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Application Architecture for Websphere: A Practical Approach to Building Websphere Applications (Developerworks)


Application Architecture for Websphere: A Practical Approach to Building Websphere Applications (Developerworks) Cover


Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Architect IBM® WebSphere® Applications for Maximum Performance, Security, Flexibility, Usability, and Value Successful, high-value WebSphere applications begin with effective architecture. Now, one of IBM’s leading WebSphere and WebSphere Portal architects offers a hands-on, best-practice guide to every facet of defining, planning, and implementing WebSphere application architectures. Joey Bernal shows working architects and teams how to define layered architectural standards that can be used across the entire organization, improving application quality without compromising flexibility.

Bernal begins by illuminating the role of architecture and the responsibilities of the architect in WebSphere applications and SOA environments. Next, he introduces specific architectural techniques for addressing persistence, application performance, security, functionality, user interaction, and much more.

Bernal presents a series of sample architectures drawn from his work with several leading organizations, demonstrating how architectures can evolve to support new layers and changing business requirements. Throughout, his techniques are specific enough to address realistic enterprise challenges, while still sufficiently high-level to be useful in diverse and heterogeneous environments.

Coverage includes

• Choosing persistence frameworks that serve business requirements without excessive complexity

• Avoiding persistence-related problems with performance, security, or application functionality

• Designing and deploying effective middle layers and dependent libraries within WebSphere Application Server

• Using WebSphere mechanisms and architectural techniques to avoid common security attacks such as SQL injection

• Improving performance with WebSphere Application Server caching, including Distributed Maps and Servlet/JSP fragment caching

• Using presentation frameworks to provide fast, robust, and attractive user interaction

• Incorporating portals that provide a standardized framework for merging multiple applications

Joey Bernal is an Executive IT Specialist with IBM Software Services for Lotus. Senior Certified with IBM as an IT Specialist, he has an extensive background in designing and developing Web and Portal Applications. He often leads IBM teams that have assisted dozens of clients in leveraging WebSphere Portal to address architecture, design, and implementation challenges. A frequent speaker on WebSphere and portal topics, Bernal is coauthor of Programming Portlets, and hosts the developerWorks blog: WebSphere Portal in Action. Prior to joining IBM, he was Director of IT for an incentive and performance improvement company, and served as lead technical advisor and architect for high-profile Internet and intranet applications at several Fortune 500 companies. You can also visit the author’s Web site at

The IBM Press developerWorks® Series is a unique undertaking in which print books and the Web are mutually supportive. The publications in this series are complemented by resources on the developerWorks Web site on®. Icons throughout the book alert the reader to these valuable resources.


IBM WebSphere Application Server (WAS) is the flagship product within IBM's WebSphere brand. It is built using such open standards as J2EE, XML, and Web Services. The text explores this software application server, the only first tier WebSphere offering on the market.

About the Author

Anthony (Joey) Bernal is an executive IT specialist with Software Services for Lotus, and a member of the WebSphere Portal Practice. Senior certified with IBM as an IT specialist, he has an extensive background in the design and development of portal and web applications. He is the coauthor of several books, including Programming Portlets 2E; Programming Portlets, the IBM Portal Solutions Guide for Practitioners; and from a previous life, Professional Site Server 3.0. He also contributes to his popular blog, WebSphere Portal in Action.


Mr. Bernal helps to lead the Software Services team in many areas, including application architecture and design, performance, and assisting clients with their cross-brand challenges that leverage WebSphere Portal. By its inherent nature of being a platform to integrate applications at the desktop, WebSphere Portal projects require significant cross-brand expertise. All WebSphere Portal projects have products from multiple brands, and many have products from all five brands in the solution. Specifically, he works to reduce the challenges presented by the cross-brand nature of WebSphere Portal projects, especially in the use of newer technologies such as the integration of WebSphere Portal with services-oriented architectures.


Prior to joining IBM, Mr. Bernal was the director of IT for an incentive and performance improvement company. Mr. Bernal was also the lead technical advisor and architect of multiple high-profile Internet and intranet applications for several Fortune 500 companies.

Table of Contents

Foreword xix

Acknowledgments xxi

About the Author xxiii


Preface xxv


Chapter 1 Application Architecture 1

    What Is Application Architecture? 1

        Architects and Architecture 2

        Application Architecture and Engineering 7

    WebSphere and IBM 8

        IBM WebSphere Application Server 9

        A Word about Specifications 13

        How Close to the Specification Should I Stay with My Architecture? 13

        WebSphere Extensions to Consider 14

        One Size Does Not Fit All 15

    Building Blocks of Application Architecture 16

        Detail in Layering 18

        A Complete Example 18

        Layers Versus Tiers 22

        Deployment Patterns for a Layered Architecture 24

        Layers Versus Modules 27

    A View Perspective on Architecture 30

    Conclusion 31

    References 31


Chapter 2 Setting a Standard 33

    Organizational Standards and Conventions 33

    Putting the “Engineering” in Software Engineering 34

        Standards Documentation 36

        Naming Standards and Conventions 36

        Packages 37

        Classes and Interfaces 37

        Functions and Methods 38

        Variables and Constants 38

        Java Server Pages 38

        Internal Documentation 39

        Class Header Information 40

        Class Methods 41

        Getters and Setters 41

        Inline Comments 41

        Logging and Tracing 42

        System.out 43

        Using the Logger 43

        Logging Levels 45

        Method-Level Timers 47

    Working with Logging and Tracing 49

        Too Much Logging? 50

        Why Not Use Aspects? 51

        Exception and Error Handling 51

    Project and Packaging File Structure 53

        Using External Libraries 54

    Unit Testing Requirements 55

        What Is a Unit? 58

        The Trouble with Web Testing 58

        Agile Approaches 59

    Code Completion and Review Process Requirements 59

        Code Reviews 60

        You Don’t Have to Know Java for a Code Review 62

    Communicating the Vision the Wiki Way 62

    Conclusion 63

    Reference 64


Chapter 3 Persistence Matters 65

    Types of Persistence Frameworks 65

        Object/Relational Mapping 66

        SQL-Based Frameworks 66

        Why Not Roll Your Own Framework? 66

    WebSphere Data Source Resource Reference 67

    iBATIS Framework 68

        Implementing the Customer Class and Customer SQL Mapping 72

        Configurating iBATIS 74

        Adding the Spring DAO Framework 76

        Running a Test 80

        Transactional Thinking 82

    EJB 3 and the Java Persistence API 83

        Understanding the Approach 84

        Entities with POJOs and Annotations 84

        Entity Managers 88

        Testing the Application 93

        Remote Clients 94

    Conclusion 97


Chapter 4 Designing the Middle Tiers 99

    Business Logic 99

    Another HelloWorld Example 101

        Making the Business Layer Accessible 103

        Getting Ready for Unit Testing 105

    WebSphere Shared Libraries 107

        Making the Library Visible 110

        Mapping Shared Libraries to Class Loaders 114

        Testing the Business Layer 116

        Controlling Shared Libraries 117

        Implementation Options 120

        Business Process Layers 122

    Conclusion 123

    References 123


Chapter 5 Presentation Frameworks 125

    Choosing a Presentation Framework 125

    JavaServer Faces 127

        Lifecycle Phase Listener 130

        About the Sample Application 131

        Masking and Conversion Errors 144

        JSF as a Standard 146

    IBM’s JWL 146

    Conclusion 147

    References 148


Chapter 6 Investing in a Portal 149

    Incorporating a Portal into Your Architecture 150

        Virtual Portal Technology 151

        Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals 152

        Business Process or Forms-Based Portal 152

    Portals Versus the Web App 153

        Role-based Navigation and Content Delivery 153

        Security and Single Sign-on 153

        Content Personalization 154

        Portlet Aggregation and Composite Applications 154

    Applications as Portlets 154

    The Java Portlet API 156

        Java Portlet API 2.0 158

        Portlet Preferences 160

    A Simple Portlet Example 161

        Switching Modes Programmatically 168

    Conclusion 172

    References 173


Chapter 7 SOA and Web Services 175

    Pinning Down SOA 175

    How to Implement SOA 177

        Service Modeling 177

        Services as Business Functions 177

        Managing Service Data Elements 178

        A Commitment from the Business 178

    Things to Consider about Web Services 179

        Performance 179

        Standardization 180

        Manageability 180

        Web Services Feature Pack for WAS 181

    Credit Limit Service 182

        Testing the Service 184

        Building a New Client Application 187

        Simple REST-Based Services 189

    Conclusion 194

    References 195


Chapter 8 Caching and Performance 197

    Designing for Performance 197

        Architecture Concerns 198

        Performance Terminology 199

        Caching Considerations 199

        Caching Design Options 200

        Sizing a Cache 201

        When Not to Cache 202

        User Session Caching 202

    Caching in WebSphere Application Server 203

        IBM HTTP Server and the Caching Plug-in 205

    Using the Distributed Map 206

        Creating a New Distributed Map 206

        Testing the Distributed Map 209

    HTML Fragment Caching 214

        Monitoring the Fragment Cache 216

        ESI Plug-in Caching 217

    Conclusion 218

    References 218


Chapter 9 Keeping Things Secure 219

    Why Security Is Important 219

        The Role of the Security Architect 221

        SQL Injection Example 222

        Protecting against SQL Injection Attacks 224

    WebSphere Security Basics 225

        Authenticating Application Users 225

        Adding a Filter to the Login Process 236

    Architecting for Security 237

        WebSphere Single Sign-on 238

        WebSphere Authorization 239

    Conclusion 241


Chapter 10 Managing Your Applications 243

    Managing Applications 243

        Enforcing Architecture Adherence 244

        Standing by Your Decisions 245

        Documenting Libraries 245

        Managing Organizational Process 246

        Avoiding Common Process Malpractices 249

        Enforcing Adherence and Reuse with Technology Solutions 251

        Using a Registry and Repository 251

    Project Methodology 253

        Common Methodology Problems 254

        Change Control Board 255

    Conclusion 256

    References 257


Appendix A Setting up the Data Sample 259

    Getting Started 259

        Database and Schema 260

    Setting Up Your Data Environment 261

        Creating the DB2 Database 262

        Load the Classic Models Data 264

        Creating a WebSphere Data Source 266

    Conclusion 275


Appendix B Running the Examples 277

    Chapter Code Samples 277

        Chapter 2 278

        Chapter 3 278

        Chapter 4 278

        Chapter 5 278

        Chapter 6 279

        Chapter 7 279

        Chapter 8 279

        Chapter 9 280

    Conclusion 280


Index 283


Product Details

Bernal, Joey
IBM Press
Internet - World Wide Web
Application software
Programming - General
Web - General
Software architecture
Application software -- Development.
Internet-Web Publishing
Edition Description:
Trade paper
The developerWorks Series
Publication Date:
October 2008
Grade Level:
Professional and scholarly
8.90x6.90x.80 in. 1.10 lbs.

Related Subjects

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Application Architecture for Websphere: A Practical Approach to Building Websphere Applications (Developerworks) New Trade Paper
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Product details 336 pages IBM Press - English 9780137129263 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , IBM WebSphere Application Server (WAS) is the flagship product within IBM's WebSphere brand. It is built using such open standards as J2EE, XML, and Web Services. The text explores this software application server, the only first tier WebSphere offering on the market.
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