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Principles of Semiconductor Devices (Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering)

Principles of Semiconductor Devices (Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Quantum mechanical phenomena-including energy bands, energy gaps, holes, and effective mass-constitute the majority of properties unique to semiconductor materials. Understanding how these properties affect the electrical characteristics of semiconductors is vital for engineers working with today's nanoscale devices.

Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Principles of Semiconductor Devices covers the dominant practical applications of semiconductor device theory and applies quantum mechanical concepts and equations to develop the energy-band model. The text presents quantum mechanics through examples related to the energy-band model, providing students with a deeper understanding of the energy-band diagrams used to explain semiconductor device operation. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to the electronic layout and design of integrated circuits.

The author has divided the text into four parts. Part I explains semiconductor physics, and Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors. Part III discusses the diode, MOSFET, and BJT topics that are needed for circuit design. Part IV introduces photonic devices, microwave FETs, negative-resistance diodes, and power devices. The chapters and the sections in each chapter are organized hierarchically. Core material is presented first, followed by advanced topics, allowing instructors to select more rigorous, design-related topics as they see fit.

Book News Annotation:

In this text designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Dimitrijev (microelectronic engineering, Griffith University, Australia) covers the practical applications of semiconductor device theory and applies quantum mechanical concepts and equations to develop the energy-band model. The text presents quantum mechanics through examples related to the energy-band model, providing students with a deeper understanding of the energy-band diagrams used to explain semiconductor device operation. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to the electronic layout and design of integrated circuits. Within each chapter, core material is presented first, followed by advanced topics.
Annotation 2005 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

Book News Annotation:

In this text designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Dimitrijev (microelectronic engineering, Griffith University, Australia) covers the practical applications of semiconductor device theory and applies quantum mechanical concepts and equations to develop the energy-band model. The text presents quantum mechanics through examples related to the energy-band model, providing students with a deeper understanding of the energy-band diagrams used to explain semiconductor device operation. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to the electronic layout and design of integrated circuits. Within each chapter, core material is presented first, followed by advanced topics. Annotation ©2005 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

About the Author

Sima Dimitrijev is Professor at the School of Microelectronic Engineering at Griffith University in Australia. He is author of Understanding Semiconductor Devices (OUP, 2000), as well as numerous other publications in the areas of MOSFET technology, modeling, and applications.

Table of Contents

All chapters end with a Summary, Problems, and Review Questions.

PART I: INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS

1. Semiconductor Crystals: Atomic-Bond Model

1.1. Crystal Lattices

1.1.1. Unit Cell

1.1.2. Planes and Directions

1.1.3. Atomic Bonds

1.2. Current Carriers

1.2.1. Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors

1.2.2. N-Type and P-Type Doping

1.2.3. Electroneutrality Equation

1.2.4. Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium

1.3 Basics of Crystal Growth and Doping Techniques.

1.3.1 Crystal-Growth Techniques.

1.3.2 Doping Techniques

.

2. Quantum Mechanics and Energy-Band Model

2.1. Electrons as Waves

2.1.1. De Broglie Relationship between Particle and Wave Properties

2.1.2. Wave Function and Wave Packet

2.1.3. Schrodinger Equation

2.2. Energy Levels in Atoms and Energy Bands in Crystals

2.2.1. Atomic Structure

2.2.2. Energy Bands in Metals

2.2.3. Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators

2.3. Electrons and Holes as Particles

2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real E-K Diagrams.

2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle.

2.3.3 Density of Electron States.

2.4. Population of Electron States: Concentrations of Electrons and Holes

2.4.1. Fermi-Dirac Distribution

2.4.2. Maxwell-Boltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States

2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping.

2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and Quasi-Fermi Levels

.

3. Drift

3.1. Energy Bands with Applied Electric Field

3.1.1. Energy-Band Presentation of Drift Current

3.1.2. Resistance and Power Dissipation due to Carrier Scattering

3.2. Ohm's Law, Sheet Resistance, and Conductivity

3.2.1. Designing Integrated-Circuit Resistors

3.2.2. Differential Form of Ohm's Law

3.2.3. Conductivity Ingredients

3.3. Carrier Mobility

3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities.

3.3.2 Mobility Definition.

3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section.

3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule.

3.3.5 Hall Effect

.

4. Diffusion

4.1. Diffusion-Current Equation

4.2. Diffusion Coefficient

4.2.1. Einstein Relationship

4.2.2. Haynes-Shockley Experiment

4.2.3. Arrhenius Equation

4.3. Basic Continuity Equation

5. Generation and Recombination

5.1. Generation and Recombination Mechanisms

5.2. General Form of the Continuity Equation

5.2.1. Recombination and Generation Rates

5.2.2. Minority-Carrier Lifetime

5.2.3. Diffusion Length

5.3. Generation and Recombination Physics and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) Theory

5.3.1. Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium

5.3.2. Steady-State Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination Rate

5.3.3. Special Cases

5.3.4. Surface Generation and Recombination

PART II: FUNDAMENTAL DEVICE STRUCTURES

6. P-N Junction

6.1 P-N Junction Principles.

6.1.1. P-N Junction in Thermal Equilibrium: Built-In Voltage.

6.1.2. Reverse-Biased P-N Junction

6.1.3. Forward-Biased P-N Junction

6.1.4. Breakdown Phenomena

6.1.4.1. Avalanche Breakdown

6.1.4.2. Tunneling Breakdown

6.2. DC Model

6.2.1. Basic Current-Voltage (I-V) Equation

6.2.2. Important Second-Order Effects

6.2.3. Temperature Effects

6.3. Capacitance of Reverse-Biased P-N Junction

6.3.1. C-V Dependence

6.3.2. Depletion-Layer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation

6.3.3. SPICE Model for the Depletion-Layer Capacitance

6.4. Stored-Charge Effects

6.4.1. Stored Charge and Transit Time

6.4.2. Relationship between the Transit Time and the Minority-Carrier Lifetime

6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: Reverse-Recovery Time

.

7. Metal-Semiconductor Contact and MOS Capacitor

7.1. Metal-Semiconductor Contact

7.1.1. Schottky Diode: Rectifying Metal-Semiconductor Contact

7.1.2. Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

7.2. MOS Capacitor

7.2.1. Properties of the Gate Oxide and the Oxide-Semiconductor Interface

7.2.2. C-V Curve and the Surface-Potential Dependence on Gate Voltage

7.2.3 Energy-Band Diagrams.

7.2.4 Flat-Band Capacitance and Debye Length

.

8. MOSFET

8.1. MOSFET Principles

8.1.1. MOSFET Structure

8.1.2. MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Switch

8.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect.

8.1.4 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source: Mechanisms of Current Saturation.

8.2. Principal Current-Voltage Characteristics and Equations

8.2.1. SPICE Level 1 Model

8.2.2. SPICE Level 2 Model

8.2.3. SPICE Level 3 Model: Principal Effects

8.3. Second-Order Effects

8.3.1. Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage

8.3.2. Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage)

8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance.

8.3.4. Threshold-Voltage Related Short-Channel Effects

8.3.5. Threshold Voltage Related Narrow-Channel Effects

8.3.6. Subthreshold Current

8.4. Nanoscale MOSFETs

8.4.1. Down-Scaling Benefits and Rules

8.4.2. Leakage Currents

8.4.3. Advanced MOSFETs

8.4.4 Reliability Issues.

8.5. MOS-Based Memory Devices

8.5.1. 1C1T DRAM Cell

8.5.2 Flash-Memory Cell

.

9. BJT

9.1. BJT Principles

9.1.1. BJT as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source

9.1.2. BJT Currents and Gain Definitions

9.1.3 Dependence of a and b Current Gains on Technological Parameters.

9.1.4. The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch

9.1.5. Complementary BJT

9.1.6. BJT Versus MOSFET

9.2. Principal Current-Voltage Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model in Spice

9.2.1. Injection Version

9.2.2. Transport Version

9.2.3. SPICE Version

9.3. Second-Order Effects

9.3.1. Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance

9.3.2. Parasitic Resistances

9.3.3. Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Low-Current Effects

9.3.4. Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Gummel-Poon Model for High-Current Effects

9.4. Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

PART III: DEVICE TECHNOLOGY AND ELECTRONICS

10. Integrated-Circuit Technologies

10.1. A Diode in IC Technology

10.1.1. Basic Structure

10.1.2. Lithography

10.1.3. Process Sequence

10.1.4. Diffusion Profiles

10.2. MOSFET Technologies

10.2.1. Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS)

10.2.2. NMOS Technology

10.2.3. Basic CMOS Technology

10.2.4. Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Technology

10.3. Bipolar IC Technologies

10.3.1. IC Structure of NPN BJT

10.3.2. Standard Bipolar Technology Process

10.3.3. Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes

10.3.4. Layer Merging

10.3.5. BiCMOS Technologyl

11. Device Electronics: Equivalent Circuits and Spice Parameters

11.1. Diodes

11.1.1. Static Model and Parameters in SPICE

11.1.2. Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE

11.1.3. Parameter Measurement

11.1.4. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

11.2. MOSFET

11.2.1. Static Model and Parameters: Level 3 in SPICE

11.2.2. Parameter Measurement

11.2.3. Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE

11.2.4. Simple Digital Model

11.2.5. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

11.3. BJT

11.3.1. Static Model and Parameters: Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon Levels in SPICE

11.3.2. Parameter Measurement

11.3.3. Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE

11.3.4. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

11.3.5. Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models

PART IV: SPECIFIC DEVICES

12. Photonic Devices

12.1. Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

12.2. Photodetectors and Solar Cells

12.2.1. Biasing for Photodetector and Solar-Cell Applications

12.2.2. Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells

12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation.

12.3. Lasers

12.3.1. Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts

12.3.2. A Typical Heterojunction Laser

13. Microwave FETs and Diodes

13.1. Gallium Arsenide versus Silicon

13.1.1. Dielectric-Semiconductor Interface: Enhancement versus Depletion FETs

13.1.2. Energy Gap

13.1.3. Electron Mobility and Saturation Velocity

13.1.4. Negative Dynamic Resistance

13.2. JFET

13.2.1. JFET Structure

13.2.2. JFET Characteristics

13.2.3. SPICE Model and Parameters

13.3. MESFET

13.3.1. MESFET Structure

13.3.2. MESFET Characteristics

13.3.3. SPICE Model and Parameters

13.4. HEMT

13.4.1. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG)

13.4.2. HEMT Structure and Characteristics

13.5. Negative Resistance Diodes

13.5.1. Amplification and Oscillation by Negative Dynamic Resistance

13.5.2. Gunn Diode

13.5.3. IMPATT Diode

13.5.4. Tunnel Diode

14. Power Devices

14.1. Power Diodes

14.1.1. Drift Region in Power Devices

14.1.2. Switching Characteristics

14.1.3. Schottky Diode

14.2. Power MOSFET

14.3. IGBT

14.4. Thyristor

Bibliography

Answers to Selected Problems

Index

Product Details

ISBN:
9780195161137
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Subject:
Engineering
Author:
Dimitrijev, Sima
Author:
null, Sima
Subject:
Computer Engineering
Subject:
Engineering / Electrical
Subject:
Technology | Electrical
Subject:
Engineering and Technology | Electrical and Computer Engineering
Subject:
Semiconductors
Subject:
Electricity
Subject:
Electronics - Semiconductors
Subject:
Engineering & Technology | Electrical & Computer Engineering
Edition Number:
2
Edition Description:
Hardcover
Series:
Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publication Date:
20051027
Binding:
Hardback
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
242 color illus., 83 line illus.
Pages:
578
Dimensions:
7.7 x 9.2 x 1.1 in 2.438 lb

Related Subjects

Science and Mathematics » Electricity » General Electronics

Principles of Semiconductor Devices (Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering)
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