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Principles of Semiconductor Devices (2ND 11 Edition)by Sima Dimitrijev
Synopses & ReviewsPublisher Comments:The dimensions of modern semiconductor devices are reduced to the point where classical semiconductor theory, including the concepts of continuous particle concentration and continuous current, becomes questionable. Further questions relate to twodimensional transport in the most important fieldeffect devices and onedimensional transport in nanowires and carbon nanotubes.
Designed for upperlevel undergraduate and graduate courses, Principles of Semiconductor Devices, Second Edition, presents the semiconductorphysics and device principles in a way that upgrades classical semiconductor theory and enables proper interpretations of numerous quantum effects in modern devices. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to practical applications, including the links to the SPICE models and parameters that are commonly used during circuit design.
The text is divided into three parts: Part I explains semiconductor physics; Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors; and Part III provides supplementary topics, including a dedicated chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices, description of the SPICE models and equivalent circuits that are needed for circuit design, introductions to the most important specific devices (photonic devices, JFETs and MESFETs, negativeresistance diodes, and power devices), and an overview of integratedcircuit technologies. The chapters and the sections in each chapter are organized so as to enable instructors to select more rigorous and designrelated topics as they see fit. About the AuthorSima Dimitrijev is Professor at the Griffith School of Engineering and Deputy Director of Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre at Griffith University in Australia. He is the author of Understanding Semiconductor Devices (OUP, 2000) as well as numerous other publications in the areas of MOSFET technology, modeling, and applications.
Table of ContentsContents
PART I INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS 1 lNTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS AND CURRENT CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS, THE ATOMICBOND MODEL 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS 1.1.1 Atomic Bonds 1.1.2 ThreeDimensional Crystals 1.1.3 TwoDimensional Crystals: Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 1.2 CURRENT CARRIERS 1.2.1 Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors 1.2.2 N·Type and PType Doping 1.2.3 Electroneutrality Equation 1.2.4 Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium 1.3 BASICS OF CRYSTAL GROWTH AND DOPING TECHNIQUES 1.3.1 CrystalGrowth Techniques 1.3.2 Doping Techniques Summary Problems Review Questions 2 THE ENERGYBAND MODEL 12.1 ELECTRONS AS WAVES 2.1.1 De Broglie Relationship Between Particle and Wave Properties 2.1.2 Wave Function and Wave Packet 2.1.3 Schrodinger Equation 2.2 ENERGY LEVELS IN ATOMS AND ENERGY BANDS IN CRYSTALS 2.2.1 Atomic Structure 2.2.2 Energy Bands in Metals 2.2.3 Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators 12.3 ELECTRONS AND HOLES AS PARTICLES 2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real Ek Diagrams 2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle 2.3.3 Density of Electron States 2.4 POPULATION OF ELECTRON STATES, CONCENTRATIONS OF ELECTRONS A:"D HOLES 2.4.1 FermiDirac Distribution 2.4.2 MaxwellBoltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States 2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping 2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and QuasiFermi Levels Summary Problems Review Questions 3 DRIFT 3.1 ENERGY BANDS WITH APPLIED ELECTRIC FIELD 3.1.1 EnergyBand Presentation of Drift Current 3.1.2 Resistance and Power Dissipation due to Carrier Scattering 3.2 OHM'S LAW, SHEET RESISTANCE, AND CONDUCTIVITY 3.2.1 Designing IntegratedCircuit Resistors 3.2.2 Differential Form of Ohm's Law 3.2.3 Conductivity Ingredients 3.3 CARRIER MOBILITY 3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities 3.3.2 Mobility Definition 3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section 3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule °3.3.5 Hall Effect Summary Problems Review Questions 4 DlFFUSION 4.1 DIFFUSIONCURRENT EQUATION 4.2 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT 4.2.1 Einstein Relationship
4.2.3 Arrhenius Equation 4.3 BASIC CONTINUITY EQUATION Summary Problems Review Questions 5 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION 5.1 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS 5.2 GENERAL FORM OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATION 5.2.1 Recombination and Generation Rates 5.2.2 MinorityCarrier Lifetime 5.2.3 Diffusion Length 5.3 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PHYSICS AND SHOCKLEYREAD HALL (SRH) THEORY 5.3.1 Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium 5.3.2 SteadyState Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination Rate 5.3.3 Special Cases 5.3.4 Surface Generation and Recombination Summary Problems Review Questions PART II FUNDAMENTAL DEVICE STRUCTURES 6 PN JUNCTION 6.1 PN JUNCTION PRINCIPLES 6.1.1 p~ Junction in Thermal Equilibrium 6.1.2 ReverseBiased PN Junction 6.1.3 ForwardBiased PK Junction 6.1.4 Breakdown Phenomena 6.2 DC MODEL 6.2.1 Basic CurrentVoltage (IV) Equation 6.2.2 Important SecondOrder Effects 6.2.3 Temperature Effects 6.3 CAPACITA CE OF REVERSEBIASED P:I JUNCTION 6.3.1 CV Dependence 6.3.2 DepletionLayer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation 6.3.3 SPICE Model for the DepletionLayer Capacitance 6.4 STOREDCHARGE EFFECTS 6.4.1 Stored Charge and Transit Time 6.4.2 Relationship Between the Transit Time and the MinorityCarrier Lifetime 6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: ReverseRecovery Time Summary Problems Review Questions 7 METALSEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT AND MOS CAPACITOR 7.1 METALSEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT 7.1.1 Schottky Diode: Rectifying MetalSemiconductor Contact 7.1.2 Ohmic MetalSemiconductor Contacts 7.2 MOS CAPACITOR 7.2.1 Properties of the Gate Oxide and the OxideSemiconductor Interface 7.2.2 CV Curve and the SurfacePotential Dependence on Gate Voltage 7.2.3 EnergyBand Diagrams ·7.2.4 Flat4Band Capacitance and Debye Length Summary Problems Review Questions 8 MOSFET 8.1 MOSFET PRINCIPLES B.1.1 MOSFET Structure 8.1.2 MOSFET as a VoltageControlled Switch B.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect B.1.4 MOSFET as a VoltageControlled Current Source: Mechanisms of Current Saturation 8.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUATIONS 8.2.1 SPICE LEVEL 1 Model 8.2.2 SPICE LEVEL 2 Model 8.2.3 SPICE LEVEL 3 Model: Principal Effects 8.3 SECO:\DOROER EFFECTS 8.3.1 Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage 8.3.2 Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage) 8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance 8.3.4 ThresholdVoltageRelated ShortChannel Effects 8.3.5 Threshold Voltage Related NarrowChannel Effects 8.3.6 Subthreshold Current 8.4 Nanoscale MOSFETs 8.4.1 DownScaling Benefits and Rules 8.4.2 Leakage Currents 8.4.3 Advanced MOSFETs "8.5 MOSBASED MEMORY DEVICES 8.5.1 1C1T DRAM Cell 8.5.2 FlashMemory Cell Summary Problems Review Questions 9 BJT 9.1 B.JT PRINCIPLES 9.1.1 BJT as a VoltageControlled Current Source 9.1.2 BJT Currents and Gain Definitions 9.1.3 Dependence of ? and ? Current Gains on Technological Parameters 9.1.4 The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch 9.1.5 Complementary BJT 9.1.6 BJT Versus MOSFET 9.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS, EBEREMOLL MODEL IN SPICE 9.2.1 Injection Version 9.2.2 Transport Version 9.2.3 SPICE Version 9.3 SECOND·ORDER EFFECTS 9.3.1 Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance 9.3.2 Parasitic Resistances 9.3.3 Dependence of CommonEmitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: LowCurrent Effects 9.3.4 Dependence of CommonEmitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: GummelPoon Model for HighCurrent Effects 9.4 HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR Summary Problems Review Questions PART III SUPPLEMENTARY TOPICS 10 PHYSICS OF NANOSCALE DEVICES 10.1 SINGLECARRIER EVENTS 10.1.1 Beyond the Classical Principle of Continuity 10.1.2 CurrentTime Form of Uncertainty Principle 10.1.3 CarrierSupply Limit to Diffusion Current 10.1.4 Spatial Uncertainty 10.1.5 Direct Nonequilibrium Modeling of SingleCarrier Events 10.2 TWODIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT IN MOSFETs AND HEMTs 10.2.1 Quantum Confinement 10.2.2 HEMT Structure and Characteristics 10.2.3 Application of Classical MOSFET Equations to TwoDimensional Transport in MOSFETs and HEMTs 10.3 ONEDIMENSUIONAL TRANSPORT IN NANOWIRES AND CARBON NANOTUBES 10.3.1 Ohmic Transport in Nanowire and CarbonNanotube FETs 10.3.2 OneDimensional Ballistic Transport and the Quantum Conductance Limit Summary Problems Review Questions II DEVICE ELECTRONICS, EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS A D SPICE PARAMETERS lI.l DIODES 11.1.1 Static Model and Parameters in SPICE 11.1.2 LargeSignal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE 11.1.3 Parameter Measurement 11.1.4 SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit ll.2 MOSFET 11.2.1 Static Model and Parameters; LEVEL 3 in SPICE 11.2.2 Parameter Measurement 11.2.3 LargeSignal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE 11.2.4 Simple Digital ~1od.el 11.2.5 SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit 11.3 BJT 11.3.1 Static Model and Parameters: EbersMoll and GummelPoon Levels in SPICE 11.3.2 Parameter Measurement 11.3.3 LargeSignal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE 11.3.4 SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit Summary Problems Review Questions 12 PHOTONIC DEVICES 12.1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED) 12.2 PHOTODETECTORS AND SOLAR CELLS 12.2.1 Biasing for Photodetector and SolarCell Applications 12.2.2 Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells 12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation 12.3 LASERS 12.3.1 Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts 12.3.2 A Typical Heterojunction Laser Summary Problems Review Questions 13 JFET AND MESFET 13.1 JFET 13.1.1 JFET Structure 13.1.2 JFET Characteristics 13.1.3 SPICE Model and Parameters 13.2 MESFET 13.2.1 MESFET Structure 13.2.2 MESFET Characteristics 13.2.3 SPICE Model and Parameters Summary Problems Review Questions 14 POWER DEVICES 14.1 POWER DIODES 14.1.1 Drift Region in Power Devices 14.1.2 Switching Characteristics 14.1.3 Schottky Diode 14.2 POWER MOSFET 14.3 IGBT 14.4 THYRISTOR Summary Problems Review Questions 15 NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DIODES 15.1 AMPLIFICATION AI'D OSCILLATION BY NEGATIVE DYNAMIC RESISTANCE 15.2 GUNN DIODE 15.3 IMPATT DIODE 15.4 TUNNEL DIODE Summary Problems Review Questions 16 INTEGRATEDCIRCUIT TECHNOLOGIES 16.1 A DIODE IN IC TECHNOLOGY 16.1.1 Basic Structure 16.1.2 Lithography 16.1.3 Process Sequence 16.1.4 Diffusion Profiles 16.2 MOSFET TECHNOLOGIES 16.2.1 Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS) 16.2.2 NMOS Technology 16.2.3 Basic CMOS Technology 16.2.4 SilicononInsulator (SOl) Technology 16.3 BIPOLAR IC TECHNOLOGIES 16.3.1 IC Structure of NPN BJT 16.3.2 Standard Bipolar Technology Process 16.3.3 Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes 16.3.4 Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models 16.3.5 Layer Merging 16.3.6 BiCMOS Technology Summary Problems Review Questions What Our Readers Are SayingBe the first to add a comment for a chance to win!Product Details
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