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Understanding Institutional Diversity

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Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The analysis of how institutions are formed, how they operate and change, and how they influence behavior in society has become a major subject of inquiry in politics, sociology, and economics. A leader in applying game theory to the understanding of institutional analysis, Elinor Ostrom provides in this book a coherent method for undertaking the analysis of diverse economic, political, and social institutions.

Understanding Institutional Diversity explains the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which enables a scholar to choose the most relevant level of interaction for a particular question. This framework examines the arena within which interactions occur, the rules employed by participants to order relationships, the attributes of a biophysical world that structures and is structured by interactions, and the attributes of a community in which a particular arena is placed.

The book explains and illustrates how to use the IAD in the context of both field and experimental studies. Concentrating primarily on the rules aspect of the IAD framework, it provides empirical evidence about the diversity of rules, the calculation process used by participants in changing rules, and the design principles that characterize robust, self-organized resource governance institutions.

Synopsis:

"This will undoubtedly be a very popular, much-assigned, and much-cited magnum opus."--Carl Simon, University of Michigan

"What emerges from Elinor Ostrom's book is precisely what the title suggests---an understanding of the diverse nature of institutions that exist in human societies to promote human cooperation or to hinder it. This is a significant work by one of the most thoughtful social scientists in the world and it will attract a large number of readers and enlighten them."--Peter Boettke, George Mason University

Synopsis:

The analysis of how institutions are formed, how they operate and change, and how they influence behavior in society has become a major subject of inquiry in politics, sociology, and economics. A leader in applying game theory to the understanding of institutional analysis, Elinor Ostrom provides in this book a coherent method for undertaking the analysis of diverse economic, political, and social institutions.

Understanding Institutional Diversity explains the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which enables a scholar to choose the most relevant level of interaction for a particular question. This framework examines the arena within which interactions occur, the rules employed by participants to order relationships, the attributes of a biophysical world that structures and is structured by interactions, and the attributes of a community in which a particular arena is placed.

The book explains and illustrates how to use the IAD in the context of both field and experimental studies. Concentrating primarily on the rules aspect of the IAD framework, it provides empirical evidence about the diversity of rules, the calculation process used by participants in changing rules, and the design principles that characterize robust, self-organized resource governance institutions.

About the Author

Elinor Ostrom is the Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science and Co-Director of the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, and the Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change at Indiana University, Bloomington. Her books include "Governing the Commons: Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources" (with Roy Gardner and James Walker); "Heterogeneity and Cooperation in Two Domains" (with Robert Keohane); "Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons from Experimental Research" (with James Walker); "The Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptations" (with Nives Dolsak), and "Foundations of Social Capital" (with T. K. Ahn).

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xi

Acknowledgments xiii

PART I: AN OVERVIEW OF THE INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT (IAD)FRAMEWORK 1

Chapter One: Understanding the Diversity of Structured Human Interactions 3

Diversity: A Core Problem in Understanding Institutions 4

Is There an Underlying Set of Universal Building Blocks? 5

Holons: Nested Part-Whole Units of Analysis 11

Action Arenas as Focal Units of Analysis 13

Zooming Out to an Overview of the IAD Framework 15

Viewing Action Arenas as Dependent Variables 16

Institutional Frameworks, Theories, and Models 27

The Limited Frame of This Book 29

Chapter Two: Zooming In and Linking Action Situations 32

An Action Situation as a Focal Unit of Analysis 32

Example of a Simple Action Situation 35

The Basic Working Parts of Action Situations 37

Linking Action Arenas 55

Predicting Outcomes 64

Evaluating Outcomes 66

Chapter Three: Studying Action Situations in the Lab 69

The Trust Game in the Experimental Laboratory 70

A Commons Dilemma in the Experimental Laboratory 78

Structural Changes in the Laboratory 85

Replications and Extensions of Commons Dilemma Experiments 93

Conclusions 97

Chapter Four: Animating Institutional Analysis 99

Animating Open, Competitive Processes 100

The Challenge of Imperfect Information 101

Assumptions Used in Animating Participants 103

Variety and Complexity: An Asset or a Liability? 116

A Focus on Collective Action to Overcome Social Dilemmas 119

Norms Fostering Collective Action 121

Emergence and Survival of Norms in Evolutionary Processes 125

Conclusion 131

PART II: FOCUSING ON RULES 135

Chapter Five: A Grammar of Institutions, Sue Crawford and Elinor Ostrom 137

Parsing Institutional Statements 137

The Syntax of a Grammar of Institutions 139

The Syntax Components 140

Applying the Grammar 152

Using the Grammar in Empirical Field Research 171

Some Next Steps 173

Chapter Six: Why Classify Generic Rules? 175

Solving Babbling Equilibrium Problems 176

The Policy Analyst ’s Need to Understand How to Reform Situations 180

Moving beyond Slogan Words to Describe Institutions 181

Coping with the Immense Diversity by Identifying Generic Rules 181

The Role of Rules as Information Transformation Mechanisms 184

An Underlying Universality? 185

Chapter Seven: Classifying Rules, Elinor Ostrom and Sue Crawford 186

The Horizontal Approach: Classifying by the A I M of a Rule 187

Position Rules 193

Boundary Rules 194

Choice Rules 200

Aggregation Rules 202

Information Rules 206

Payoff Rules 207

Scope Rules 208

Default Conditions: What Happens if No Rules Exist Related to Components of an Action Situation? 210

The Vertical Approach: Operational, Collective-Choice, and Constitutional-Choice Levels of Analysis 214

Using Rules as Tools to Change Outcomes 215

PART III: WORKING WITH RULES 217

Chapter Eight: Using Rules as Tools to Cope with the Commons 219

Field Research on Common-Pool Resources 221

What Rules Are Found in Self-Organized Common-Pool Resource Regimes? 222

Contemporary Approaches to Resource Policy 236

Coping with Complexity: A General Problem 242

Changing Rules as an Adaptive Process 243

Theoretical Puzzles 251

Summing Up 253

Chapter Nine: Robust Resource Governance in Polycentric Institutions 255

Design Principles and Robust Social-Ecological Systems 258

Threats to Robust Governance of Common-Pool Resources 271

Modest Coping Methods for Dealing with Threats to Sustainability 279

The Advantage and Limits of Polycentric Systems in Coping with Design and Long-Term Sustainability of Systems 281

The Capabilities of Polycentric Systems in Coping with Tragedies of the Commons 283

Conclusion 287

Notes 289

References 307

Index 351

Product Details

ISBN:
9780691122380
Manufactured:
Princeton University Press
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Author:
Ostrom, Elinor
Location:
Princeton
Subject:
General
Subject:
Interpersonal Relations
Subject:
Organizational Behavior
Subject:
Negotiating
Subject:
Workplace Culture
Subject:
Management - General
Subject:
History & Theory
Subject:
Political Science and International Relations
Subject:
Economics
Subject:
Sociology
Subject:
Business management
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Publication Date:
August 2005
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
20 line illus. 15 tables.
Pages:
376
Dimensions:
9 x 6 in 19 oz

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Product details 376 pages Princeton University Press - English 9780691122380 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , "This will undoubtedly be a very popular, much-assigned, and much-cited magnum opus."--Carl Simon, University of Michigan

"What emerges from Elinor Ostrom's book is precisely what the title suggests---an understanding of the diverse nature of institutions that exist in human societies to promote human cooperation or to hinder it. This is a significant work by one of the most thoughtful social scientists in the world and it will attract a large number of readers and enlighten them."--Peter Boettke, George Mason University

"Synopsis" by , The analysis of how institutions are formed, how they operate and change, and how they influence behavior in society has become a major subject of inquiry in politics, sociology, and economics. A leader in applying game theory to the understanding of institutional analysis, Elinor Ostrom provides in this book a coherent method for undertaking the analysis of diverse economic, political, and social institutions.

Understanding Institutional Diversity explains the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which enables a scholar to choose the most relevant level of interaction for a particular question. This framework examines the arena within which interactions occur, the rules employed by participants to order relationships, the attributes of a biophysical world that structures and is structured by interactions, and the attributes of a community in which a particular arena is placed.

The book explains and illustrates how to use the IAD in the context of both field and experimental studies. Concentrating primarily on the rules aspect of the IAD framework, it provides empirical evidence about the diversity of rules, the calculation process used by participants in changing rules, and the design principles that characterize robust, self-organized resource governance institutions.

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