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Spanish Grammar in Reviewby James S. Holton
Synopses & Reviews
Designed to be used with ANY Spanish reader or conversation text, this volume reviews virtually every aspect of modern grammar usage. It contains grammatical analyses of the structure of Spanish, plus an abundance of self-checking practice exercises. Chapter topics include verb form reviews; the correct and appropriate use of confusing verbs; expressions of probability; the Imperfect past vs. the Preterit Past; the subjunctive in noun, adverbial, and adjective clauses; commands; verb-object pronouns; passives and their equivalents; prepositions; comparisons; and much more. A reference guide for English-speaking students of the Spanish language.
Spanish Grammar in Review, Third Edition, is designed to serve as the grammar component of intermediate and post-intermediate level courses. This text contains grammatical analyses of the structure of Spanish as well as a wide range of practice exercises. Spanish Grammar in Review was written with the greatest flexibility in mind for both students and instructors. It can, therefore, be used in combination with any listening, speaking, reading, and writing material they find appropriate.
Table of Contents
I. REVIEW OF VERB FORMS: PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND PRETERIT INDICATIVE.
1. Present Indicative.
2. Imperfect Indicative.
II. REVIEW OF VERB FORMS: THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND COMMAND FORMS.
1. Present Subjunctive.
2. Imperfect Subjunctive.
3. Command Forms.
III. REVIEW OF VERB FORMS: FUTURE, CONDITIONAL, COMPOUND TENSES, AND GERUND.
1. Future Tense.
2. The Conditional.
3. The Past Participle.
4. Compound Tenses.
5. Gerund (-ndo Form).
IV. SER, ESTAR, AND HABER (HAY).
1. With -ndo Forms.
2. Locations of Entities vs. Location of Events.
3. Haber for Existence.
4. Estar with Certain Adjectives.
5. Using ser for Material, Ownership, Origin, and Purpose.
6. Ser with Nouns as Complements.
7. With Past Participles (-do Forms).
8. With Adjectives.
9. Contrastive Drills.
V. EXPRESSIONS OF PROBABILITY.
1. Future and Conditional Tenses.
2. The Verb Deber.
VI. THE IMPERFECT PAST VS. THE PRETERIT PAST.
1. The Basic Definition.
2. Preterit and Imperfect in Indirect Discourse.
3. Imperfect and Preterit of Conocer, Saber, Poder, Tener Que, and Querer.
4. Use of the Imperfect and Preterit of Ser.
5. General Practice of Imperfect and Preterit.
VII. THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES.
1. Noun Clauses.
2. The Indicative in Noun Clauses.
3. The Factor of Change of Subject.
4. Subjunctive and Infinitive with Impersonal Expressions.
5. Verbs That Allow Infinitives Even with a Change of Subject.
6. Verbs of Communication: Subjunctive vs. Indicative.
7. Tense Usage in the Subjunctive.
8. The Expression Ojalá.
9. The Expressions Tal Vez, Quizás, and Acaso.
VIII. THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.
1. Adverbial Clauses.
2. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses of Time.
3. The Change of Subject Factor.
4. Mientras with Subjunctive and Indicative.
5. Subjunctive and Indicative with Aunque.
6. Emotional Reactions Expressed with Aunque and the Subjunctive.
IX. THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.
1. The Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses.
X. SENTENCES WITH SI.
1. Si Corresponding to English Whether.
2. Conditional Sentences with Si.
3. Possible Conditions in the Past.
XI. THE ARTICLES: USE AND NON-USE.
1. General Statements.
3. Definite Article Instead of the Possessive.
4. Names of Languages.
5. El vs. La with Feminine Nouns.
6. No Article in English vs. Article in Spanish with Days of the Week and Other Phrases.
7. Geographical Names.
8. Indefinite Articles and Predicate Nouns.
9. The Neuter Article Lo.
XII. VERB-OBJECT PRONOUNS.
1. Direct Objects.
2. Indirect Objects.
3. Verbs That Allow Only Indirect Objects.
4. Reflexive and Non-Reflexive Direct Objects.
5. Two Verb-Object Pronouns Together.
6. Reciprocal Reflexive Construction Each Other.
7. Indirect Object Expressing Interest, Possession, and the Like.
8. Unplanned Occurrences.
XIII. SUBSTITUTES FOR NOUNS: NOMINALIZATION.
1. Nominalizations with Gender and Number.
2. Es Mío vs. Es El Mío.
3. Lo Que.
XIV. PASSIVES AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS.
1. The Ser Passive.
2. Se as Marker of an Unspecified Subject.
3. Pronouns with Se-Passive Construction.
4. Redundant Object Pronouns with Se-Passives.
XV. TIME EXPRESSIONS WITH HACER AND LLEVAR.
1. Hacer for English “Ago.”
2. Hacer for Action Continuing over a Period (to the Present).
3. Hacer for Action Continuing over a Period (in the Past).
4. Llevar as an Equivalent of Hacer in Time Expressions.
XVI. POR AND PARA.
1. Para vs. Por.
2. The Preposition Para.
3. The Preposition Por.
XVII. PERSONAL A.
1. The Personal a Marks Direct Object Persons.
2. The Personal a with Pronouns Denoting Persons.
3. The Personal a Omitted with Indefinite Persons.
XVIII. PREPOSITIONS: USE AND NON-USE.
1. Spanish Preposition vs. English No Preposition.
2. English Preposition vs. Spanish No Preposition.
3. Contrasting Prepositions—Spanish vs. English.
4. Contrasting Prepositions in Spanish.
1. Comparisons of Inequalit.
2. Irregular Comparative Forms.
3. Más de and Menos de.
4. Más and Menos Del Que, De La Que, De Lo Que, etc.
5. Comparisons of Equalit.
3. Que vs. Quien.
4. Replacing Que with Quien in Nonrestrictive Clauses.
6. El Que and El Cual.
7. Lo Cual and Lo Que.
8. Nominalized El Que.
9. Lo Que as Equivalent of What.
10. Adverbial Relatives.
11. Quien and El Que Equivalent to La Persona Que (anybody who).
XXI. THE POSITION OF DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES.
1. General Principles.
2. Adjectives Whose Meanings Shift Because of Position.
3. Placement of More Than One Adjective.
XXII. PROBLEMS IN ENGLISH-SPANISH WORD ASSOCIATION.
1. Verb Equivalents.
2. Become (Get).
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