Paleothermometry:  How to Measure Historical Ocean Temperatures

24-1   The Chromatographic Process

Box 24-1   Monolithic Silica Columns

Box 24-2   Structure of the Solvent-Bonded Phase Interface

Box 24-3   “Green” Technology:  Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

24-2   Injection and Detection in HPLC

24-3   Method Development for Reversed-Phase Separations

24-4   Gradient Separations

24-5   Do it with a Computer!

Box 24-4   Choosing Gradient Conditions and Scaling Gradients

25  Chromatographic Methods and Capillary Electrophoresis

Opener:  Capillary Electrochromatography

25-1   Ion-Exchange Chromatography

25-2   Ion Chromatography

Box 25-1  Surfactants and Micelles

25-3   Molecular Exclusion Chromatography

25-4   Affinity Chromatography

Box 25-2  Molecular Imprinting

25-5   Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (new)

25-6   Principles of Capillary Electrophoresis

25-7   Conducting Capillary Electrophoresis

25-8   Lab-on-a-Chip:  Probing Brain Chemistry

26  Gravimetric Analysis, Precipitation Titrations, and Combustion Analysis

Opener:  The Geologic Time Scale and Gravimetric Analysis

26-1   Examples of Gravimetric Analysis

26-2   Precipitation

Demonstration 26-1   Colloids and Dialysis

26-3   Examples of Gravimetric Calculations

26-4   Combustion Analysis

26-5  Precipitation Titration Curves

26-6  Titration of a Mixture

26-7  Calculating Titration Curves with a Spreadsheet

26-8  End-Point Detection

Demonstration 26-2  Fajans Titration

27  Sample Preparation

Opener:  Cocaine Use?  Ask the River

27-1   Statistics of Sampling

27-2   Dissolving Samples for Analysis

27-3 Sample Preparation Techniques

 
Notes and References

Glossary

Appendices

A.  Logarithms and Exponents

B.  Graphs of Straight Lines

C.  Propagation of Uncertainty

 New material added

D.  Oxidation Numbers and Balancing Redox Equations

E.  Normality

F. Solubility Products

G.  Acid Dissociation Constants

H.  Standard Reduction Potentials

I.  Formation Constants

J.  Logarithm of the Formation Constant for the Reaction M(aq) + L(aq)   ML(aq)

K.  Analytical Standards

Solutions to Exercises

Answers to Problems

Index

Experiments

Experiments are found at the web site www.whfreeman.com/qca/

0. Green Chemistry

1. Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

2 Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as CaC2O4.H2O

3. Gravimetric Determination of Iron as Fe2O3

4. Penny Statistics

5. Statistical Evaluation of Acid-Base Indicators

6. Preparing Standard Acid and Base

7. Using a pH Electrode for an Acid-Base Titration

8. Analysis of a Mixture of Carbonate and Bicarbonate

9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot

10. Fitting a Titration Curve with Excel Solver®

11. Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis

12. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in Natural Waters

13. Synthesis and Analysis of Ammonium Decavanadate

14. Iodimetric Titration of Vitamin C

15. Preparation and Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductor

16. Potentiometric Halide Titration with Ag+

17. Electrogravimetric Analysis of Copper

18. Polarographic Measurement of an Equilibrium Constant

19. Coulometric Titration of Cyclohexene with Bromine

20. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets

21. Microscale Spectrophotometric Measurement of Iron in Foods by Standard Addition

22. Spectrophotometric Measurement of an Equilibrium Constant

23. Spectrophotometric Analysis of a Mixture:  Caffeine and Benzoic Acid in a Soft Drink

24. Mn2+ Standardization by EDTA Titration

25. Measuring Manganese in Steel by Spectrophotometry with Standard Addition

26. Measuring Manganese in Steel by Atomic Absorption Using a Calibration Curve

27. Properties of an Ion-Exchange Resin

28. Analysis of Sulfur in Coal by Ion Chromatography

29. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Automobile Exhaust by Gas Chromatography

30. Amino Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

31. DNA Composition by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

32. Analysis of Analgesic Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

33. Anion Content of Drinking Water by Capillary Electrophoresis

34. Green Chemistry:  Liquid Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Lemon Peel Oil

Spreadsheet Topics (Not yet Updated for 8e)

2-10 Introduction to Microsoft Excel

2-11 Graphing with Microsoft Excel

Problem 3-8 Controlling the appearance of a graph

4-1 Average, standard deviation, normal distribution

4-5 t-Test

4-7 Equation of a straight line

4-9 Spreadsheet for least squares

Problem 4-25 Adding error bars to a graph

5-2 Square of the correlation coefficient (R2)

Problem 5-14 Using TRENDLINE

6-8 Solving equations with Excel GOAL SEEK

7-6 Precipitation titration curves

7-8 Multiple linear regression and experimental design

8-5 Using GOAL SEEK in equilibrium problems

Problem 8-27 Circular reference

9-5 Excel GOAL SEEK and naming cells

11-9 Acid-base titration curves

12-4 EDTA titrations

Problem 12-18 Auxiliary complexing agents in EDTA titrations

Problem 12-20 Complex formation

13-1 Using Excel SOLVER

13-2 Activity coefficients with the Davies equation

13-4 Fitting nonlinear curves by least squares

13-4 Using Excel SOLVER for more than one unknown

19-1 Solving simultaneous equations with Excel SOLVER

19-1 Solving simultaneous equations by matrix inversion

Problem 24-29 Binomial distribution function for isotope patterns

Product Details

ISBN:
9781429218153
Author:
Harris, Daniel C.
Publisher:
W.H. Freeman & Company
Subject:
Chemistry - Analytic
Edition Description:
Eighth Edition
Publication Date:
20100431
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
750
Dimensions:
11.25 x 9.50 in

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