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IP Routing Configuration Basics (Cisco Press Fundamentals Series)
Synopses & Reviews
A thorough guide to understanding IP behavior in a router-based network
IP Routing Primer focuses on how IP routing behaves in a Cisco router environment and also shows how you can use Cisco routers as a learning tool. In addition to teaching the core fundamentals, this book enhances your ability to troubleshoot IP routing problems yourself, often eliminating the need to call for additional technical support. In instances where additional support is required, this book will help you work more efficiently with customer support engineers by enhancing your ability to describe problems correctly.
The information is presented in an approachable, workbook-type format with dozens of detailed illustrations and real life scenarios integrated throughout.
An invaluable resource on IP fundamentals, this book focuses specifically on how Cisco routers implement IP functions and how readers can use them to learn more about IP. It also enhances ability to troubleshoot IP and router problems for themselves, often eliminating the need to call for additional technical support.
About the Author
Robert Wright is Manager of Customer Engineering for an Internet backbone router start-up company. He was formerly a Senior Manager with Cisco Systems, Inc. In this role, he managed a group of senior customer engineers who provided support to some of the largest ISPs in the world. During his five and a half-year tenure with Cisco, Robert also worked as a Systems Engineer, Customer Engineer, and Critical Account Manager. Robert was the 26th person to obtain CCIE status (#1050).
Table of Contents
1. Topology and Router Configurations.
Understanding the Role of Routers in Networks. The Router Interface. Network Layer Addresses. Datagrams. MAC Addresses. IP Address Formats. Network Reference Models. Understanding Topology and Router. Configurations. RouterA's Configuration. RouterB's Configuration. RouterC's Configuration. Understanding What a Router Does. Sampel Network. How a Router Knows What to Do. Choosing Your Routing Protocol. Understanding How Forwarding Decisions Are Made. Performing Longest Match Lookups. Forwarding Decisions for Multipoint Interfaces. End Systems Sending Packets to Other Subnets. Summary.
2. Routing Metrics and Distances.
Primary Activities of Convergance. Viewing the Invalid Timers in a Routing Table. Viewing an Expired Invalid Timer in a Routing Table. Router Still Uses a Path. Understanding Convergance. Parallel Paths. The Effect of Parallel Paths on Convergance. Step by Step Review of Convergance. Debug Messages and Reality. When Holddown Is Initiated. Understanding Parallel Paths and Their Effect on Packet Forwarding. Process Switching Versus Fast Switching. Configuring Process Switching. Configuring Fast Switching. Understanding the Role of Split Horizon. Routing Advertisements with Split Horizon Enabled. Routing Advertisements with Split Horizon Disabled. Routing Loops Caused by Disabling Split Horizon. Loss of a Connected Route Verus a Dynamic Route. Split Horizon's Effect on Multipoint WAN Interfaces. Using Subinterfaces to Avoid Problems Caused by Split Horizon. Poison Reverse and Triggered Updates. IGRP Routing Metrics (Variables) and Cisco. Administrative Distances. IGRP Metrics (Variables ). Administrative Distances. Running Multiple Routing Protocols Concurrently. Altering IGRP's Bandwidth and Delay Variables. Problems with Manipulating the Delay Variables. Understanding the Effects of Manipulating the Delay Variable. Understanding the Effects of Manipulating the Bandwidth Variable. Calculating IGRP Metrics. Summary.
3. Discontiguous Networks, Summarization, and Subnet.
Introduction to Terminology. Discontigous Networks Using RIP and IGRP. Understanding How a Router Derives the Correct Masks. Understanding Summarization (Summarized Routes). Understanding Subnet 0. Summarized Routes Versus Subnet 0. Summarization Caused by Discontigous Networks in Action. RIP Cannot Reach Discontiguous Subnets. Discontiguous Networks, Subnet 0, and Summarization Using IGRP. Discontiguous Networks Using Two Routers. Discontiguous Networks Using Three. Routers. When Connectivity Is Possible. When Connectivity Is Not Possible. Alternating Paths for the First Ping. Using Other Routing Protocols. Using Summarization as a Tool. Summary.
4. Using IP Unnumbered and VLSM.
Understanding IP Unnumbered. IP Unnumbered Causes Host Routes and Lost Connectivity. Host Routes. Hosts Routes Using DDR. Configuring IP Unnumbered on Serial. Interfaces. RIP and IGRP Behave the Same. RIP with IP Unnumbered Configured. Properly. Displaying the Routes. Sending Routing Updates. Pinging the Interfaces. RIP with IP Unnumbered Configured Improperly. Examples of Routing Updates. Host Route Problem. Lost Routes Problem. Using a Different Subnet Mask and a Different. Major Net. Understanding VLSM. VLSM Using RIP and IGRP. VLSM Experiment Using Two Routers. VLSM Experiment Using Three Routers. Correctly Configuring VLSM Blocked Routes. VLSM Summary. Summary.
5. Default Routing.
Introduction to Default Routing. Gateway of Last Resort. Gateway of Last Resort for a Non Local Domain. Gateway of Last Resort Fails for a Local Domain. Gateway of Last Resort Still Works When Links Fail. Using IP Classless. In Review. Using Default and Static Routes in Complicated Networks. Using Static Routes. Dealing with Too Much Default Routing Information. Fixing a Default Gateway Loop. The 0.0.0.0 Default Loop. RIP and 0.0.0.0 with IGRP. What to Do Instead of Using 0.0.0.0 with IGRP. Using End Systems with Multiple Local Gateways. ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) RFC 1256. End Systems Using RIP. Cisco's Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). Using Floating Static Routes. Summary.
6. IP Troubleshooting Scenarios.
Developing a Troubleshooting Routine. Using a Troubleshooting Scenario. Checking the Available Routes. Tracing the Route. Using Extended Pings to Track Connectivity. Other Possible Problems. An ARP Problem. Validating End System Routing Tables. Summary.
7. Bridging IP Between Dissimilar Media.
Translational Bridging. MSB Versus LSB. Bit Swapping MAC Addresses. ARP Explained. Translating Bridges and ARP Frames. ARP in Action. Vendor Specific Solutions to ARP. Static ARPs. Displaying the Parameters of the ARP.EXE Command. Displaying the Current ARP Entries. How to Create a Static ARP Entry and Display It. Deleting Static ARP Entries. Summary.
8. Hexadecimal and Binary Numbering and IP Addressing.
Binary Numbering Versus Decimal Numbering. Hexadecimal Numbering Versus Decimal Numbering. Introduction to the 32 Bit IP Address. Classes of Addresses. Default Subnet Masks for Class A, B, C, and D. Addresses. Understanding Subnet Masks, Subnetting, and Supernetting. Determining What Subnet is Being Used. The Shorthand Subnet Mask Indicator. Introduction to Supernetting. Calculating Subnet and Host Combinations. Summary.
Appendix A: RFCs.
How RFCs Work. RFCs Recommended for Further Study. RFC 2235: Hobbes' Internet Timeline. RFC 2200: Internet Official Protocol Standards. RFC 2151: A Primer on Internet and TCP/IP Tools and Utilities. RFC 2101: IPv4 Address Behavior Today. RFC 2031: IETF-ISOC Relationship. RFC 2028: The Organizations Involved in the IETF Standards Process. RFC 2027: IAB and IESG Selection, Confirmation, and Recall Process: Operation of the Nominating and Recall Committees. RFC 2026: The Intenet Standards Process: Revision 3. RFC 2008: Implications of Various Address Allocation Policies . RFC 1935: What Is the Internet, Anyway? RFC 1925: The Twelve Networking Truths. RFC 1923: RIPv1 Applicability Statement for Historic Status. RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets. RFC 1917: An Appeal to the Intermet Community to Return Unused IP Networks. RFC 1878: Variable Length Subnet Table for IPv4. RFC 1812: Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers. RFC 1631: The IP Network Address Translater (NAT). RFC 1601: Charter of the Internet Architecture Board. RFC 1580: Guide to Network Resource Tools. RFC 1393: Traceroute Using an IP Option. RFC 1256: ICMP Router Discovery Messages. RFC 1180: A TCP/IP Tutorial. RFC 1178: Choosing a Name for Your Computer. RFC 1149: A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers. RFC 1058: Routing Information Protocol. RFC 826: An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol. RFC 1700: Assigned Numbers. RFC 1534: BOOTP. RFC 2283, RFC 1966, RFC 1965, RFC 1774, RFC 1773, RFC 1772, RFC 1771, RFC 1745. RFC 1817, RFC 1520, RFC 1519, RFC 1518, RFC 1517: Classless Interdomain Routing. RFC 2132, RFC 2131, RFC 1534: Dynamic Host Conguration Protocol (DHCP). RFC 2308, RFC 2230, RFC 2219, RFC 2182, RFC 2181, RFC 2136, RFC 2052, RFC 1996, RFC 1995, RFC 1912, RFC 1794, RFC 1713: Domain Name System (DNS). RFC 2178, RFC 1745, RFC 1587, RFC 1586, RFC 1585, RFC 1584. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). RFC 1931, RFC 1293: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Inverse RARP. RFC 2092, RFC 2091, RFC 1723, RFC 1722, RFC 1721, RFC 1582, RFC 1581: RIP. RFC 2072, RFC 2071: Routing Renumbering. RFC 2001: TCP/IP (TCP) Slow Start. RFC 1470: TCP/IP Debugging Tools.
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