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25 Remote Warehouse Geology- Rocks and Minerals

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Introduction to Mineralogy

by

Introduction to Mineralogy Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The second edition of Introduction to Mineralogy follows the highly successful first edition, which become an overnight market leader. Introduction to Mineralogy consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describing minerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemical bonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrence of minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemical analytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized. Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and optical properties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. Introduction to Mineralogy is available with Daniel Schulze's An Atlas of Minerals in Thin Section for a nominal additional fee.

About the Author

William D. Nesse is the Chair and Professor of Geology at the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Minerals

Mineraloids

Mineralogy

Mineral Nomenclature

General References on Mineralogy

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 2. Crystallography

Introduction

Translational Symmetry

Plane Lattices

Translational Symmetry: 3-D

Space Lattices and Unit Cell

Bravais Lattices and Crystal Systems

Point Symmetry

Reflection

Rotation

Inversion

Compound Symmetry Operations

Symmetry Notation

32 Point Groups

Steno's Law

Measurement of Crystal Angles

Determining Crystal System and Crystal Class

Space Groups

Crystal Faces

Laws of Haüy and Bravais

Miller Indices

Indices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal System

Determining Miller Index

Assigning Miller Indexes by Inspection

Crystallographic Directions

Zones

Crystal Forms

Isometric Forms

Non-isometric Forms

Combining Crystal Forms

Enantiomorphous Forms and Crystals

Positive and Negative Forms

Forms in the Six Crystal Systems

Triclinic Crystal System

Monoclinic Crystal System

Orthorhombic Crystal System

Tetragonal Crystal System

Hexagonal Crystal System

Isometric Crystal System

Crystal Habit

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 3 Crystal Chemistry

Introduction

The Nature of Chemical Elements

Nucleus

Electrons

Formation of Ions

Abundance of the Elements

Chemical Bonding

Valence-related bonding

Relation among the Valence-dependent Bonds

Bonds Not Involving Valence Electrons

Size of Atoms and Ions

Oxidation State

Coordination

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 4: Crystal Structure

Introduction

Controls of Crystal Structure

Structure Controls with Metallic Bonding

Structure Controls with Covalent Bonding

Structural Controls with Molecular Crystals

Structure Controls with Ionic Bonding

Application of Pauling's Rules

Illustrating Mineral Structures

Isostructural Minerals

Polymorphism

Reconstructive Polymorphism

Displacive Polymorphism

Order-Disorder Polymorphism

Polytypism

Mineral Classification

Compositional Variation in Minerals

Substitutional Solid Solution 4.30

Mineral Formulas

Graphical Representation

Binary diagrams

Ternary diagrams

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 5: Mineral Growth

Introduction

Mineral Stability 5.3

Stability 5.3

Gibbs Free Energy 5.4

Mineral reactions 5.6

Mineral Nucleation 5.9

Homogeneous Nucleation 5.9

Heterogeneous nucleation 5.15

Crystal Growth. 5.16

Rate of growth 5.18

Zoned Crystals 5.21

Structural Defects 5.25

Point Defects 5.26

Line Defects 5.28

Planar Defects 5.31

Twinning 5.33

Post-crystallization Processes 5.40

Ordering 5.40

Twinning 5.41

Recrystallization 5.41

Exsolution 5.43

Radioactivity and Minerals 5.45

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 5.51

Section II: Mineral Properties, Study, and Identification

Chapter 6: Physical Properties of Minerals 6.1

Introduction 6.2

Mass Dependent Properties 6.2

Density 6.2

Specific Gravity 6.3

Properties Related to Mechanical Cohesion 6.7

Hardness 6.7

Tenacity 6.10

Cleavage 6.10

Fracture 6.12

Parting 6.13

Color and Luster 6.14

Light 6.14

Perception of Color 6.15

Mineral Luster 6.17

Mineral Color 6.18

Color From Mechanical Causes 6.25

Consistency of Mineral Color 6.27

Streak 6.27

Luminescence 6.28

Magnetism 6.31

Diamagnetism 6.32

Paramagnetism 6.33

Ferromagnetism 6.34

Ferrimagnetism 6.35

Electrical Properties 6.37

Electrical Conductivity 6.37

Piezoelectricity 6.38

Pyroelectricity 6.40

Miscellaneous Properties 6.41

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 6.43

Chapter 7: Optical Mineralogy 7.1

Introduction 7.3

Light 7.4

Light Waves 7.4

Polarized Light 7.6

Interaction of Light and Matter 7.7

Optically Isotropic vs. Anisotropic Materials 7.8

Reflection and Refraction 7.9

Dispersion 7.11

Petrographic Microscope 7.11

Illuminator 7.12

Substage Assembly 7.12

Microscope Stage 7.14

Objective Lenses 7.14

Upper Polarizer 7.15

Bertrand Lens 7.16

Oculars 7.16

Focusing Mechanism 7.18

Accessories 7.18

Direction Conventions 7.19

Isotropic Materials 7.19

Anisotropic Minerals 7.21

Interference Phenomena 7.22

Use of the Interference Color Chart 7.28

Extinction 7.32

Function of Accessory Plates 7.33

Optical Indicatrix 7.38

Isotropic Indicatrix 7.39

Uniaxial Indicatrix 7.40

Biaxial Indicatrix 7.45

Mineral Color and Pleochroism 7.51

Isotropic Minerals 7.51

Uniaxial Minerals 7.52

Biaxial 7.52

Extinction Angle and Sign of Elongation 7.53

Extinction Angle 7.53

Sign of Elongation 7.54

Categories of Extinction 7.55

Extinction in Uniaxial Minerals 7.57

Extinction in Biaxial Minerals 7.58

Interference Figures 7.59

Uniaxial Interference Figures 7.59

Biaxial Interference Figure 7.63

Refractometry: Measurement of Index of Refraction 7.75

Immersion Method 7.75

Refractometry in Thin Section 7.81

Isotropic Minerals 7.82

Uniaxial Minerals 7.82

Biaxial Minerals 7.84

Reflected-Light Optics 7.87

Observation in Plane Polarized Light 7.88

Observations with Crossed Polarizers 7.89

Tactics for Mineral Identification 7.90

Thin section identification 7.91

Grain Mount Identification 7.94

Polished section identification 7.96

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 7.98

Chapter 8. Introduction to X-ray Crystallography 8.1

Introduction 8.2

X-rays 8.3

X-ray Generation 8.3

X-ray Detection 8.6

X-ray Diffraction 8.8

Powder Method 8.10

Sample Preparation 8.10

Instrumental Output 8.11

Data Reduction 8.13

Powder Diffraction File 8.14

Bragg Reflection Indices 8.15

Mineral Identification 8.16

Mixed Samples 8.20

Estimation of Relative Mineral Abundance 8.21

Estimation of Composition 8.21

Determining Unit Cell Parameters 8.22

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 8.23

Chapter 9. Chemical Analysis of Minerals 9.1

Introduction 9.2

Analytical Methods 9.2

Wet Chemical 9.2

Electron Probe Microanalysis 9.3

X-ray Fluorescence 9.6

Mass Spectrometry 9.7

Conventions in Reporting Chemical Analyses 9.8

Conversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural Formulas 9.11

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 9.15

Chapter 10. Strategies for Study 10.1

Introduction 10.2

Mineral Identification Tactics 10.3

Mineral Separation 10.3

Hand Sample Identification 10.8

Thin Section Identification 10.10

Grain Mount Identification 10.12

Polished Section Identification 10.13

X-ray Diffraction 10.13

Mineral Association 10.14

Problems in Paradise 10.15

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 10.17

Index 10.20

Section III: Mineral Descriptions

Chapter 11. Silicates 11.1

Introduction 11.2

Silicate Structure and Classification 11.3

Mafic vs. Felsic 11.5

Igneous Rocks 11.6

Magmatic Processes 11.11

Igneous Environments 11.14

Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks 11.17

Sedimentary Processes 11.19

Sedimentary Environments 11.24

Metamorphic Rocks 11.27

Metamorphic Variables 11.28

Metamorphic Processes 11.31

Metamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and Isograds 11.34

Major Compositional Groups of Metamorphic Rocks 11.36

Metamorphic Environments 11.39

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 11.43

Chapter 12: Framework Silicates 12.1

Introduction 12.2

Silica Group 12.3

Quartz 12.5

Tridymite 12.13

Cristobalite 12.17

Feldspar Group 12.21

Composition 12.21

Structure 12.22

Al/Si Order/Disorder 12.23

Exsolution in the Feldspars 12.29

Other Feldspar Intergrowths 12.31

Twinning 12.33

Plagioclase 12.35

K-Feldspar 12.48

Feldspathoids 12.61

Nepheline 12.61

Leucite 12.66

Sodalite 12.69

Zeolite Group 12.72

Scapolite 12.80

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 12.84

Chapter 13 Sheet Silicates 13.1

Introduction 13.2

Structure and Classification 13.2

1:1 Layer Silicates 13.6

2:1 Layer Silicates 13.6

Polytypism 13.9

TO Structures (1:1) 13.10

Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite) 13.10

Kaolinite: 13.17

TOT Structures (2:1) 13.18

Talc 13.18

Pyrophyllite 13.21

TOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1) 13.24

Muscovite 13.24

Biotite 13.30

Glauconite 13.34

TOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1) 13.38

Margarite 13.38

Clintonite 13.40

TOT + O Structure 13.43

Chlorite 13.43

Clay Minerals 13.47

Structure and Classification 13.50

Geology of Clay 13.54

Identification 13.55

Uses 13.57

Clay in the Environment 13.58

Other Sheet Silicates 13.60

Stilpnomelane 13.60

Prehnite 13.63

Chapter 14. Chain Silicates 14.1

Introduction 14.2

Pyroxene group 14.2

Structure and Classification 14.2

Geology of Pyroxenes 14.5

Orthopyroxene 14.9

Lo-Ca Clinopyroxene 14.13

Calcic Clinopyroxene 14.16

Aegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-augite 14.21

Jadeite 14.25

Omphacite 14.28

Spodumene 14.31

Pyroxenoid Group 14.34

Introduction 14.34

Wollastonite 14.35

Rhodonite 14.38

Pectolite 14.40

Amphibole Group 14.43

Structure and Classification 14.43

Geology of Amphiboles 14.47

Orthoamphibole 14.48

Cummingtonite-Grunerite 14.52

Tremolite - Ferro-actinolite 14.56

Hornblende 14.59

Glaucophane - Riebeckite 14.64

Other amphiboles 14.68

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 14.70

Chapter 15. Disilicates and Ring Silicates 15.1

Disilicates 15.2

Structure and Classification 15.2

Zoisite 15.4

Clinozoisite-Epidote 15.7

Allanite 15.11

Lawsonite 15.14

Pumpellyite 15.17

Ring Silicates 15.20

Structure and Classification 15.21

Beryl 15.21

Cordierite 15.25

Tourmaline 15.29

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 15.35

Chapter 16. Orthosilicates 16.1

Introduction 16.2

Olivine Group 16.3

Garnet Group 16.10

Zircon 16.15

Aluminum Silicates 16.20

Andalusite 16.24

Sillimanite 16.28

Kyanite 16.30

Staurolite 16.34

Chloritoid 16.38

Titanite 16.42

Topaz 16.46

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 16.50

Chapter 17. Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Borates, Tungstates, and Molybdates 17.1

Structure and Classification 17.2

Carbonates 17.3

Rhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups) 17.3

Calcite 17.6

Magnesite 17.12

Siderite 17.15

Rhodochrosite 17.18

Dolomite-Ankerite 17.21

Aragonite Group 17.26

Aragonite 17.26

Witherite 17.30

Strontianite 17.32

OH-Bearing Carbonates 17.35

Malachite 17.36

Azurite 17.38

Sulfates 17.41

Gypsum 17.42

Anhydrite 17.46

Barite 17.49

Phosphates 17.53

Apatite 17.54

Monazite 17.59

Xenotime 17.62

Tourquoise 17.65

Tungstates and Molybdates 17.68

Borates 17.70

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 17.72

Chapter 18. Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides 18.1

Introduction 18.2

Oxides 18.2

X2O Group 18.3

Cuprite 18.3

Ice 18.6

XO Group 18.8

XY2O4 Minerals 18.9

Spinel Group 18.9

Magnetite 18.11

Chromite 18.16

Spinel Series 18.18

Chrysoberyl 18.21

X2O3 Group 18.23

Hematite 18.24

Corundum 18.27

Ilmenite 18.31

XO2 Group 18.34

Rutile 18.35

Cassiterite 18.38

Uraninite 18.41

Hydroxides 18.43

Brucite 18.45

Iron Hydroxide Minerals 18.47

Aluminum Hydroxide Minerals 18.48

Manganese Oxide and Hydroxide Minerals 18.50

Halides 18.53

Halite 18.53

Sylvite 18.56

Fluorite 18.59

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 18.62

Chapter 19. Sulfides and Related Minerals 19.1

Introduction 19.2

Crystal Chemistry and Classification 19.2

Sulfide Paragenesis 19.4

Hydrothermal Deposits 19.4

Supergene Processes 19.8

Sulfide Minerals 19.10

Sphalerite 19.11

Galena 19.14

Pyrrhotite 19.16

Chalcopyrite 19.19

Cinnabar 19.22

Pyrite 19.25

Marcasite 19.29

Molybdenite 19.31

Bornite 19.34

Chalcocite 19.36

Covellite 19.38

Sulfarsenides 19.41

Arsenopyrite 19.41

Arsenides 19.43

Tellurides 19.44

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 19.45

Chapter 20. Native Elements 20.1

Introduction 20.2

Metals 20.2

Gold 20.4

Silver 20.7

Copper 20.9

Semimetals 20.11

Nonmetals 20.11

Sulfur 20.11

Graphite 20.16

Diamond 20.18

References Cited and Suggestions for Reading 20.22

Appendices

Appendix A. Effective Ionic Radii of the Elements

Appendix B. Determinative Tables

Table B.1. Non-metallic minerals with white, gray, or other pale colored streak.

Table B.2. Non-metallic minerals with distinctly colored streak.

Table B.3. Minerals with metallic and submetallic luster.

Table B.4. Specific gravity.

Table B.5. Minerals that may fluoresce.

Table B.6. Color of minerals in thin section and grain mount.

Table B.7. Indices of refraction of isotropic minerals

Table B.8. Indices of refraction of uniaxial minerals.

Table B9. Indices of refraction of biaxial negative minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.

Table B.10. Indices of refraction of biaxial positive minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.

Table B.11. Minerals that produce pleochroic halos in surrounding minerals.

Table B.12. Colors exhibited by opaque minerals in polished section viewed in air.

Table B.13. Opaque or nearly opaque minerals that display internal reflections with reflected light.

Appendix C. Mineral Associations

Table C1. Mineralogy of Common Igneous Rocks

Table C2. Mineralogy of Sedimentary Rocks

Table C3. Mineralogy of Common Metamorphic Rocks

Table C4. Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits

Product Details

ISBN:
9780199827381
Author:
Nesse, William D.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Author:
Nesse, William
Subject:
Mineralogy
Subject:
Earth Sciences - Geology
Subject:
Geology-General
Subject:
Geology-Rocks and Minerals
Copyright:
Publication Date:
20110831
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Language:
English
Pages:
496
Dimensions:
8.8 x 11 x 1.2 in 3.6 lb

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