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Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation for Secondary Teaching

Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation for Secondary Teaching Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The fourth edition of Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation for Secondary Teaching does more than provide a useful guide for planning, teaching and evaluating. Unlike most other methods texts, this book focuses on helping teachers decide what they want their students to learn, how their students can use the information and skills, and how they, as teachers, can determine if the instructional objectives have been achieved.

Synopsis:

This book is based on the idea that prospective teachers can acquire certain skills and knowledge that will help them become more humane and effective teachers.

Table of Contents

I. CHECKING THE FOUNDATION—A QUICK REVIEW.
1. Educational Philosophies and Why You Need One.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

What is a Philosophy of Education.

Words of Advice.

Learning from the Ancient Greeks.

The Elder Sophists —The First Professional teachers Socrates— Knowledge is Inborn - Questioning Can Draw it Out Plato—The Ideal World of Ideas - Learn by Thinking Aristotle—World Ruled by Natural Laws - Learn by Experience.

Traditional Philosophies—Perennialism and Essentialism.

Perennialism Essentialism.

Nontraditional Philosophies—Progressivism and Existentialism.

Progressivism Existentialism.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
2. Why the Schools Are As They Are.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

The Effectiveness of Our Schools.

From Pilgrims to Progressives.

How and Why Secondary Schools Were Established The State's Interest in Education - Educating All the Children at Public Expense College Preparation v. General Education Land Ordinance of 1785-First Federal Action Concerning Education The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862-Vocational Education Emerges Committee of Ten Report, 1893-Essentialism and Instructional Time Time Under Instruction and the Carnegie Unit The Smith-Hughes Act Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education Seven Cardinal Principles Edward L. Thorndike— Discrediting the ``Faculty Theory The Eight Year Study—1933-1941.

Post World War II to the Present.

The Supreme Court— Separate is not Equal Sputnick and the National Defense Education Act The Great Society and Compensatory Education A Nation at Risk America 2000.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
3. Learning Theories and Instructional Models.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Learning Theories.

Behaviorism-Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Edward L. Thorndike, B.F. Skinner Gestalt Theory-Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler Cognitive Field Theory-Kurt Lewin Cognitive Theory-John Dewey, Jean Piaget Comparison of Learning Theories.

Instructional Models.

The Military Model The Systems Approach General Model of Instruction (GMI) Goal-Referenced Instructional Model Logical Instructional Model (LIM) Assure.

Preassessment.

The Teacher's Role as a Faculty Member Things to Think About Concerning Instructional Models.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.

II. PLANNING—DECIDING DIRECTION.

4. Selecting Instructional Content.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Broad Goals; Seven Cardinal Principles, Five Broad Goals.

Tyler's Rationale.

Subject-Area Specialists.

National Groups and Councils, Other Faculty, Textbooks, Concepts.

The Learners Themselves.

Teacher Expectations—The Pygmalion/Galatea Effects.

Studies of Contemporary Life Outside of School.

Writing a Rationale: Needs of the Subject-Area, Students, Society.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
5. The Structure of Precise Instructional Objectives.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Why Precise Goals Are Useful.

Purposes and Parts of Precise Instructional Objectives.

Ralph Tyler—Robert Mager Observable, Terminal Behaviors, Conditions, Minimum Acceptable Standards.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Practice Exercises.

Practice Exercise 1: Identifying Weaknesses in Objectives Practice Exercise 2: Rewriting Instructional Objectives Self-Test.

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
6. Classifying and Using Precise Instructional Objectives.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

The Taxonomy and its Uses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.

Affective Domain.

Problems to be Considered Levels of the Affective Domain: Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organization, Characterization.

Psychomotor Domain: Reflex Movements, Basic Fundamental Movements, Perceptual Abilities, Physical Abilities, Skilled Movements, Nondiscursive Communication.

Testing Objectives for Clarity.

Using Precise Instructional Objectives.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Practice Exercises.

Practice Exercise 1: The Domain Practice Exercise 2: Cognitive Domain Practice Exercise 3: Psychomotor Domain.

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.

III. TEACHING.

7. Whole Class Instructional Activities.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Generic Skills: Set Induction, Communicating the Objective, Stimulus Variation, Review/Repetition, Practice, Closure.

Whole Group Instruction.

Madeline Hunter - Barack Rosenshine Formal and Informal Lectures, Questioning, The ``Overhead Questioning Technique, Wait Time, Categorizing Questions, Encouraging Participation, Demonstrations, Speakers, Field Trips, General Discussions, Exploratory Discussions, Brainstorming, Guided or Directed Discussions, Reflective Discussions, Evaluations of Discussions, Contests.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
8. Small-Group and Individualized Instructional Activities.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Small Group Activities.

Proportions of Whole v. Small Group Activities, Determining Group Makeup, Clarifying Overall Purpose, Concluding Panel Discussions, Debates, Role Playing/Skits.

Cooperative Learning.

Robert Slavin: Student Teams—Achievement Divisions (STAD), Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT).

Problem-Based Learning.

The ``Scientific Method, Using Problem-Based Learning.

Out-of-Class Assignments/Homework.

Individualization: Self-Instructional Packages, Contracts/Portfolios.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
9. Selecting and Using Instructional Media.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Definition of Technology.

General Utilization Factors.

Prepare the Students, Use the Mediated Instruction Correctly, Conduct Follow-Up Activities, Evaluate the Mediated Instruction.

Reading Materials.

Textbooks.

Audio Aids.

Radios, Records, Tape and CD Players, Telephones.

Visual Aids.

Still and Motion Pictures, Opaque Projectors, Slides and Filmstrips, Bulletin Boards, Maps and Globes, Chalkboards, Charts and Graphs, Overhead Projectors, Document Cameras, Real Things.

Audio-Visual Combinations.

Multimedia Kits, Film, Television, and Video Tapes.

Programmed Instruction.

Linear—Pressey-Skinner Non-Linear or Branching—Crowder.

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).

Advantages of CAI Classes of CAI: Drill and Practice, Tutorial, Simulation, Gaming Developments in CAI Disadvantages of CAI.

Application Software.

Word Processing, Spreadsheets, Databases, Presentation Tools Strengths and Weaknesses.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.

IV. PLANNING SYLLABI, UNITS, AND LESSONS.

10. Planning a Course Syllabus and Instructional Units.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

The Time Factor.

The Course Syllabus.

Identifying Data, Overview/Rationale, Objectives, Grading Criteria, Tentative Content Outline and Calendar, Summary Sheet of Due Dates of Assignments and Tests.

Hebartian Units.

The Tyler Rationale in Action—Waimon Knowledge Structures.

Needs of the Subject Area, Students, and Society.

Components of a Unit Plan.

Overview/Rationale, Objectives, Content, Instructional Activities, Instructional Materials, Evaluation.

Topical Outlines.

Organizing the Parts of a Unit: An Abbreviated Model.

Optional Activities.

Planning for Evaluation and Future Use.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People.
11. Planning Daily Lesson Plans.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Lesson Plan Components.

Components: Objective(s), Content, Instructional Activities, Evaluation, Closure, Materials, Sources, Miscellaneous Components, Length.

Arguments and Lesson Planning.

Sample Lesson Plans.

Concept Plans, Analysis Level Plans, Psychomotor Plans.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.

V. EVALUATING.

12. Preparing and Administering Tests.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Basic Principles and Terminology.

Test, Measurement, Evaluation, Validity, Reliability, Criterion-Referenced Evaluation, Mastery Learning, Norm Referenced Evaluation.

Basic Principles of Measurement and Evaluation.

Paper and Pencil Tests.

Objective Tests.

General Rules Multiple-Choice Items True-False Questions Matching Items Completion Items Preparing Tests and Students.

Subjective (Essay) Tests.

Principles for Constructing Essay Tests and Reviewing.

Administering Tests.

Alternative Evaluation Procedures.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
13. Calculating, Interpreting and Communication Grades, and Teacher Evaluation.

Rationale

Sample Objectives.

Item Analyses.

Recording and Posting Grades.

Calculating Grades.

Terms: Raw Score, Mean, Median, Mode, Range, Percentile Point, and Percentile Rank.

Assigning Grades.

The Traditional A-F Scale, The ``Curve Advantages of Using SD Cut-Off Points for Grading Disadvantages of Using SD Cut-Off Points.

Grading Subjectivity.

After the Test.

Reporting Grades.

Parent-Teacher Meetings, Phone Calls, Letters, Report Cards Stanines, Standard Scores.

Teacher Evaluation.

Process, Product Administrative, Peers, Students, Self.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.

VI. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT.

14. Classroom Management.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Basic Management Principles.

The Goal is Self-Control Rely on Natural Consequences Helping Students Succeed.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Physiological, Safety, Love, Self-Esteem, Self-Actualization.

Guidelines for Minimizing Discipline Problems.

Behavior Modification: Operant Conditioning.

Terms, Use, Reservations about Operant Conditioning.

Behavior Modification: Reality Therapy.

Behavior Modification: The Lets Keep it Small Approach.

Potentially Dangerous Problems.

Special Cases.

Hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Disorder, Dyslexia.

Legal Terms and Issues.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.
15. Multicultural Concerns.

Rationale.

Sample Objectives.

Multicultural Education.

Since 1964 Adapting to a Multicultural Classroom Research on Multicultural School Environments.

Biracial Students.

Size of This Element of the Population Do Biracial Students Learn Differently Than Monoracial Students? Recent Research on Biracial Adolescents and Their Learning Habits.

Summary.

So How Does This Affect My Teaching?

Key Terms, People, and Ideas.

Product Details

ISBN:
9780205193929
Author:
Lorber, Michael A.
Publisher:
Pearson
Location:
Boston :
Subject:
General
Subject:
Teaching Methods & Materials - General
Subject:
Teaching Methods & Materials - Classroom Planning
Subject:
Secondary
Subject:
High school teaching
Subject:
Education-Classroom Resources
Subject:
Education-General
Copyright:
Edition Number:
4
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Series Volume:
P56
Publication Date:
December 1995
Binding:
Paperback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Yes
Pages:
304
Dimensions:
9 x 6 x 1 in 567 gr

Related Subjects

Education » General

Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation for Secondary Teaching
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Product details 304 pages Allyn & Bacon - English 9780205193929 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , This book is based on the idea that prospective teachers can acquire certain skills and knowledge that will help them become more humane and effective teachers.
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