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Principles of Semiconductor Devices (Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering)

by

Principles of Semiconductor Devices (Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering) Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The dimensions of modern semiconductor devices are reduced to the point where classical semiconductor theory, including the concepts of continuous particle concentration and continuous current, becomes questionable. Further questions relate to two-dimensional transport in the most important field-effect devices and one-dimensional transport in nanowires and carbon nanotubes.

Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Principles of Semiconductor Devices, Second Edition, presents the semiconductor-physics and device principles in a way that upgrades classical semiconductor theory and enables proper interpretations of numerous quantum effects in modern devices. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to practical applications, including the links to the SPICE models and parameters that are commonly used during circuit design.

The text is divided into three parts: Part I explains semiconductor physics; Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors; and Part III provides supplementary topics, including a dedicated chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices, description of the SPICE models and equivalent circuits that are needed for circuit design, introductions to the most important specific devices (photonic devices, JFETs and MESFETs, negative-resistance diodes, and power devices), and an overview of integrated-circuit technologies. The chapters and the sections in each chapter are organized so as to enable instructors to select more rigorous and design-related topics as they see fit.

About the Author

Sima Dimitrijev is Professor at the Griffith School of Engineering and Deputy Director of Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre at Griffith University in Australia. He is the author of Understanding Semiconductor Devices (OUP, 2000) as well as numerous other publications in the areas of MOSFET technology, modeling, and applications.

Table of Contents

Contents

PART I INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS

1 lNTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS AND CURRENT CARRIERS

IN SEMICONDUCTORS, THE ATOMIC-BOND MODEL

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS

1.1.1 Atomic Bonds

1.1.2 Three-Dimensional Crystals

1.1.3 Two-Dimensional Crystals: Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes

1.2 CURRENT CARRIERS

1.2.1 Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors

1.2.2 N·Type and P-Type Doping

1.2.3 Electroneutrality Equation

1.2.4 Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium

1.3 BASICS OF CRYSTAL GROWTH AND DOPING TECHNIQUES

1.3.1 Crystal-Growth Techniques

1.3.2 Doping Techniques

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

2 THE ENERGY-BAND MODEL

12.1 ELECTRONS AS WAVES

2.1.1 De Broglie Relationship Between Particle and Wave Properties

2.1.2 Wave Function and Wave Packet

2.1.3 Schrodinger Equation

2.2 ENERGY LEVELS IN ATOMS AND ENERGY BANDS IN CRYSTALS

2.2.1 Atomic Structure

2.2.2 Energy Bands in Metals

2.2.3 Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators

12.3 ELECTRONS AND HOLES AS PARTICLES

2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real E-k Diagrams

2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle

2.3.3 Density of Electron States

2.4 POPULATION OF ELECTRON STATES, CONCENTRATIONS OF

ELECTRONS A:"D HOLES

2.4.1 Fermi-Dirac Distribution

2.4.2 Maxwell-Boltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States

2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping

2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and Quasi-Fermi Levels

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

3 DRIFT

3.1 ENERGY BANDS WITH APPLIED ELECTRIC FIELD

3.1.1 Energy-Band Presentation of Drift Current

3.1.2 Resistance and Power Dissipation due to Carrier Scattering

3.2 OHM'S LAW, SHEET RESISTANCE, AND CONDUCTIVITY

3.2.1 Designing Integrated-Circuit Resistors

3.2.2 Differential Form of Ohm's Law

3.2.3 Conductivity Ingredients

3.3 CARRIER MOBILITY

3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities

3.3.2 Mobility Definition

3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section

3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule

°3.3.5 Hall Effect

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

4 DlFFUSION

4.1 DIFFUSION-CURRENT EQUATION

4.2 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT

4.2.1 Einstein Relationship


·4.2.2 Haynes-Shockley Experiment

4.2.3 Arrhenius Equation

4.3 BASIC CONTINUITY EQUATION

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

5 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION

5.1 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS

5.2 GENERAL FORM OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATION

5.2.1 Recombination and Generation Rates

5.2.2 Minority-Carrier Lifetime

5.2.3 Diffusion Length

5.3 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PHYSICS AND SHOCKLEYREAD-

HALL (SRH) THEORY

5.3.1 Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium

5.3.2 Steady-State Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination

Rate

5.3.3 Special Cases

5.3.4 Surface Generation and Recombination

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

PART II FUNDAMENTAL DEVICE STRUCTURES

6 P-N JUNCTION

6.1 P-N JUNCTION PRINCIPLES

6.1.1 p-~ Junction in Thermal Equilibrium

6.1.2 Reverse-Biased P-N Junction

6.1.3 Forward-Biased P-K Junction

6.1.4 Breakdown Phenomena

6.2 DC MODEL

6.2.1 Basic Current-Voltage (I-V) Equation

6.2.2 Important Second-Order Effects

6.2.3 Temperature Effects

6.3 CAPACITA CE OF REVERSE-BIASED P-:-I JUNCTION

6.3.1 C-V Dependence

6.3.2 Depletion-Layer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation

6.3.3 SPICE Model for the Depletion-Layer Capacitance

6.4 STORED-CHARGE EFFECTS

6.4.1 Stored Charge and Transit Time

6.4.2 Relationship Between the Transit Time and the Minority-Carrier

Lifetime

6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: Reverse-Recovery Time

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

7 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT AND MOS CAPACITOR

7.1 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT

7.1.1 Schottky Diode: Rectifying Metal-Semiconductor Contact

7.1.2 Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

7.2 MOS CAPACITOR

7.2.1 Properties of the Gate Oxide and the Oxide-Semiconductor Interface

7.2.2 C-V Curve and the Surface-Potential Dependence on Gate Voltage

7.2.3 Energy-Band Diagrams

·7.2.4 Flat4Band Capacitance and Debye Length

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

8 MOSFET

8.1 MOSFET PRINCIPLES

B.1.1 MOSFET Structure

8.1.2 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Switch

B.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect

B.1.4 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source: Mechanisms of

Current Saturation

8.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUATIONS

8.2.1 SPICE LEVEL 1 Model

8.2.2 SPICE LEVEL 2 Model

8.2.3 SPICE LEVEL 3 Model: Principal Effects

8.3 SECO:\D-OROER EFFECTS

8.3.1 Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage

8.3.2 Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage)

8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance

8.3.4 Threshold-Voltage-Related Short-Channel Effects

8.3.5 Threshold Voltage Related Narrow-Channel Effects

8.3.6 Subthreshold Current

8.4 Nanoscale MOSFETs

8.4.1 Down-Scaling Benefits and Rules

8.4.2 Leakage Currents

8.4.3 Advanced MOSFETs

"8.5 MOS-BASED MEMORY DEVICES

8.5.1 1C1T DRAM Cell

8.5.2 Flash-Memory Cell

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

9 BJT

9.1 B.JT PRINCIPLES

9.1.1 BJT as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source

9.1.2 BJT Currents and Gain Definitions

9.1.3 Dependence of ? and ? Current Gains on Technological Parameters

9.1.4 The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch

9.1.5 Complementary BJT

9.1.6 BJT Versus MOSFET

9.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS, EBERE-MOLL

MODEL IN SPICE

9.2.1 Injection Version

9.2.2 Transport Version

9.2.3 SPICE Version

9.3 SECOND·ORDER EFFECTS

9.3.1 Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance

9.3.2 Parasitic Resistances

9.3.3 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current:

Low-Current Effects

9.3.4 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current:

Gummel-Poon Model for High-Current Effects

9.4 HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

PART III SUPPLEMENTARY TOPICS

10 PHYSICS OF NANOSCALE DEVICES

10.1 SINGLE-CARRIER EVENTS

10.1.1 Beyond the Classical Principle of Continuity

10.1.2 Current-Time Form of Uncertainty Principle

10.1.3 Carrier-Supply Limit to Diffusion Current

10.1.4 Spatial Uncertainty

10.1.5 Direct Nonequilibrium Modeling of Single-Carrier Events

10.2 TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT IN MOSFETs AND HEMTs

10.2.1 Quantum Confinement

10.2.2 HEMT Structure and Characteristics

10.2.3 Application of Classical MOSFET Equations to Two-Dimensional

Transport in MOSFETs and HEMTs

10.3 ONE-DIMENSUIONAL TRANSPORT IN NANOWIRES AND CARBON

NANOTUBES

10.3.1 Ohmic Transport in Nanowire and Carbon-Nanotube FETs

10.3.2 One-Dimensional Ballistic Transport and the Quantum Conductance

Limit

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

II DEVICE ELECTRONICS, EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS A D SPICE

PARAMETERS

lI.l DIODES

11.1.1 Static Model and Parameters in SPICE

11.1.2 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE

11.1.3 Parameter Measurement

11.1.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

ll.2 MOSFET

11.2.1 Static Model and Parameters; LEVEL 3 in SPICE

11.2.2 Parameter Measurement

11.2.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE

11.2.4 Simple Digital ~1od.el

11.2.5 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

11.3 BJT

11.3.1 Static Model and Parameters: Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon Levels

in SPICE

11.3.2 Parameter Measurement

11.3.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE

11.3.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

12 PHOTONIC DEVICES

12.1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED)

12.2 PHOTODETECTORS AND SOLAR CELLS

12.2.1 Biasing for Photodetector and Solar-Cell Applications

12.2.2 Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells

12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation

12.3 LASERS

12.3.1 Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts

12.3.2 A Typical Heterojunction Laser

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

13 JFET AND MESFET

13.1 JFET

13.1.1 JFET Structure

13.1.2 JFET Characteristics

13.1.3 SPICE Model and Parameters

13.2 MESFET

13.2.1 MESFET Structure

13.2.2 MESFET Characteristics

13.2.3 SPICE Model and Parameters

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

14 POWER DEVICES

14.1 POWER DIODES

14.1.1 Drift Region in Power Devices

14.1.2 Switching Characteristics

14.1.3 Schottky Diode

14.2 POWER MOSFET

14.3 IGBT

14.4 THYRISTOR

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

15 NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DIODES

15.1 AMPLIFICATION AI'D OSCILLATION BY NEGATIVE DYNAMIC

RESISTANCE

15.2 GUNN DIODE

15.3 IMPATT DIODE

15.4 TUNNEL DIODE

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

16 INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGIES

16.1 A DIODE IN IC TECHNOLOGY

16.1.1 Basic Structure

16.1.2 Lithography

16.1.3 Process Sequence

16.1.4 Diffusion Profiles

16.2 MOSFET TECHNOLOGIES

16.2.1 Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS)

16.2.2 NMOS Technology

16.2.3 Basic CMOS Technology

16.2.4 Silicon-on-Insulator (SOl) Technology

16.3 BIPOLAR IC TECHNOLOGIES

16.3.1 IC Structure of NPN BJT

16.3.2 Standard Bipolar Technology Process

16.3.3 Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes

16.3.4 Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models

16.3.5 Layer Merging

16.3.6 BiCMOS Technology

Summary

Problems

Review Questions

Product Details

ISBN:
9780195388039
Author:
Dimitrijev, Sima
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Author:
null, Sima
Subject:
Engineering / Electrical
Subject:
Engineering
Subject:
Technology | Electrical
Subject:
Computer Engineering
Subject:
Engineering & Technology | Electrical & Computer Engineering
Subject:
Electricity-General Electricity
Subject:
Electricity-General Electronics
Publication Date:
20110231
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Pages:
640
Dimensions:
7.8 x 9.3 x 1.2 in 2.5 lb

Related Subjects


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