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Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflightby David A. Mindell
Synopses & Reviews
As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer’s software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine.
In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers. Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives.
Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight—a lunar landing—traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.
Table of Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments xi 1 Human and Machine in the Race to the Moon 1 2 Chauffeurs and Airmen in the Age of Systems 17 3 Flying Reentry:Apollo Guidance 95 6 Reliability or Repair? The Apollo Computer 123 7 Programs and People 145 8 Designing a Landing 181 9 "Pregnant with alarm": Apollo 11l 217 10 Five More Hands On 235 11 Human, Machine, and the Future of Spaceflight 263 Notes 273 Glossary 305 Bibliography 307 Index 335 About the Cover Image 361 / The X-15 43 4 Airmen in Space 65 5 "Braincase on the tip of a firecracker".
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