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Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change (Topics in Environmental Chemistry)

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Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in the evolution of the Earth system. Taking a largely interdisciplinary approach, it features the collective efforts of a group of scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), as well as other experts from several universities and national laboratories. Topics discussed include the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect the atmospheric composition; the chemical mechanisms that affect the production and the fate of important chemical compounds; and the techniques used to investigate the chemical processes in the atmosphere. The book concludes with discussions on global problems related to the atmosphere (stratospheric ozone depletion, changes in greenhouse gases, and global chemical pollution), the relationship between the atmosphere and the global climate, and the long-term chemical evolution of the atmosphere. Each chapter features a brief essay by a leader in the field and includes a large number of current references. Ideal for graduate courses in atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change also serves as an authoritative and practical reference for scientists studying the Earth's atmosphere. Support materials for the book are available via the website http://acd.ucar.edu/textbook

Table of Contents

Preface

Contributing Authors

List of Frequently Used Symbols

1. Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth System

1.1. Introduction

1.2. The Earth System

Further Reading

Essay: Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth System, Ralph J. Cicerone

Part 1: Fundamentals

2. Atmospheric Dynamics and Transport

2,1. Introduction

2.2. The Governing Equations

2.3. Constraints on Atmospheric Motion

2.4. Zonal Means and Eddies

2.5. Atmospheric Waves

2.6. Tropospheric Circulation and Transport

2.7. Stratospheric Circulation and Transport

2.8. Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

Further Reading

Essay: Why Understand Dynamics — And What Is "Understanding" Anyway?, Michael McIntyre

3. Chemical and Photochemical Processes

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Radiation

3.3. Photophysical and Photochemical Processes

3.4. Chemical Reactions

3.5. Catalytic Cycles

3.6. Role of Excited States

3.7. Measurements of Rate Coefficients

3.8. The Steady State Approximation

3.9. Lifetimes in the Atmosphere

Further Reading

Essay: When Do We Know Enough about Atmospheric Chemistry?, Harold Schiff

4. Aerosols and Clouds

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Overview of the Atmospheric Aerosol

4.3. The Role of Clouds in Tropospheric Chemistry

4.4. Single-Particle Physical Characteristics

4.5. Gas-to-Particle Conversion

4.6. Acid-Base Reactions of Aerosol Particles

4.7. Removal Processes Associated with Aerosols

4.8. Solubility of Gases in Droplets

4.9. Mass Transfer Rates

4.10. Aqueous Reaction

Further Reading

Essay: Aerosols and Clouds: A Postscript, Richard Turco

5. Trace Gas Exchanges and Biogeochemical Cycles

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Surface Exchanges

5.3. The Global Water Cycle

5.4. The Global Carbon Cycle

5.5. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

5.6. The Global Sulfur Cycle

5.7. Halogens

Further Reading

Essays: The View from Outside, James Lovelock

Part 2: Chemical Families

6. Hydrogen Compounds

6.1. Importance of Atmospheric Hydrogen Compounds

6.2. Scope and Definitions

6.3. Sources of Hydrogen to the Atmosphere

6.4. Chemistry of Hydrogen Species in the Middle Atmosphere

6.5. Chemistry of Hydrogen Compounds in the Troposphere

6.6. Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere

6.7. Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Troposphere

6.8. Summary

Further Reading

Essay: Hydrogen Compounds, Dieter Ehhalt

7. Nitrogen Compounds

7.1. Importance of Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

7.2. Scope and Definitions

7.3. The Role of Odd Nitrogen in the Stratosphere

7.4. Odd Nitrogen in the "Contemporary" Stratosphere

7.5. Odd Nitrogen in the Troposphere

7.6. Experimental Summary of the Influence of Odd Nitrogen in the Continental Boundary Layer

7.7. NO3 Chemistry

7.8. Gaseous Acid and Particulate Nitrate Formation

7.9 Chemistry of Organic Nitrates.

Further Reading

Essay: Time's Arrow, Ian Galbally

8. Halogen Compounds

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Scope and Definitions

8.3. Sources of Halogens

8.4. Loss Processes of Halogen Source Gases

8.5. Inorganic Chemistry of Halogen Species

8.6. Controlling the Detrimental Effects of Halogens on the Atmosphere; Future Outlook

Further Reading

Essay: CFCs and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Mario Molina

9. Carbon-Containing Compounds

9.1.

9.2. Scope and Definitions

9.3. Atmospheric Photochemistry of Hydrocarbons

9.4. Distribution of Hydrocarbons

Further Reading

Essay: Hydrocarbons, Hanwant Singh

10. Sulfur Compounds

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Scope and Definitions

10.3. Sulfur Compounds

10.4. Tropospheric Chemistry of Sulfur Compounds

10.5. Measurements of Sulfur Gas Abundances and Distributions

10.6. SO2 and Acid Precipitation

10.7. Stratospheric Sulfur Chemistry

10.8. Gas Phase Ionic Chemistry in the Statosphere

Further Reading

Essay: Sulfur, Aerosols, Clouds and Rain, Robert J. Charlson

Part 3: Tools

11. Observational Methods: Instruments and Platforms

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Instrumentation for Constituent Measurements

11.3. Flux Measurements

11.4. Measurements of Atmospheric Radiation

11.5. Instrumentation for Aerosol andrCloud Measurements

11.6. Observing Platforms

Further Reading

Essay: From Individual Measurements to Scale Integration Strategies, Gerard Megie

12. Modeling

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Model Equations

12.3. Modeling Chemical Processes

12.4. Modeling Atmospheric Transport

12.5. Examples and Illustrations

12.6. Modeling Global Budgets and Biogeochemical Cycles

12.7. Data Assimilation

12.8. Inverse Modeling

12.9 Chemical-Transport Models in the Future.

Further Reading

Essay: How Complex Do Models Need to Be?, Henning Rodhe

Part 4: Ozone, Climate and Global Change

13. Tropospheric Ozone

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Distribution and Trends

13.3. Production and Loss of Ozone

13.4. Major Uncertainties and Research Needs

Further Reading

Essay: Tropospheric Ozone, Paul Crutzen

14. Middle Atmospheric Ozone

14.1. Introduction

14.2. The Ozone Distribution

14.3. Ozone Production

14.4. Ozone Destruction

14.5. Transport Effects

14.6. Polar Ozone

14.7. Ozone Peturbations

14.8. Imapct of Ozone Depletion on UV Radiation

Further Reading

Essay: Ozone Depletion: From Pole to Pole, Susan Solomon

15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Radiation in the Atmosphere

15.3. Natural Variations: Past Climates

15.4. Impact of Anthropogenic Trace Gases on Climate

15.5. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs)

15.6. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

15.7. Response of the Climate System to Radiative Forcing

Further Reading

Essay: Can Climate Models be Validated?, Stephen H. Schneider

16. Atmospheric Evolution and Global Perspective

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Atmospheric Evolution on Geological Timescales

16.3. Human Influences on the Atmosphere

16.4. Future Trends

16.5. Global Perspective

Further Reading

Essay: The Atmospheric Humankind: Our Related Futures, Daniel L. Albritton

Appendices

A: Physical Constants and Other Data

B: Units, Conversion Factors, and Multiplying Prefixes

C: Atmospheric Parameters and Mixing Ratios of Chemical Constituents

D: Chemical Species in the Atmosphere

E: Rate Coefficients for Second-Order Gas Phase Reactions

F: Rate Coefficients for Association Gas Phase Reactions

G: Mass Accomidation Coefficients

H: Surface Reaction Probability

I: Atmospheric Humidity

J: Henry's Law Coefficients

K: Aqueous Equilibrium Constants

L: Rate Coefficients for Aqueous Phase Reactions

M: Spectrum of Solar Extraterrestrial Actinic Flux (120-730 nm)

N: Photolysis Frequencies

Sample Problems

References

Index

Product Details

ISBN:
9780195105216
Editor:
Brasseur, Guy P.
Editor:
Orlando, John J.
Editor:
Brasseur, Guy P.
Editor:
Orlando, John J.
Editor:
Tyndall, Geoffrey S.
Author:
Tyndall, Geoffrey S.
Author:
null, Guy P.
Author:
Orlando, John J.
Author:
null, Geoffrey S.
Author:
Brasseur, Guy P.
Author:
null, John J.
Editor:
Tyndall, Geoffrey S.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Location:
New York :
Subject:
Environmental Science
Subject:
Technology
Subject:
Engineering
Subject:
Weather
Subject:
Atmospheric chemistry
Subject:
Earth Sciences - Meteorology & Climatology
Subject:
Engineering and Technology
Subject:
Engineering technology
Subject:
Environmental Studies-General
Series:
Topics in environmental chemistry
Series Volume:
Racial Politics and
Publication Date:
19990331
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
150 linecuts
Pages:
688
Dimensions:
7.3 x 10 x 1.5 in 3.119 lb

Related Subjects

Reference » Science Reference » Technology
Science and Mathematics » Astronomy » General
Science and Mathematics » Chemistry » General
Science and Mathematics » Environmental Studies » General
Science and Mathematics » Nature Studies » General
Science and Mathematics » Physics » Meteorology

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